Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 30, Issue 8

Volume 30, Issue 8, April 2012, Page 179-1427

Prediction of Heat Transfer Coefficient of Pool Boiling Using Back propagation Neural Network

Salih Abdul Jabbar; Abbas Jawad Sultan; Hayder Alaa Maabad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 8, Pages 1293-1305

Artificial neural network (ANN), in comparison with empirical correlations, has
recently received more attention. The present paper includes predictive modeling of
heat transfer coefficient for binary mixtures in pool boiling for hydrocarbon
compounds, using Back propagation techniques through Multilayer Perceptron, one
of the types of the artificial neural networks. To train and learn the system, predictive
neural network was found, which is capable of understanding and predicting the preset
output which is heat transfer coefficient. The principle operation of such neural
networks is based on the experimental data collected from some researchers [1-4]. A
new ANN model is proposed using five inputs (mole fraction, temperature difference,
heat flux, density and viscosity) to predict the heat transfer coefficient. The prediction
using ANN shows 0.0026 AARE (Absolute Average Relative Error) with most widely
known correlations namely those of Calus, Fujita and Thome which have given 0.086,
0.066 and 0.038 respectively.

Design of Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Controller for a Simple Furnace System

Saba T. Salim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 8, Pages 1306-1317

Model uncertainty and robustness have been a central theme in the field of automatic control. Many control techniques are used to reduce the effects of uncertainty which may appear in different forms as disturbances, dynamic delays or as other imperfections in the models used.In this paper a comparison between conventional type -1 fuzzy logic controller and type -2 fuzzy logic controller has done in simulation conditions of a simple temperature control of a furnace system to show the great effect of the new generation of fuzzy logic
controllers to improve the performance of a system with high level of uncertainty.

Influence of Carbon Content on Elevated Temperature Fatigue Properties of Different Steel Alloys

Hessen; J. Mohamed Alalkawi; Thabat. M. Ali; N.M. Abdulmuhssan; kiffaya Al-saffar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 8, Pages 1318-1328

Fatigue properties (fatigue life and fatigue limit) of three different carbon
content steel alloys, CK35, Y8 and Y10 were investigated at RT and 300 ºC fatigue
testing. The main contribution of this work was to find the influence of carbon
content on high temperature fatigue properties. It was found that the fatigue life in
both cases, RT and 300 ºC, decreased dramatically via increasing carbon content
from 0.35% to 0.8% but at 1% carbon content the fatigue life was increased. The
fatigue limit and its reduction percentage took the same trend of the fatigue life.

Design of Micro Size Optical Scanner Systems

Samira M. Arif; Mohamed S. Ahmed; Dayah N. Raouf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 8, Pages 1329-1341

The design and analysis of micro optical scanner systems are presented. A
simulate software was implemented to study, firstly, the effects of miniaturization
on the general optical properties of the system, secondly, the optical design and
performance characteristics for two specific micro scanner models. These are
single aperture scanner and a focal Keplerian telescopic systems, taking in
consideration the performance requirements of these systems for various medical

Synthesize Nano ZnO-ZrO2 Composite by Combustion Method and Studying their Dielectric Properties

Fadhil A.Chyad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 8, Pages 1342-1350

Combustion method had been used to prepare a composite material from doping
ZnO by 10 mol% ZrO2 . XRD showed a good crystalline powder comparing with
ASTM cards. Dielectric properties such dielectric strength, dielectric constant,
dielectric loss and tangent loss have been measured .All the dielectric properties
have decreased as the frequency increasing .
The particle size has great effect on the dielectric properties of the composite
which decreased as the particle size increased .

Spatial Multi-Criteria Assessment to Select Optimum Route To Improve Transportation Network in Al-Omarah City

Maha O. Al-Mumaiz

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 8, Pages 1351-1361

The present study is focusing on development the accessibility of (Baghdad- Basrah) highway through choosing a new route for segment near Omarah city center, in addition to improve the level of service of city center network through removing the (Baghdad-Basrah) traffic from the center. To select the optimum route the Geographical Information System (GIS) with Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) is used. The segment mentioned above is choosed due to the data availability required as an input for program, represented by control points coordinates, land use, and the existing ground elevation [Digital Elevation Model (DEM)].
As a result of this study the based model to suggest optimum route serving transportation movement and reducing congestion in AL-Omarah city is produced according to required criteria. So the obtained route is started and ended on the origin point of an approximate coordinate of (E695932, N3530317) and the destination point of an approximate coordinate of (E702400, N 3519760) receptively, with about 13 Km length. The main Importance of new route is not passing through city center which reduce the congestion, raising the level of service of center network, reducing the pavement deterioration due to remove the
heavy vehicle from passing though the center and finally the new route is shorter than the existing one which in turn reduce the travel time, cost, pollution and noise.

Approximate Solution of Fractional Integro-Differential Equations by Using Bernstein Polynomials

Osama H. Mohammed; Sarmad A. Altaie

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 8, Pages 1362-1373

In this paper, Bernstein piecewise polynomial is used to approximate the
solution of the fractional integro-differential equations, in which the fractional
derivative is described in the (Caputo) sense. Examples are considered to verify the
effectiveness of the proposed derivation, and the approximate solutions guarantee
the desired accuracy.

Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes Growth Using FeCl3 / Ethanol Catalyst by CVD Method

Abdul Qader D. Faisal; Ahmed A. Moosa; Zainab A. Jawad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 8, Pages 1374-1380

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD)
method. FeCl3 was used as the precursor of iron which acts as the catalyst
.Solution of FeCl3 in ethanol at concentration of (0.05 mole/litter) has been
chosen. Silicon (100) substrates were spin- coated with the prepared catalyst
solution (FeCl3) .Carbon nanotubes were grown on Si (100) substrate coated with
catalyst in tube furnace using argon and acetylene gases at temperature of 750°C
for 30 minutes. The structures of the produced material were characterized with
Raman spectroscopy and FESEM. Raman spectra showed MWCNTs with the
presence of radial breathing mode (RBM) at low frequency. The morphology of
carbon nanotubes called noodles–like CNTs with an average diameter of 45nm
was observed with FESEM micrograph.

PitchMode Downwash Transient Response at High Speed and High Altitude

Muhammad A. R. Yass; Ismaial Ibrahim; Naseer Hamed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 8, Pages 1381-1393

In this research a study of the downwash effects for high altitudes and high speeds
using a Transient Response approach, the longitudinal equation of motion including the
effect of downwash in high altitude and speed were solved. It was found that the
downwash in at high altitude and low-speed more effected because it's increases in pitch
rate and rate of change of downwash velocity due to decreases in lift ,therefore requires
greater control surface area and largest deflection angles. It can be adopted in this
research to real requirements in the design of flying objects.

Tx/Rx: Generation and Correlation of aCostas Array FM CodeUsing FPGA Spatran-3 Technology

Thamir R. Saeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 8, Pages 1394-1404

This paper describes a real time generation and correlation of Costas array FM code
pulse compression using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) for implementation,
which provides the flexibility, reconfigure ability and reprogram ability. This
implementation contains two parts, the first Part, to generate. Number of frequency
sequences, which can use as Costas, where, this part was built in transmitter side. The
second part of implementation contains three stages in the receiver side; range
determination, correlation and Doppler measurement to the replica of Tx-signal. The
tested work was taken for eight digits and two cases of frequency shift (1&2) with an
eight time shift for each one. This implementation was built by using VHDL editor for
Spartan-3 with IC XC3S200. The clock is 20nsec and can use less than that time.

Thin Films Ablation by Induced Forward Transfer Technique

Adawiya J. Haider; Iman H. Hadi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 8, Pages 1405-1414

Laser-Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) is a technique which enables the
controlled transfer of a thin film material from a transparent carrier (donor) to a
receiver substrate (acceptor). The receiver substrate is usually placed in parallel
and close to the thin film source under air or vacuum conditions. In this work
microdeposition of gold (Au) and Copper (Cu) thin films were deposited on glass
substrate by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD). These thin films were irradiated by a
single pulse and transferred to a silver (Ag) and silicon (Si) receiver substrates. The
laser source used for this study was a Nd-YAG Q-Switching second harmonic
generation (SHG) Pulsed Laser with a wavelength 532nm, repetition rate 1-6 Hz
,and pulse duration 10ns. Deposited size, morphology and adhesion to the receiver
substrate as a function of applied laser fluence are investigated.

Prediction of Metal Removal Rate and Surface Roughness in Electrochemical Machining (ECM)

Saad kariem Shather; Hiba Husien Alwan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 8, Pages 1415-1427

Electrochemical Machining (ECM) is a relatively important method of removing
metal by anodic dissolution. In this research the ECM was used to remove the metals
from the internal hole of the workpiece.The tool used was made from brass. This
research focuses on the parameters of the change in gap size, the change in current
density, and the change of the tool roughness on the Material Removal Rate (MRR),
and Surface Roughness of the workpiece. The Statistical Package for Social Science
(SPSS) software was used to predict the results. It was found that for the surface
roughness the coefficient of determination of the prediction was (0.982) and the
accuracy of prediction (97.15%). For the Material Removal Rate in (g/sec) units the
coefficient of determination of predicts was (0.991) with accuracy of prediction

Concurrency Action in Construct Composition Form & Meaning

Ibrahim J.K. Al-Yousif

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 8, Pages 179-196

The built form distinguishes of the composition in concurrent form and meaning,
but constructs it to convey the concept. While producing the meaning of the union of
sequential and concurrential development of the building to access the mental image of
an objective reality which concurrent form to it is meaning. From that, the research
problem was identified .it dealt with the presence of a causal relationship in the
building form to meaning, and the existence of a relationship contract in build meaning
to its form.
While the research aims to reach the form of outcome arising by event. And invest
the relationships in concurrent of build compositions which concurrent form and
To solve the problem. The search depends on methodology in: Synchronize of form
and meaning, the relationship of agreement and difference, the visible and the inherent
to build the composition. It depends on determining two levels: the first dealt with the
meaning through functional meeting in invisible image Compositions to give the
Content Validity. And second level dealt with the form through formal Inherent in
Inherent morphological Compositions to give the Discrimination Validity. To result
from them giving the Construct Validity.
Finally, research found that: validity synchronization and configuration of meaning
and form, and the possibility of achieving the composition through the mechanism of
interpretation and interpretation in the formal inherent and functional meeting. And
thus unite the reference source and source (place and time) in one space.Through two
affairs. Prior and dimensional between formal compositions and Flat and threedimensional.
and from that relations. The creative outputs related with one's time in the
reference to the achievement of the underlying forces in the three-dimensional shape,
and place in check the fixed forces in the flat form.

Use of Critical path method inmaintenance planning of an electric power station

Laith Noman Dawood; sawsan S.AL-zubaidy; Mahmoud Abbas Mahmoud

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 8, Pages 197-211

In this work studying of the strategy of preventive maintenance in the station
was conducted and spatial planning combustion chambers inspection (CI) by using
the critical path method which an important tools for the planning of maintenance
work was developed.
In order to have accurate results for calculating early, latest, delay, and slack times, and
determining the critical path time (WINQSB) Software which contain
(CPM-BERT) programs has been used.
.The most important results of this study is in reducing the time of preventive
maintenance for combustion chambers inspection by two days. Furthermore, two
other days can be saved if the time for some of critical activities was crashed.

Using Anisotropic Silicon Etch for Change the Crystal Orientation of Silicon Wafer

Saria D.mohammed; Arrej Rlyadh Saeed; Atheer Ibraheem Bbd

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 8, Pages 212-227

In this work، anisotropic silicon etch using KOH ، optical microscopic and X-ray diffraction testing، were used to determine the crystal orientation of the silicon wafer(100) plane , where the mechanical polishing and wet etching described the geometric dislocations pits which refers to the crystallographic and the level of (100).
Microscopic examination have been described the geometric dislocations pits which reflected from plane (100) in the forms of four fold flat symmetry which refers to that plane in Silicon wafer, as the distribution of Miller Indices in the cubic system, by the impact chemical wet KOH with concentration 30 wt%, and an etching temperature of 70°C. The crystal orientation of silicon wafer has been changed from (100) to (111) plane, by chemical wet KOH through cutting 54,7°, the dislocations pits appear in geometric forms in conical shape which refers to the direction [111] for silicon wafer، by the impact chemical wet KOH with concentration 44 wt%, and an etching temperature of 120°C for 20-30min