Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 30, Issue 9

Volume 30, Issue 9, May 2012, Page 1428-1661


Design and Simulation of the Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) with Power Oscillation Damping (POD)

Raaed Faleh Hassan; Ahmed Wahab Abdul Razzaq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 9, Pages 1428-1445

In electrical power systems there are many problems, from these problems voltage drop, over voltage and instability. These problems are solved by using FACTS technology. Flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) can provides better control than conventional control and achieves fast control time response; therefore FACTS controllers play an important role in power system stability enhancement. STATCOM
is a shunt FACTS device which is used for voltage controlling and increasing the performance of the system. In this paper STATCOM is used to improve voltage magnitude and stability of electrical network by using MATLAB/SIMULINK. To show its effectiveness a prototype of electrical network has been chosen which consists of five buses, three generators and four loads. Simulation results show a robust improvement in network with STATCOM. If a three phase to ground fault occurs
between buses (3&4) there are oscillations after clearing fault. To reduce these oscillations power oscillations damping (POD) has been proposed with STATCOM. Simulation results show that an enhancement of the network prototype with proposed controller (STATCOM- POD).

Effect Of Die’s Shape, Sheet Thickness and Type of Alloy on the Springback Phenomenon

Bushra Rasheed Mohameed; Ethar Mohamed Mhdi Mubarak; Nawal H. Alsalihi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 9, Pages 1446-1461

In this paper the effect of the springback on the bending operation of different
materials and alloys have been studied. Dies were designed and constructed in
different shape ( U-die , V-die) for several sheet’s thickness. Two types of alloys
were used; Aluminum Alloy 7020 T6 and Brass Alloy. These alloys have different
sheet thickness (2, 4, 6 and 8) mm. Aluminum alloys are heated to 270 °C and
330°C with cooling in the furnace for 90 min. while the brass alloys heated to 300,
320, 340 and 420 °C with cooling for 2 hours in furnace. Bending was done by
using the press of 80 ton. The springback is calculated by published equation. It
can be concluded that, the springback phenomenon caused to enlarge the external
dimensions when releasing the load and thick material have less springback due to
the enlarge of the plastic deformation. It’s found that the die’s shapes have great
effect on the springback, and when the temperature of the specimen is increased,
caused decreased in the springback.

Torsional Behavior of Reinforced Concrete T Beams Strengthened with CFRP Strips

Ban S. Abduljalil; Kaiss F. Sarsam

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 9, Pages 1462-1482

This work aims at studying the strengthening of T beams in torsion by using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP). The experimental work includes investigation of five reinforced concrete T beams tested under pure torsion. Variables considered in the test program include; effect of flange strengthening, effect of fiber orientation (90º or 45º
CFRP strips with respect to the beam longitudinal axis), and the effect of using additional longitudinal CFRP strips with transverse CFRP strips. Test results were discussed based on torque - twist behavior, beam elongations, CFRP strain, and influence of CFRP on cracking torque, ultimate torque and failure modes. Results indicate significant increases in ultimate torque capacity with the use of CFRP.

The Operation of Filters by Suction Method

H.A.Omran

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 9, Pages 1483-1494

In this research the filtration process in water treatment plants was studied to increase the filtration rates in the sand gravity rapid filters. A model was designed with dimensions (60*60*225) cm with sand media of two layers . Seven experiments were done in this research for each case of filter media thickness,( which are five cases ) . Using new method of operation , involves the suction of water from the drainage pipes network through the sand media . In this method, the filtration velocity was Doubled, with filtration efficiency nearly to (92%).

A New Proposed Algorithm for the Priority of the Cellular Calls

Burak A. Awad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 9, Pages 1495-1508

There are many criteria for managing the priority in calling queues. The purpose of our work is to make a balance between two conflicting requirements: maximize the resource utilization and minimize the forced handover call dropping rate. This balance can be satisfied by using the dynamically manages of the priority criterion which is changed according to the current status of the hand off queue(remaining
time(Tr) and rate of change of RSS (ΔRSS)). The result is clear for reducing the blocking probability within range from 2% to 50%.

Attenuation of Oxidative Stress and Cytokines in Rabbits with Experimentally Induced Hyperthyroidism by Ethanolic Red Cabbage Extract

Mohaned S.M; Hassan F.S Al-Azzawie

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 9, Pages 1509-1527

The protective effects of red cabbage extract (RCE) on oxidative damage in rabbits with experimentally induced hyperthyroidism were studied on forty male New Zealand rabbits. The experimental animals were randomly divided into 4 groups :(healthy as (control), hyperthyroidism, hyperthyroidism treated with vitamine E and hyperthyroidism treated with RCE .Hyperthyroidism was induced by oral administration of 20 μg/kg b.w/day L-thyroxine for 4 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, blood samples were taken from heart puncture of all animals for the determination of oxidant/antioxidant biomarkers: lipid peroxidation
marker malonaldehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) ,triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) , thyroxine-stimulating hormone (TSH),interleukin 6 (IL-6),interleukin 10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor alpha(TNF-α) levels. Our results indicate that levels of MDA, T3 , T4 ,IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α were significantly increased(P<0.05) in sera of the hyperthyroid animal group, while SOD; GPx, CAT, GSH and TSH levels were decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared to the control group. Hyperthyroid rabbits treated with 100 mg/kg.b.w daily of RCE for 4
weeks decreased significantly the elevated MDA, T3 ,T4, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α levels and restore levels of GSH, GPx, SOD, CAT and TSH to control value. In conclusion, results indicated that RCE was beneficial as a protective agent against oxidative stress induced by hyperthyroidism and it had antihyperthyroid activity for
the first time.

Chlorine Removal with Activated Carbon Using Bubble Column

Naseer A. Al Habobi; Natheer Nori Ismail; Moayad Fadhel Hamad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 9, Pages 1528-1537

Bubble column slurry reactor was used for the measurements of gas adsorption
and ion-exchange in this work. Adsorption of chorine (dissolved in water) on
activated carbon was carried out in the same reactor. The effect of gas flowrates uG
0.016 m s–1-0.027 m s–1 which covers the boundaries of the following four regimes:
bubbly flow, first transition, second transition, and coalesced bubble and solid
concentrations were investigated. In addition of studying the pH which gives an
indication for Hypochlorous Acid HOCl, the most active sanitizer form of Free
Chlorine. These design guidelines provide a good starting point for system of
removing chlorine from water at activated carbon concentration 20 gm/L, gas
velocity 0.023 m/s and contact period of time more 17 minutes.

Principal Component Analysis Based Wavelet Transform

Hana; a M. Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 9, Pages 1538-1549

The principal component analysis (PCA) is a valuable statistical means,
implemented in time domain that has found application in many fields such as face
recognition and image compression, and is a common technique for finding patterns in
data of high dimension. This paper investigates the ability to implement PCA in
frequency domain, by using the wavelet transform (WT), and evaluate its effectiveness
based on face recognition as a means to find patterns in data. The basic idea of
frequency domain implementation of the PCA refers to the correlation
implementation using wavelet transform.
The Min-max is invoked to increase wavelet based eigenface robustness to
variations in facial geometry and illumination. Two face images are contrast in terms
of their correlation distance. A threshold is used to restrict the impostor face image
from being identified. Experimental results point up the effectiveness of a new method
in either using varying (noisy images, unknown images, face expressions, illumine,
and scales ).

Wastewater Treatment in Baghdad City Using Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) Technology

Mohammed A. Abdul-Majeed; Hisham Hmeed Alwan; Mohammed Inam Baki; Fauad R- Abtan; Hussein Irzooqi Sultan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 9, Pages 1550-1561

In this study, a laboratory scale system of Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor
(MBBR) was used to treat municipal wastewater from a domestic community in
Baghdad City to get the water free from BOD for reuse in the irrigation or
discharge to the river. The aim of the described experimentation was the
comparison of a low cost MBBR and an activated sludge system (AS); the other
aim from this research is to derive successful MBBR wastewater reuse projects in
Iraq. Laboratory experiments were conducted in two parts, firstly at BOD5 load of
about (150-200) mg/l, filling ratio of plastic elements in the MBBR reactor was
40%. Aerobic reactor consumed most of the biodegradable organic matter. The
BOD5 removal efficiencies were 78 and 90% for MBBR & AS respectively.
Second part when BOD5 load about (900-1300) mg/l used (synthetic wastewater)،
filling ratio is 67%. The removal efficiencies of BOD reached 73 % for AS and
about 88% for MBBR.

Plane Flow Analysis for a Profile Extrusion Die Using Digital Image processing Technique

Salah K. Jawad; Ali Abbar Khleif; Mohanad Q. Abbood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 9, Pages 1562-1581

This paper investigates the applicability of the proposed digital image
correlation (DIC) system instead of traditional method by microscope to
measure the strains in forward extrusion process, which conducted for
rectangular section with plane strain condition by using taper die at angle
(2 = 90 ̊) and the proportion of reduction in area is (42.85 %).
Commercial pure lead (99.99% Pb) was chosen as a typical pattern to
measure the strain and strain rate for the forward extrusion process by a
visio-plasticity technique and the proposed digital image correlation
system. The obtained results indicate that the proposed digital image
correlation (DIC) system is an accurate and reliable for measuring the
strains using inexpensive equipments

Kernel Level Anti-Spyware Using Device Stack Lock Strategy

Mohammed Gheni Alwan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 9, Pages 1582-1592

This paper is devoted to design and implement an Anti spyware software package.
The targeted type is the kernel level spyware which is the most dangerous threat due to
the capabilities granted to the spyware code injected in this level. Kernel level is the
most trusted level and the code executed at this level will have accessibility to all
system resources. This paper will introduce a methodology to lock device stack for any
attaching of malicious filter driver, spyware is using filter driver as the main weapon to
intercept data exchanged by system devices (physical, logical or virtual) and the I/O
manager.
The paper interduces also, a locking methodology for the device stack is presented
and all kernel level APIs are explained. The ‘keyboard’ is the target stack to be locked
against famous attack of keyboard logger.

A BiomechanicalModel Study of the Rat as a Medial Collateral Ligaments of the Knee

Fakhir Salman; Sadiq Jafer Abbass; Noor Ali Sadek

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 9, Pages 1593-1610

Ligament primarily stabilizes the diarthrodial joints and function to provide
stability and support during the motion of diarthrodial joints. These functions are
assisted by the congruent geometry of the articulating joint surfaces and
musculotendinous forces. Ligament exhibits viscoelastic, or time-dependent
behavior, like many tissues in the body. From the medical point of view an
understanding of the biomechanics of ligaments are crucial for the understanding
of injury mechanisms and to evaluate existing surgical repair techniques. The mode
of failure in ligaments depends strongly on the rate of loading. Thus, ligament
viscoelasticity is an important determinant of tissue response to loading, and
viscous dissipation by the tissue modulates the potential for injury. Many
mathematical models have been developed to describe the complexity of these
behaviors that could include the microphysical interactions of various constituents
but none of them seems to represents the overall properties of these structures.
Models can be an important tool in understanding tissue structure-function
relationships and elucidating the effects of injury, healing, and treatment. The main
objective of this work is to study from the biomechanical point of view, the
behaviour of an example of the medial collateral ligament in response to stress and
strain effects to evaluate the biological behaviour of the ligament. The strain effect
as example of the modified superposition method and analyze the results and the
model that can express the medial collateral ligament behaviour

Adaptive Modulation for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

Maher K. Mahmood; Abbas Salman Hameed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 9, Pages 1611-1624

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is one of the promising
technologies to improve the spectral efficiency, enhance system capacity and mitigate
inter-symbol interference in the wireless communication system. Adaptive
modulation (AM) with OFDM has been suggested as a bandwidth efficient
transmission technique in wireless fading environments. In this paper, adaptive
modulation techniques is used with OFDM system to improve the throughput
performance of the system using four modulation schemes BPSK, QPSK, 8QAM,
and 16QAM. Two algorithms to estimate SNR are suggested. The first algorithm is to
estimate the SNR for each OFDM symbol in the frame. The second algorithm is to
estimate the channel SNR for each subcarrier in the OFDM symbol. The comparison
between the results of the two algorithms on the performances of BER and
throughput for OFDM system is shown. Furthermore, the effect of various types of
channel equalization on performances of system will be determined. The obtained
results show that a significant improvements in terms of bit error rate (BER) and
throughput can be achieved demonstrating the superiority of the adaptive modulation
schemes compared to fixed transmission schemes.

Finding the Relevance Degree between an English Text and its Title

Abdul Monem S. Rahma; Suhad M. Kadhem; Alaa Kadhim Farhan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 9, Pages 1625-1640

Keywords are useful tools as they give the shorter summary of the
document. Keywords are useful for a variety of purposes including
summarizing, indexing, labeling, categorization, clustering, and searching, and
in this paper we will use keywords in order to find the relevance degree
between an English text and its title.
The proposed system solves this problem through simple statistic (Term
frequency) and linguistic approaches by extracting the keywords of the title
and keywords of the text (with their frequency that appear in the text) and
finding the average of title's keywords frequency across the text that represent
the relevance degree that required, with depending on a lexicon of a particular
field(in this work we choose computer science field). This lexicon is
represented using two different B+ trees one for non-keywords and the other
for candidate keywords, these keywords was stored in a manner that prevent
redundancy of these terms or even sub-terms to provide efficient memory
usage and to minimize the search time.
The proposed system was implemented using Visual Prolog 5.1 and after
testing, it proved to be valuable for finding the degree of relevance between a
text and its title (from point of view of accuracy and search time).

Design Neural Wireless Sensor Network Using FPGA

Ban M. Khammas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 9, Pages 1641-1661

Wireless sensor networks(WSN) are an exiting emerging technology that
scientists believe to become a part of every day life in the next few years. However, at this time many issues in wireless sensor networks remain unresolved. This paper studies the architecture of a neural wireless sensor network designed to identify technical condition of the base station of wireless sensor networks ,and this work presents an on-chip artificial neural networks(ANN) in a Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) system. In order to take maximum advantage of the distributed architecture of multiple NN systems is to providing a high degree of parallelism between NNs and, hence, a higher speed-up in relation to a sequential implementation. The goal of this work is to realize the hardware implementation of the base station of neural wireless sensor network using FPGAs to measure hamidi ty, temperature and light for the security system of an office