Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 11,

Issue 11

Human Face Recognition is Dependent on Computing the Similarity and Difference of the SevenMoments Values as a Face Features

Ekhlas Falih Nasser

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 11, Pages 1843-1860
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.11.1

Recognition of personal identification needs numerous techniques. Solution of this problem needs the development of technique for arriving to the highest accuracy for recognition. Some of techniques depend on human personal image. This research presents new technique for human face recognition. Two tests are executed for the
image. The first test depends on splitting the image vertically into two parts (left part and right part) for evaluating the seven moments for each part to find similarity and difference between these parts. The second test depend on taking the image in different cases such as (image rotation and turn the angle of photo with different values) ,
extract the characteristics( such as eyes, nose, and mouth) of these images in these cases ,then compute the seven moments for these characteristics and then finding the similarity and difference between these characteristics .

The Effect of Citric Acid Concentration on the Corrosion Rate of Aluminum Alloy Type (AA 7001)

Haitham Yahya AbdulMajeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 11, Pages 1861-1869
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.11.2

The main purpose of this research is to study the concentration influence of citric acid on the corrosion rate of aluminum alloy type (AA 7001), samples of aluminum alloy were merged in different concentrations of the acid at various durations, the results showed that the less corrosion rate was at 25% concentration after 120 day and the higher rate was at 10% after 30 day.

perimental investigation of water vapor-bubble pump characteristics and its mathematical model reconstruction

Abduwadood Salman Shihab; Akeel Mohammed Ali Morad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 11, Pages 1870-1885
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.11.3

In this research, an experimental test has been conducted to study the pumping
characteristics of a vapor-bubble pump based on water properties. It also includes a
trial based on the obtained experimental data to correct and reconstruct the
previously developed theoretical mathematical model of this bubble pump. The
mathematical model that was developed for general fluid properties can be used
after modification to represent the actual behavior of the water vapor-bubble pump.
Most of the bubble pump configuration parameters which may affect its
performance are experimentally investigated. Three different inner tube diameters
(8, 10, 12 mm) with five submergence ratios (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6) are tested.
The results showed that the bubble pump capacity increases with the thermal
energy processed and continue to increase up to a maximum value then begin to
decline. Each tube diameter has its own maximum discharge; the bigger tube
diameter gives higher maximum discharge which is in turn increases with the
increasing of submergence ratio. The experimental results of the pumping capacity
are compared with those obtained from the mathematical model .Then the
mathematical model is reconstructed by adding a correcting factor (K). This factor
is necessary to account for the discrepancies that observed between the
experimental and the theoretical results. The margin of error between the results of
the resulting corrected mathematical model and the results of the practical test was
acceptable and it can use this new model to analyze the performance of the bubble

Fatigue Life Prediction at Elevated Temperature under Low – High and High – Low Loading Based OnMechanical Properties Damage Model

Zainab K. Hantoosh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 11, Pages 1886-1896
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.11.4

In this work, an experimental study was carried to obtain the fatigue
accumulation damage for aluminum alloy, 2024-T4 under rotating bending loading
and stress ratio R= -1. The experiments were done at RT(room temperature) ,25oC
,and 200oC. A modified damage stress model was suggested to predict the fatigue
life under elevated temperature which has been formulated to take into account the
damage at different load levels. The present model results were compared with the
experimental results and those calculated by the most fatigue damage model used
in fatigue (Miners rule). The comparison showed that the present model presents
reasonable factor of safety while Miner model sometimes gave a factor of safety
close to unity.

An Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System for Speed Control of Three-Phase Induction Motor

Lina J. Rashad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 11, Pages 1897-1911
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.11.5

Conventional Proportional Integral (PI) controller of A.C drives are widely used in industry and many other applications, because of its simplicity, but it does not give high degree of speed control of induction motor. There are many types of controller: Proportional (P), Proportional Integral (PI), Proportional Integral Derivative (PID), and Intelligent controllers. The intelligent controller becomes a powerful tool for control nonlinear system in present time. This paper proposes the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System as an intelligent controller of the induction motor. In addition, the PI controller is presented in this paper as a conventional controller. The mathematical epresentation and simulation of the 3-phase induction motor is represented too. Also, a 3-phase voltage-fed Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) inverter is demonstrated and simulated. The overall system for both PI and ANFIS controllers are simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK program. The comparison of simulation results between the conventional PI and the proposed
ANFIS performances shows that: the ANFIS controller gives superior performance than the conventional PI controller for wide range of speed variation.

A Novel Deployable Reflector using a Lazy Tong Truss

Nabil Noor Swadi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 11, Pages 1912-1924
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.11.6

In this paper, a new concept for a deployable parabolic reflector used in SAR
satellite has a support based on a two-dimensional lazy tong mechanism is
proposed. Two sets of lazy tong mechanisms are used, one at each side, to support
the structure through its operation (deploying and folding). The deployment of the
structure is controlled by the vertical inward movement of the ends of the first two
bars in each mechanism. This movement is directed by the strain energy stored in
the helical springs that work at those places. A preliminary design of the quarter
scale model of the suggested reflector in deployed configuration is modeled and
analyzed using ANSYS software program. The value of the maximum deflection
and Von Mises stress due to effect of inertia load only are obtained for the
composite material (T300/Hexcel 8552) of the reflective surface and hard
aluminum alloys (2024-T3) of the truss. They were 0.465 mm and 23.3 MPa
respectively. The linear buckling behavior of the structure is as well studied. The
first eigenvalue factor was about 19.639. The theoretical total deploying time and
velocity is considered and their magnitudes are about 0.14 sec. and 0.46 m/s
respectively. The packaging volume was about 1/6th of deploying volume. The total
estimated mass of this quarter scale reflector was approximately 2.5 kg.

The influence of the temperature on the ultimate tensile strength of the composite materials at constant Fiber volume fraction

Hussain J. Al-alkawi; Dhafir S. Al-Fattal; Abdul-jabar H. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 11, Pages 1935-1947
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.11.8

The aim of this work is to study the influence of the temperature on the ultimate
tensile strength (UTS) of composite material which is manufactured from polyester and
E-glass (woven roving, chopped strand mat) as a laminate with a constant fiber volume
fraction (VF) of 33%. The results showed a little effect of temperature on tensile
strength in the range of room temperature (RT) to 50 oC for laminates reinforced with
E-glass (woven roving) [0/90, ±45,0/90], [0/90]3, and [0/90, CSM, 0/90], but for
laminates reinforced with E-glass chopped strand mat (CSM), as [CSM] 3 and [CSM,
0/90, CSM], a continuous reduction in strength was observed with increasing
temperature from (RT) to 60 oC. The highest percentage reduction in strength was 23%
at 60oC as compared with (RT) for [CSM]3 laminate

Experimental Investigation to Improve Metal Removal Rate (MRR) and Surface Roughness in Electrochemical Machining

Saad Kariem Shather; Baqer Ayad Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 11, Pages 1948-1959
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.11.9

Electrochemical machining (ECM) is a non-traditional machining process
which is the controlled removal of metal by anodic dissolution in an electrolytic
cell in which the workpiece is the anode and the tool is cathode. In ECM, metal
removal rate (MRR) takes place due to atomic dissolution of work material.
Electrochemical dissolution is governed by Faraday’s laws.I n this study the ECM
is used to remove metal from the internal hole of the workpiece from aluminum
alloy using NaCl solution. The rates of improvement in MRR are (6.48, 1.81, 3.74,
13.24, 3.11) % for current densities of (2.82, 4.24, 5.65, 7.07, 8.48) A/cm2
respectively, when compared with the stationary tool, and the rotating electrode
gives better surface finish than the stationary electrode, were the enhancement rates
in roughness are (7, 31.72, 7.91, 15.49, 1.34)% for current density values of (2.82,
4.24, 5.65, 7.07, 8.48) A/cm2 respectively.

Influence of Skewed Anisotropy upon Exit Gradients

Faridoun A.M. Allawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 11, Pages 1960-1970
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.11.10

The generalization of DARCY’s law in 2.diemnsions has led to equations which
describe permeability of the soil as a symmetric tensor of second rank (1, 2). In seepage
problems it is common to define the GLOBAL coordinate axis to coincide with the
principal directions of the permeability tensor, therefore, the cross product (off –
diagonal) components (Kxy , Kyx) of the permeability tensor will be zero. It is therefore
the purpose of this research to show the influence of the off- diagonal terms of the
permeability tensor on the determined exit gradients behind a vertical sheet pile
embedded in an anisotropic homogenous soil of finite depth. Also of interest is the
derivation of an equation for the determination of exit gradients obtained from coordinate
transformations of composite function.

Semi – Chaotic Mutual Learning Platform for Key – Exchange Algorithm Using Neural Network

Enas H. Salih; Mohamad AB. Saleh; Mohammed Gheni Alwan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 11, Pages 1971-1979
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.11.11

Neural network has been emerged the cryptography field as efficient tool for
both cryptanalysis and cryptography due to its amazing ability to explore solution
space for a given problem. One of the latest observations for the behavior of neural
networks is its ability to synchronize itself to other neural network based on mutual
learning rules; this phenomenon has been under the focus of specialist in
cryptographic field due to its significant usage as highly secure key exchange
This paper is presenting new approach to drive the synchronization based on
semi-chaotic mutual learning, where the output of each neural network will be
extracted through non-linear mapping to memory filled with balanced number of
1's and 0's as this paper will demonstrate.

Effect of Post-Oxidation on SnO2 Thin Films

Arina F. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 11, Pages 1980-1986
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.11.12

An investigation which include synthesis of SnO2 thin film by depositing onto
glass substrates at room temperature using thermal evaporation technique. The
films were post-annealing in furnace tube at 250 oC temperature for different time
(10, 20, 30 and 40 minutes). The films were characterized by AFM microscopy,
FTIR and optical absorption spectrophotometer. The grain size was observed to
increase with increase the annealing duration. Absorbance spectra were taken to
examine the optical properties and band gap energy was observed to decrease with
increase the annealing duration. The effect of annealing time on the optical and
morphological properties of films were studied and discussed

Study the Effect of Many Parameters on the Speed of Drilling Materials by Laser Beam

Fayroz A. Sabah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 11, Pages 1987-1999
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.11.13

The speed of drilling depends on different parameters such as power, material, time,
distance between drilling tool and the material, the drilling tool, etc. In this paper; the
laser beam was used as drilling tool. Two types of lasers were used; CO2 laser (10.6μm
& 25W) and pulse Nd:YAG laser (1st harmonic 1064nm & 2nd harmonic 532nm, 1J).
Two different materials were used; pure silver (0.4mm thickness) and beech wood
(3mm thickness). The distance between laser beam and the material was 10cm for CO2
laser and 6.5cm for Nd:YAG laser. Theoretically the melting point of wood is 9345.8
°C. But when reaching the temperature of 300 °C, the auto ignition property will ignite
the wood, even in a vacuum. The melting point of pure silver is 961oC. Nor CO2 laser
neither Nd:YAG laser could not drill silver even at maximum power for them, but its
surface was affected by Nd:YAG laser, where the affected zone color changed.
Different powers for CO2 laser were used for different intervals, increasing power
increasing drilling speed, zone width and depth. The affected zone of wood by 2nd
harmonic Nd:YAG was clear more than that affected by CO2, the CO2 laser would
burn it. Many figures which representing the relations between laser power, hole width,
hole depth and drilling speed were obtained by using Matlab 2008 software program

Approach for Retrieving and Mining Video Clips

Ala; a H. AL-Hamami; Soukaena Hassan; Mazin Samer AL-Hakeem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 11, Pages 2000-2009
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.11.14

Multimedia (include video, images, audio and text media) is characterized by its high
dimensionality, which makes information retrieval and data mining even more
challenging. This research proposesa method to build an indexes database for huge
collection of video clips, to make the video retrieval and mining much more efficient
and perfectthat by considering similarity in both text of sound and features of frames.
The proposed method has the following steps: First, isolates video motion from sound
in the video clips. Second, converts the sound to text and index the result with
database. Third converts video motion to shots, then select the master frame for each
one and extracts the feature vector for them such as color, texture, shape and others and
finally index the result with database. Fourth,combines the two resulted indexed
database (Second and Third steps)into one database and make it the final and standard
for both retrieval and mining.

Improvement the Corrosive Strength of R.C Jndustrial Water Tanks Exposed To Salphric Acid By Using Fabricated Fibers

Rafaa Zaer Jasim; Zainab Aamer Shams Al-Din; Shakir Ahmed Saleh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 11, Pages 259-272
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.11.15

The main purpose of this research is to minimize the corrosive action of dilute
sulfuric acid solution (10% concentration) on concrete industrial water tanks in
batteries factories. Concrete incorporated with carbon and polypropylene fiber chips
in proportions (3 – 5) % and (0.5 – 1) % by volume was used respectively . Super
plasticizer type SP 603 Tufflow with a dosage of (2 -2.6) L/100kg cement was also
added . Mechanical test such as compressive strength test and physical tests such as
ultrasonic pulse velocity , bulk density, and water absorption tests were done to the
samples after curing in normal water for ( 7 , 28 , 60 , 90 , 180 ) days and then they
were exposed to dilute sulfuric acid solution (10% concentration) for ( 7 , 30 , 60 ,
90, 180) days . The samples cured in water for 28 days , then they were dried in
electrical oven at 110°C before they were exposed to acid solution . Test results
show a noticeable improvement in durability of suggested concrete mixes against
aggressive dilute acids .