Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 13,

Issue 13

Effect of Transformation Temperature on Microstructure andMechanical Properties of Bainite

Hala Salman Hasan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 13, Pages 2165-2174
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.13.1

Fully bainitic microstructure can be obtained by isothermal transformation at
temperatures within the range of bainite transformation. Both transformation temperature
and time determine the phase fraction, the scale of the resultant microstructure and the
carbone content of the retained austenite, which in turn determine the mechanical
In this study, the thermomechanical simulator was used to obtained the fully bainitic
microstructure for the high carbon alloy steel (0.78%C) at a different bainite
transformation temperatures (200 to 350°C) in order to study the effect of the isothermal
transformation temperature on the resultant mechanical properties.
It has been concluded from the detailed analysis of the microstructure, the dilatometric
data and the mechanical properties (hardness and tensile properties) that finer bainite and
less retained austenite phase fraction can be obtained by transformation at lower
temperatures, and that leads to exceptional mechanical properties (Hardness ≈ 660 HV,
and Tensile strength ≈ 2 Gpa).

Boron Removal from Shat Al-Arab River Water Using Electrocoagulation

Saadi K. Al-Naseri

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 13, Pages 2175-2185
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.13.2

Shat Al-Arab is a river located at the south of Iraq. Boron concentration has
increased significantly recently due to the drought season which makes water from
the Arabian Gulf pour into Shat Al-Arab. Boron concentration, as high as 5 mg/l,
was detected in this river. This is 10 times the allowable drinking water concentration
for boron according toWHO and the Iraqi drinking water guidelines, i.e. 0.5 mg/l.
Experiments were conducted to determine the ability of electrocoagulation
technique to reduce boron concentrations in synthetic water of 5 mg Boron/l and
conductivity of 2000 μS/cm to the required level in drinking water. Experimental
setup was prepared to determine the effects of several operating parameters on the
optimum operation for the electrocoagulation. In addition, the technique was
compared with chemical coagulation, using Poly-Aluminum-Chloride, Aluminum
Sulphate, and Ferric Chloride.
The experiments revealed that chemical coagulation has a very low efficiency
(about 12%) that renders it unsuitable as a pretreatment for existing (or for the future)
desalination units. On the other hand, electrocoagulation experiments showed a
maximum boron removal efficiency of 40% at a current density of 5 mA/cm2,
operating time of 30 minutes, and pH of 8.

An FPGA Based Vehicles Density Dependent Intelligent Traffic Light System

Najmah A. Habeeb

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 13, Pages 2186-2196
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.13.3

In this paper, a vehicles density dependent intelligent traffic light system based on
FPGA has been built. The intelligent traffic light system counts the number of
available vehicles in the sides of the traffic intersection via the sensors placed on
the ends of the road. Subsequently, it determines passage time required for each
side, depending on the density of existing vehicles in it, in order to pass the largest
number of vehicles in the intersection during a certain time. The proposed system
is built using VHDL, simulated using Xilinx ISE 9.2i package, and implemented
using Spartan-3A XC3S700A FPGA kit. Implementation and Simulation
behavioral model results show that proposed system fits the specified functional
requirements, and finds a solution to overcome the problem of traffic jam at

Experimental Study of Self Compacting Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams under Four Point Loads

Mohammed Mohammed Rasheed; Ilham Hatem Khudhair Alobaidi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 13, Pages 2197-2208
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.13.4

The results of eight reinforced concrete deep beams tested under four point
loading condition are reported. The test beams were simply supported and were
made with self compacting concrete (SCC). The variables were; web reinforcement
and anchorage of tension reinforcement. The test beams were divided into four
groups according to the web reinforcement. Each group consists of two beams, one
with the anchorage of tension reinforcement and the other without. The nominal
cross section was 100 x 300mm and the clear span length was 1100mm.
Deflections of beams and cracking patterns were monitored during the tests at
different stages of the monotonic loading until failure. The results showed the
significance of the web reinforcement and anchorage of tension bars on the
strength and failure behavior of SCC deep beams. The ultimate strength of beam
without web reinforcement increased to 39% by adding anchorage to the
longitudinal tension reinforcement. While the ultimate strength of the beam
increased to 16% by adding anchorage to tension reinforcement for beams having
web reinforcement that consists of stirrups with horizontal reinforcement

A Second-Order Single Loop Oversampling Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) with Proposed Hybrid Feedforward/Feedback Architecture

Hasan M. Azzawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 13, Pages 2209-2228
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.13.5

This paper proposes hybrid architecture of feedforward/feedback second order
single-loop modulator for high resolution analog-to-digital converter (ADC)
applications. Different techniques for oversampling modulator are discussed. The
proposed architecture consists of three stages. The first stage is 2nd order single
loop oversampling ADC with novel feedforward/feedback architecture. In the
second stage, an error cancellation circuit (ECC) is proposed at the output of the
modulator to noise shaping of quantization noise. In addition, the third stage is a
decimation filter in order to reduce the oversampling ratio (OSR) which is suitable
for broadband applications. With low OSR=24, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is
improved about 55 dB if compared with traditional architecture (feedback singleloop
high order topology). The achieved resolution or the effective number of bits
(ENOB) is (22-bit). With high OSR=256, the net improvement in quantization
noise reduction is 64 dB if compared with feedforward architecture (single-loop
high order) and the ENOB=28. Finally a 1-bit quantizer is used in the proposed
architecture which greatly decreases the circuit implementation complexity and
power consumption. Simulation results show the superiority performance of
proposed hybrid architecture as compared with traditional modulator topologies
(feedforward and feedback).

Heat Rejection From Horizontal Tube Through Heat Valve

Ali D.Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 13, Pages 2229-2251
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.13.6

This study presents experimental work to construct a non- conventional
thermosyphon where it is consists of three parts, which include the evaporator,
adiabatic and condenser sections all of these parts are arranged radially in parallel to
construct the heat valve (HV). Heat valve used to evacuate heat from horizontal copper
electrical heater tube by working fluid which is(distilled water, methanol, ethanol) with
different filling ratio 66.6% and 83.3%. Working fluid evacuate heat from copper
evaporator towards condenser where a change in phase mechanism make insure to
increase the heat performance of HV. Thin stainless steel mesh grid coated evaporator
to translate heat to the working fluid at the case of high evaporation of working fluid,
while a very thin of aluminum fins are fixed to the condenser surface to extended it and
construct the finned heat valve(FHV) with a high level thermal performance where
heat reject in short time and make insure to condensate the working fluid’s vapor and
that lead to low level of temperature in evaporator. The results refer to the high
thermal performance of FHV where a low temperature in evaporator with low heat
storage because the short distance between condenser and evaporator with a high ratio
between area of them .Result refer to the effect of working fluid type with simple
effect in filling ratio.

Speckle Noise Removal for Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery Based on Statistics Filters and Nonlinearing Function

E kbal H. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 13, Pages 2252-2264
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.13.7

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images are contaminated by multiplicative
noise, due to the coherence of the radar wavelength, labeled as speckle noise which
results in an important reduction in the efficiency of target detection and
classification algorithms . In this paper the corrupted pixels are replaced by an
estimated value using the simple filter based statistics filters with nonlinear
function which are worked at the same time to reduce the speckle noise without
blurring edges or other features in SAR imagery. Quantitative and qualitative
comparisons of the results obtained by the proposed method with the results
achieved from the other speckle noise reduction filters demonstrate its higher
performance for speckle reduction with preserving high frequency features (edges)
in SAR images.

Kinematic Analysis of Semi-Flexible Robot

Muhsin J. Jweeg; Hussein M. Al-Khafaji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 13, Pages 2265-2284
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.13.8

In this work, a kinematic model of semi- flexible robot with two degrees of
freedom based on the joint angles and arm’s deflections is presented with taking in
consideration the small deflection parameter (exact model), and used experimental
deformation results to make a comparison between the approximate model and the
exact model. Due to the difficulties of using flexible robot in the real live, a two
degrees semi-flexible robot was built; this robot will be used to get the experimental
results for comparison. The comparison shows a small difference between the
approximate model and the exact model, so with increasing the flexibility this
difference will increase and in some applications of robot this difference will be
significant and worth to take in consideration.

Separation and Determination of Preservative Methylparaben in Insulin Preparations Using Gas Chromatography

Suhair Mohammad Yaseen; Alberteen E. Habboush

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 13, Pages 2285-2294
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.13.9

In this search an improved gas chromatographic method was used for
identification and typically quantitated for methylparaben(mp) which is used as
preservative in insulin was involved the optimal conditions for
extraction mp from aqueous samples with ethyl acetate ,chloroform ,and toluene as
extractants,then analyzed by gas chromatography(GC).
Effects of each of extractants polarity, aqueous samples pH, phases (organic to
aqueous) ratio, mixing time, polarity of stationary phases, and column temperature
on efficiency of separation and determination of mp. were studied in this work.
Synthetic sample which contained the same contents as a life sample was
tested to omit interferings of other drug additives on analysis results.
The extraction of mp. was (90-91)% with one batch of ethyl acetate and (99-
100)%with two batches of ethyl acetate at pH medium(1.5-2).also the non-polar
stationary phase(OV-101) is the best choice for determining mp by GC.
The concentration of mp. in insulin preparations was within the acceptable
The relative error (R.E) was ± (0,39-1.49)% and relative standard
deviation(R.S.D) was (1.21)% for life samples.

Preparation and Characterization of Mixed Ligands Metal Complexes Derived from Acetylacetonyl P-Imino Acetophenone and 5-Nitroso8-Hydroxyquinoline With Fe (II), Co (II), Ni (II) and Cu (II) Ions

Rashed Taleb Rasheed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 13, Pages 2295-2302
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.13.10

The Schiff base ligand (HL) has been prepared by the reaction of Paminoacetophenone
with acetylacetone. This ligand reacted with 5-nitroso8-
hydroxyquinoline (HQ) and salts of first transition series (M) where M= (Fe(II),
Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions ) to get mononuclear metal (II) complexes of the type
[MLQ(H2O)2] have also been synthesized. The formation of the Schiff base ligand and
its complexes have been envisaged from FTIR, UV-VIS, magnetic susceptibility,
conductivity and atomic absorption technique studies. These studies confirm an
octahedral environment around the metal ion in all our complexes.

The Study of The Pulse Laser Properties in Two Different Photonic Crystal Fiber Materials

Zahraa Hummam Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 13, Pages 2303-2314
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.13.11

This study is to obtain a better understanding of how to shape the pulse laser
spectrum by varying the material properties of the photonic crystal fiber (PCF). This
includes the ability to obtain spectral power in particular wavelength regions, and
obtaining a broad bandwidth.. Numerical modeling of the split step Adaptive Fourier
method has been used to solving a form of nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which
describes the propagation of pulses in PCF. It was investigated how the spectrum can
be controlled through dispersion property. The electromagnetic wave that send from
IR laser diode source through the PCF to the observer. the optical properties of this
electromagnetic wave, normalized power, intensity, dispersion, and group delay
dispersion will be studied for the input, output and observer laser pulse. The
compared of the different two materials of PCF (fused silica and Barium-fluoride
BaF2) that be used and studies.

Numerical and Experimental Prediction of Food Freezing

Soundus S. AL-Azaw; Jalal M. Jalil

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 13, Pages 2315-2340
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.13.12

In this study the freezing of foods was studied numerically and experimentally.
Different kinds of foods have been studied numerically (Meat, Broccoli, Perch and
Banana), while the experimental work is applied to meat only. In numerical solution
enthalpy transformation method is used to transfer the energy equation into a nonlinear
equation with a single dependent variable E (enthalpy). The discretization of
energy equation in three dimensions was solved with phase change problem
employing the control-volume finite-difference. The numerical results of the enthalpy
method were compared with experimental results and were satisfactory. The freezing
process of foods differs from one to other due to thermal property differences, water
content and freezing point. Low water content leads to smooth cooling rate and short
constant temperature region while high water content leads to long constant
temperature region.

Tuning of Composite Fuzzy Logic Guidance Law Using Genetic Algorithms

Saadi A. Al-Obaidi; Munther N. Al-Tikriti; Ammar Gh. Al-Ghizi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 13, Pages 2341-2356
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.13.13

The application of Fuzzy Logic (FL) for the development of guidance laws for
homing missile is presented. Fuzzy logic has been used to develop a Composite
Fuzzy Guidance (CFG) law. The objective of this proposed guidance law is to
combine desirable features of PN and APN homing guidance laws to enhance the
interception of targets performing uncertain maneuvers without reaching the missile
to saturation limit.
During this work, it became apparent that the fuzzy controller of the CFG law can
be further tuned to enhance its performance. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) which are
inspired by natural genetics are one of the algorithms that can be used to tune the
parameters of fuzzy controllers due to the promising results that they introduced in
the field of optimization.
This paper introduces the integration of GAs and FL with a main emphasis on
tuning the membership function parameters of fuzzy logic controller of the proposed
CFG law using Genetic Algorithms (GAs) with the view to improve its performance.
The simulation has been performed using Borland C++ programming language
(version 5.02) along with the Matlab programming package (version 7.0) that has
been used for plotting the results of simulations.

Evaluation of Training Workshop For The Organic Fertilizer Users in AL-Rashdia District – Baghdad Governorate

Samer Muhii Taha; Khalida Shawkat; Auras Muhii Taha

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 13, Pages 302-317
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.13.14

This research aimed to the Evaluation of The Training Workshop For The
Organic Fertilizer Users in AL-Rashdia District – Baghdad Governorate in all
it is field . The process of evaluation of The Training Workshoptook stages,
these stages are: First stage: determine the element of Training Workshop
Literatures Folders Extension in field,containing of Five fieldsas
follow{Trainer, Curriculum,Method &Ways,Environment(Context),Trained},
Fiftyfour items. Second stage: determining the groups of criteria to evaluate of
The element of The Training Workshop. Third stage: Surveying of Training
Workshop as through:1.Training Workshop Literatures Folders Extension in
field, containing of Five fields as follow{Trainer,
Curriculum,Method&Ways,Environment(Context),Trained } Fiftyfour items.
2. A preliminary Scale was showed to a group of (6 experts and specialized
persons) in agricultural extension field, to express their opinions about fields
and items of the The Element of The Training Workshop scale and its
fitness.3.Used the tri the element of Training Workshop scale consists of
:Totally Mentioned,Patially Mentioned ,Non Mentioned and put degrees of the
tri scale The Element of The Training Workshop according to : Totally
Mentioned three degrees, Patially Mentioned two degrees and Non Mentioned
one degree. The research population is ( 30 Trained) . A questionnaire used to
collect datas from the Trained.The statistical tools used are the percentages, ,
means,Alpha cronbach coefficient.
This researchended to were very active and influent, the Level of The
Element of The Training Workshop stands in the Patially Mentioned.The
research recommendations that aiming to support The Element of The Training
Workshop fields,that reflected a positive improving productivity and
production of farming system.

Effect of Heat Treatments on Sliding Wear Behavior of Medium Carbon Steel

Ahlam Abdalamir Mohamed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 13, Pages 318-328
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.13.15

The aim of this work is to study the effect of heat treatments on the wear rate of
the medium carbon steel which included normalizing and different quenching
media (air, oil, salt solution at concentration %25). Quenching Include heating to
a temperature of 870Co and then rapid cooling. A Pin -on-Disc technique was used
to measure the wear rate under dry sliding conditions with applied and different
sliding times with constant sliding speed of disc (641 r.p.m) and hardness of the
steel disc (48 HRC).
The results show that the wear rate increases with applied loads, and with
increasing sliding time for all heat treated specimens it was found that the hardness
values of the quench specimens at salt solution is higher than that of normalized
specimens and quenched specimens in the oil.