Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 6,

Issue 6

Energy Saving Using Intelligent Controller Based on Fuzzy Logic Control

Krikor S.Krikor; Abduljabbar O.H Alshammery

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 6, Pages 920-938
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.6.1

To reduce the impact of the high current on the power grid from the start process of the large induction motor and eliminate the negative influences of traditional reduced voltage start on the electronic and mechanical equipments and enhance the ability of the energy saving of the system. We studied and improved the intelligent soft start of such motors, this paper presents the design of intelligent soft starting controller in viewpoint of energy saving for power electronic systems. The proposed controller was compared through experimental studies under identical conditions with the thyristor soft starting controller (conventional controller). The performance comparison is made on the aspects of power quality and energy saving advantages. It is found that
the proposed controller has superior operating and performance characteristics as compared to the conventional one.

Determination of Some Biochemical Marker Levels in Serum of Patients with Congestive Heart Failure, Angina Pectorisand Myocardial Infarction

Maysoon M.N.M. Saleem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 6, Pages 939-949
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.6.2

The study enrolled a total of 33 patients with congestive heart failure,
angina pectoris and myocardial infarction for evaluation of the activity of enzymes, creatine kinase, and aspartate transaminase, concentrations of calcium, cholesterol, and triglyceride and they were compared with 16 normal healthy human. .This study involved three groups of patients a first one consisted of 9 patients with congestive heart failure. Second group of 9 patients with angina pectoris with chest pain. Third group consisted of 15 patients with myocardial infarction. They were obtained from Ibn-Al-Bay tar hospital and Ibn-Al-Nafess for cardiac care unit of Baghdad. They were investigated for enzymes activity and concentration of calcium, cholesterol,
and triglyceride. There was very highly significant increase in the activities of creatine kinase, aspartate transaminase (P< 0.001) with different heart diseases when compared with normal healthy subjects. The result demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in the concentration of calcium (P< 0.001) and significant increase in concentration of Cholesterol and triglyceride when compared with normal healthy subjects with different heart diseases (P< 0.001).

Study of the Direct Extrusion Behavior of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy-2014 Using Conical Dies

Ahmed A. Akbar; Rabiha S. Yaseen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 6, Pages 950-958
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.6.3

The present work concerns with study of extrusion behavior of aluminum alloy-Al2014 comparing with pure aluminum-Al1050, using different die angles (á=15, 30 and 75°) and different billet lengths (20, 28, 40 and 52mm). Results showed that the extrusion load increase when billet length increases for aluminum alloy (Al-2014) and pure aluminum (Al-1050). The results also showed that small die angles required higher extrusion load than large die angles. The Brinell hardness values showed that aluminum alloy (Al-2014) undergoes higher work
hardening due to the presence of copper compared with the pure aluminum (Al-1050), in addition to formation of dead metal zone which resists the metal flow through the die opening.

Effect of Some Anti-Inflammatory Drugs on The Corrosion Behavior of Implant Biomaterials in Human Body Fluid

Kahtan K.Al-Khazraji; Ali H. Ataiwi; Rana A. Majed; Zina Noori Abdulhameed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 6, Pages 959-973
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.6.4

The aim of this research is to compare the electrochemical behavior of two surgical implant biomaterials alloys, SS 316L and Co–Cr–Mo alloy in simulated body fluid. This comparison is focused on the influence of presence of three anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin (C9H8O4), paracetamol (C8H9NO2), and mefenamic acid (C15H15NO2) with three
concentrations of each drug (0.00303, 0.00606, and 0.01212), (0.0086, 0.0172, and 0.0344), and (0.00111, 0.00156, and 0.00201) g/300ml respectively at pH=7.4 and 37oC using electrochemical techniques, potentiodynamic curves and potentiostatic tests. Influence of these drugs on both biomaterials depends on the formation of
organometallic complexes between released metals ions from implant alloys and drugs molecules. The study shows that the drugs behave as inhibitors for SS 316L through the measured corrosion parameters, while gives irregular behavior in the case of Co – Cr – Mo alloy. However, difference between two alloys appear with different affinity of
released metal ions to binding with other molecules inside human body.

Analysis of Fibrous Reinforced Concrete Beams

Ayad Zeki Saber Agha; Mereen Hassan Fahmi Rasheed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 6, Pages 974-990
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.6.5

Steel fiber reinforced concrete is used as a construction material in modern structures. Recent studies have shown that steel fiber can be used to improve the behavior of structures and increase the bending moment capacity and shear strength of reinforced concrete members.
This research present and modify the nominal and ultimate bending moment
equation, maximum and balance reinforcement indices and depth of compression zone for different types of reinforced concrete beams: single, double and T beams including the effect of steel fibers.
The modified equations showed that the internal moment capacity of the beams with steel fiber increased by the amount ( ) which represent the participation of the steel fiber. The balance and maximum reinforced indexes ( & )decreased by ( ) for single, double & T-beam reinforced concrete, this means that the ductility increased by adding steel fiber. Also the depth of compression zone increased by a
factor ( ) which is greater than (1.0). The modified equations are verified and applied on the reinforced concrete beams with steel fibers which tested in previous study, the theoretical results showed excellent agreement with the experimental values.

Influence of Operating Conditions on Adsorption of Lead (II) Ions From Contaminated Water Using Different Adsorbents

Areej Dalf Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 6, Pages 991-1000
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.6.6

Removal of heavy metals from water and wastewater has received a great deal of attention. Adsorption is one of the most technologies being used for treatment of polluted water. This study records lab scale experiments to test efficiency of activated carbon as an adsorbent and comparing it with low-cost naturally occurring materials (sand & egg shells) in removing lead ions from wastewater. The adsorption of lead ions from solutions containing different initial lead concentrations (100, 150 and 200 ppm pb as lead nitrate) using different particle
size (140, 300 and 500 ìm) and different doses of activated carbon, sand and egg shells at different pH (4, 7 and 10) was examined. Also the metal concentration retained in the adsorbent phase (mg/g) was calculated. This method of heavy metals removal proved highly effective as removal efficiency increased with increasing adsorbent dose while it decreased with increasing metals concentration. The results revealed that of the studied adsorbents, the activated carbon showed
the highest adsorption capacity and the maximum adsorption can be obtained by using particle size of 140 ìm in neutral media (pH 7). This technique might be successfully used for the removal of lead ions from liquid industrial wastes and wastewater.

Deflection Estimation of Un-Symmetric Isotropic Cam with Three Circular-Arc Contact Profiles

Louay Sabah Yousuf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 6, Pages 1001-1016
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.6.7

In this paper the principal objectives is to design a suitable profile that produces minimum value of jerk and contact stress keeping the acceleration within a limit especially in high-speed machine. Many works in the experimental part are done on the synthesis of cam profile in accuracy and system flexibility on the output follower motion; but there is a lack in the analytical part. The analytical
formulation has been done with classical plate theory of un-symmetric cam with three circular-arc contact profiles using the equation of circular plate solution due to the distributed load comes from the perpendicular contact harmonic motion of the follower. The cam used in the paper can be found in cutting and metal forming tools, heavy duty of marine engine, and fast manufacturing equipment. The aim of
the present paper is to calculate the maximum deflection on cam boundaries varying with (r and θ) coordinates between beginning and ending of contact follower loadings. The results were classified into mathematical model and finite element using software ANSYS.

Seismic Response Damage of Nuclear Tower

Kadhim Karim Mohsen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 6, Pages 1029-1047
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.6.9

The seismic response of the nuclear tower is analyzed by investigating the frequency response during the main recorded events. The dynamic characteristics of the nuclear tower under seismic response with higher intensity are pointed out the dominant seismic time history components determines the response characteristics of the tower. The nuclear tower coupled with the seismic loadings will amplify the damages to
the structure. These results are consistent with field observations after major seismic response, this explains the symmetry of the nuclear tower damage during seismic response. Seismic resistance measures, such as viscous damping or energy dissipation, dynamic properties and nuclear tower vibration elements will help to increase the
accuracy of the life model. In this paper, improvement in using computing program and mathematical algorithms will increase both the accuracy and confidence of the results. The contact problem of the nuclear tower structure is another direction for a detailed understanding the mechanism of the nuclear tower structure interaction, such as mode shapes, eigenvalues/vectors, deformation, propagation and non-propagation of cracks, and the stresses slip of the foundation caused by random seismic loading that can lead to damage. This study is helpful for designing new seismic resistant nuclear towers structures to reduce damage.

Experimental Study on the Effect of Temperature on the Fatigue Endurance Limit of Two AL Alloys

ad Abbas Al-Saraf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 6, Pages 1048-1057
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.6.10

In this work , an experimental study to obtain the fatigue endurance limit for two aluminum alloy , 2024 and 5052 , were carried out at stress ratio R=-1 and rotary bending tests . The fatigue tests were performed at RT, 100 °C, 200 °C and 300 °C in order to establish the S–N curve equations. The fatigue endurance limits for both alloys at different temperature conditions were calculated at 107 cycles
from the empirical S-N curve equations. It was found that the fatigue endurance limit decrease with increasing the temperature. Also the reduction percentage in fatigue endurance limit for 5052 Al. alloy was higher than that of 2024 Al. alloy.

Effect of Temperature on Fatigue Transition life and Strength of Aluminum alloy

Abdulmuhssan N.Mhesssan; Hamed A.Hussein; H.J.Mohamed Alalkawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 6, Pages 1058-1065
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.6.11

Two different temperatures (room temperature and 200oC) were used in the
experiments using 1100 Aluminum alloy in order to analyze the effect of
temperature. Stress amplitude versus fatigue life (S-N curves) for two different temperatures was established experimentally. The transition lives (point) of those two curves were observed and no significant effect of temperature on this point was observed. Fatigue strength at a given number of cycles decreases with increasing temperature.

A Hybrid Neural Based Dynamic Branch Prediction Unit

Gheni A. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 6, Pages 1066-1081
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.6 12

Modern high performance processor architectures have come to depend upon
highly pipelined operation in order to achieve improvements in operating speed. As a result, the cost associated with flushing the pipeline and refilling it when a branch instruction is mis-predicted can significantly impact processor performance. Many schemes, from the extremely simple to the highly complex, have been proposed to
improve branch prediction accuracy. Conventional two-level branch predictors predict the outcome of a branch either based on the( local branch history) information, comprising the previous outcomes of a single branch (intra-branch correlation), or based on the (global branch history) information, comprising the previous outcomes of all branches (inter-branch correlation). The misprediction
rates for these predictors are very high when they predict branch instructions with hybrid correlations. In this paper we suggest a hybrid perceptron based predictor which employs up to 31-bits of both local and global branch history information to minimize the misprediction rates. The software written for simulation and testing
shows that the suggested hybrid predictor achieves a high accuracy. Our results shows that the best response of the predictor is obtained on history length of 16- bits.

Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Square Metal Packed Duct with Different Boundary Heating

Kifah H. Hilal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 6, Pages 1082-1107
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.6.13

This paper presents experimental results of forced convection heat transfer and pressure drop across ( 12.5 * 12.5 * 100 cm ) square packed duct. The pad made of forty- eight metallic wrapping coil unit with (0.98 porosity ) and (26 W/m.°C thermal conductivity ). The local surface duct temperature and local heat transfer coefficient
distribution, Nusselt number, pressure drop and friction factor were measured for heat flux (0.56 to 2.73 kW/m2) ,Reynolds number (40339 to 54797 ) and three boundary condition of heat flux imposed on duct surface . It was found that Nusselt number increases as Reynold number, heat flux and number of duct surface exposed to heat flux increases. Nusselt number in packed duct is to be ( 1.2 , 1.19 ) times higher than
the empty ducts at heating all surface and top & bottom surface of packed duct respectively. Many empirical relation between Reynold number, Nusselt number and pressure drop obtained in this study.

Mechanical Properties For Pipes Made From Composite Materials (Glass/ Epoxy And Carbon/ Epoxy) Subjected To Internal Pressure

Zainab K. Hantoosh; Hatam Kareem Kadhom; Aseel Jasim Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 6, Pages 117-134
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.6.14

Composite Materials have been used extensively in application such as pipes and pressure vessels. Therefore it is important for further studies on the properties of these materials. This paper presents the results from a series of tensile tests on the mechanical properties of composite materials. Specimens cut from pipes made from composite materials were tested under internal pressure loadings have been tested by using a series of ASTM Standards test methods for mechanical properties. Based on the results obtained, the longitudinal E11,
transverse E22 and shear modulus G12 of 101.2 GPa, 5.718 GPa, 4.346 GPa and 36.6, 5.4 GPa, 4.085 GPa for carbon and glass fiber/ epoxy composites, respectively, while the ultimate longitudinal XL, transverse XT and shear tensile τ0 strengths of 1475.4 MPa, 20 MPa, 36 MPa and 618.9 MPa, 14 MPa, 28 MPa for carbon and glass fiber/epoxy composites, respectively. The results from this series of tests have been presented and compared with results from analytical equations. Good agreement was achieved between the experimental results and
analytical results.

Study of some optical Properties of PbS thin films deposited by Chemical Spray Pyrolysis Method

Ban Kalid Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 6, Pages 135-145
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.6.15

In this paper, the ZnO thin films have been prepared by spray research
thickness (300nm) on a glass substrates and studying its optical and electric properties. The results of (X-Ray ) diffraction showed that the films have a polycrystalline structure , The Absorption and The transmission as a function of photon energy for ZnO films had been studied. The Investigation of energy gap of the direct allowed transitions of ZnO film showed a value of (3.14 eV). The optical Absorption coefficients have been studied as a function of Photon
Energy See beck measurements revealed that ZnO thin films are n-type.