Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 16,

Issue 16

Design Optimization and Efficiency Enhancement of Linear Induction Motor

Adil H. Ahmad; Marwa Mohammad Marei

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 16, Pages 2745-2756
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.16.1

This paper presents the dynamic behavior of a Single Sided Linear Induction
Motor (SLIM) by changing many design parameters of a reference model of SLIM
then an optimization process is adopted to give the final equivalent circuit of the
proposed modified model. This analysis is prepared by using MATLAB package,
version 7.8 (R2009a) for optimization and enhancement evaluation. The
improvement in performance is performed by enhancing the efficiency power
factor product ( cos ) which can be regarded as the enhancement criteria for the
modified model of this motor. This factor improved from 0.23 of the reference
model to 0.66 of the optimized model.

The Effect of Curvature Estimations and Lighting Factor In The Edge Detection For 3D Rendered Images

Alaa Noori Mazher

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 16, Pages 2757-2766
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.16.2

This paper presents new approach in the edge detection of 3D images (for nonphotorealistic
rendering). This new approach uses curvature estimations with lighting
effect on triangle mesh as a new factor in edge detection process. New algorithm to
detect edges on 3D curved surface with results is presented. In the proposed technique,
the curved surface is generated by using Bezier curves and those generated curves are
connected together using a special fashion to generate triangle mesh. Depending on
those generated curves, the direction of surface becomes defined. The curvature is then
calculated at defined points on each curve. The estimated curvature and lighting effect
determine if there is edge can be detected or not. The size of the step of jumping
between two defined areas determines the accuracy of detecting edge. The algorithm is
tested on curved-surface which on it the edges are hardly to detect.
Keywords: Triangle Mesh, Curvature, Edge detection.

The Influence of Operation Conditions on the Permeative Flux of (PVC/PS) Hollow Fiber Membrane

Qusy F.Alsalhy; Jamal M.Ali; Khitam S.Shaker

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 16, Pages 2767-2777
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.16.3

Membranes have gained an important place in chemical technology and are used
in a wide range of applications. This investigation has studied the effect of operating
conditions such as temperature, trans-membrane pressure and solute concentration
on the separation performance of (PVC/ PS) hollow fiber membrane, which was
prepared in the laboratory from 15% (PVC) and 2% (PS) using phase inversion
method. An attempt was done to investigate the ability of PVC/PS hollow fiber
membrane for ultrafiltration application. A (PVP) solute was used to measure (PVP)
rejection of prepared membrane.
The predicted flux was found to increase from (18.88 l/ to 33.05 l/
when the operation temperature was increased from (10Ž) to (30Ž).While it
increased from (28.57 l/ to (263.36 l/ when the operation pressure was
increased from (1bar) to (3bar). It was also found to decrease from(17.97 l/ to
(12.20 l/ with increase solute concentration from (1000ppm) to (2500ppm).
The rejection efficiency was equal to (99.93%) when using (2500ppm) solute. This
is considered within UF range.

Upgrading of Basrah-Kirkuk Blend Crude Oil Through Mechanical-Acoustical Effect and (Labs) as Surfactant

Adel Sharif Hamadi; Gufran Raheem; Salam Hussain

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 16, Pages 2778-2791
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.16.4

Non-Convential method has been used in this study for upgrading mixture of Basrah-
Kirkuk crude oil through mechanical - acoustical effect using hydrodynamical coaxial
turbo machine type Rotary Pulsation Apparatus (RPA) implementing ultra-high
reliability in shearing rotor-stator operation.
The analysis of the crude oil after treatment in RPA showed that on increasing the
rotation time from 5 to 10 min with rotor speed of 7610 rpm, leading to an increase in the
total yield of light and intermediate petroleum cuts from 30 to 39 vol%, with an increase
in API gravity from 29 to 40, reduce flash point from 75 to 54.C and reduce pour point
from -10 to -32.C.
The results also showed that, adding LABS surfactant leads to a further increase in API
gravity to 45, reduced flash point to 50.C, reduced pour point to -36 .C and increased
yield of light and intermediate fraction to 40 vol% within 10 min and 7610 rpm

Numerical Study for Natural Convection within a Rotating Cubic Enclosure

Hussein Majeed Salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 16, Pages 2792-2810
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.16.5

A numerical study of three–dimensional, steady, turbulent and incompressible
natural convection of air (Pr=0.72) within a rotating cubic enclosure is presented. The
present code is based on solving partial differential equations for conservation of
mass, momentum and energy equations for a rotating frame. The turbulence effect is
introduced by using two equations turbulence model of k-e . Finite volume method is
used in solving the governing equations. SIMPLE algorithm is applied to solve the set
discretization equations. To verify the validity of present method, present results is
compared with those of previous published work under the same conditions. The
influence of changing rotation Rayleigh number (Rar ) as a result of chancing
angular velocity of enclosure, and temperature difference of enclosure walls on the
average Nusselt number (Nu) is presented and correlated.

Absolute Maximum Bending Moment in Short Simply Supported Beams under Moving Point Loads

Layla Ali Ghaleb Yaseen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 16, Pages 2811-2833
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.16.6

This paper represents a theoretical investigation of the location of the absolute
maximum bending moment in short simply supported beams under the influence of
several moving point loads. However, for decades it was considered that the absolute
maximum bending moment is determined by positioning the beam center-line midway
between the resultant of the loads and the nearer heavy load. Obviously, other
point loads may also be required to be mirror imaged with the resultant to ensure that
the obtained maximum bending moment is an absolute maximum. This method was
assumed to be working for all spans of simply supported beams without any
In this paper it is shown that this traditional method is not always valid. Examples
of short span beams subjected to moving point loads having distance between two
loads exceeding half the length of the beam indicate absolute maximum bending
moments greater than those obtained by the traditional method.

Performance of MAC- IEEE802.11n-Over-Fiber Network in Presence of Errors in the Transmitting Channel

Ali M. Alsahlany; Haider M. AlSabbagh; Saod A. Alseyab

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 16, Pages 2834-2842
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.16.7

An analytical model is presented to evaluate the MAC-protocol performance
of the IEEE802.11n-over–fiber network with taking into account probability of
error occurring in the transmitting channel. The results show that the data
throughput with using RTS/CTS or basic access mechanism is suppressed with
increasing amount of errors in the transmitting channel over all the range of
fiber delay as well as it is very sensitive to the number of stations and packet
length. And utilizing the RTS/CTS mechanism shows higher immunity than
basic access mechanism when the network is utilized by high number of users
and errors in transmission channel is relatively high.

Design of Beam-Columns Using Artificial Neural Networks

Abdelmaseeh Bakos Keryou; Raid Rafi Al-Nima; Rafal Naheth Wadie

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 16, Pages 2843-2857
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.16.8

In this paper, manual design of beam-columns, based on the procedure adopted by
american society of steel construction, is described. an attempt has been taken to
apply artificial neural network to the design of steel beam-columns of hot-rolled
shapes. for this purpose, a set of data have been generated using the software package
staad pro, and then used in training and testing the neural network. the results showed
that artificial neural network after successful learning could specify the proper
sections with relatively high accuracy.

Control on 3-D Fixable Wing Flutter Using an Adaptive Neural Controller

Mauwafak Ali Tawfik; Mohammed Idris Abu-Tabikh; Hayder Sabah Abd Al-Amir

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 16, Pages 2858-2874
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.16.9

An adaptive neural controller to control on flutter in 3-D flexible wing is
proposed. The aeroelastic model was based on the coupling between structure-of the
equivalent plate (wing) and the aerodynamic model that is based on a hybrid unsteady
panel methodTime domain simulations were used to examine the dynamic aeroelastic
instabilities of the system (e.g. the onset of flutter and limit cycle oscillation). The
structure of the controller consists of two models namely modified Elman neural
network (MENN) and feedforward multi-layer Perceptron (MLP). The MENN model
is trained with off-line and on-line stages to guarantee that the outputs of the model
accurately represent the plunge motion of the wing and this neural model acts as the
identifier. The feedforward neural controller is trained off-line and adaptive weights
are implemented on-line to find the generalized control action (function of addition
lift force), which controls the plunge motion of the wing. The general back
propagation algorithm is used to learn the feedforward neural controller and the
neural identifier. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed
control algorithm; this is demonstrated by the minimized tracking error to zero
approximation with very acceptable settling time.

Effects of Gold and Silver Colloidal on Gama Glutamate Transferase Enzyme Activity in Blood Serum

Salma Abdul Rudha Abbass; Amer Hasan Abdullah; Abdulrahman K. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 16, Pages 2875-2883
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.16.10

Laser ablation of metal plate in water was performed in order to obtain gold and silver
nanoparticles. Transmittance electron microscopy TEM and uv-vis spectrophotometer
were conducted in order to determine the size and optical properties of the nanoparticles,
respectively. The nanoparticles concentrations were also characterized by atomic
absorption spectroscopy AAS measurement. The absorbance spectra show a sharp and
peaks around 400 or 525 nm, indicating the production of silver and gold nanoparticles
with average size of 25 nm, have been confirmed by TEM. Both Gold and silver
nanoparticles show inhibition on the gama glutamate transferase (γ-GT) activity. The
inhibition effect increase as a function of nanoparticles concentrations. Kinetic properties
of (γ-GT) activity revealed (by nanoparticles) mixed type of inhibition.

Design of a Novel Patch Antenna with Enhanced Gain and Side Lobe Reduction

Jabir S. AZIZ

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 16, Pages 2884-2897
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.16.11

The design of an efficient and directive small size antenna, for modern wireless
applications, is a major challenge. This paper introduces the design and simulation of
new method to enhance the gain and side lobe reduction that improve the performance of
a conventional microstrip patch antenna. In this work three models were discussed and
analyzed. The first model consists of a reference patch antenna plus superstrate-1 of
different thickness. Modification of this model by adding square copper ring represents
the second model. In the third model a second superstrate on the top of the square copper
ring was added. Simulation results illustrate that the first model gives a small
enhancement for the gain and side lobe reduction, only gain enhancement was obtained in
the second model and greater enhancement was achieved for the performance of the
patch antenna in the third model.

Applying Non-linear Damage Model for Predicating Corrosion Effect on Fatigue Life of (carbon + glass) Fibers / PMMA Composite

Husin .J.M. Al-Alkawi; Amer Hameed Majeed; Saisaban Ali Fahad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 16, Pages 2898-2909
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.16.12

The objective of this work is to investigate the salt water effects on fatigue
degradation, and stress-life relationship. A series of reversed fatigue experiments were
conducted on (carbon+ glass) / PMMA of salt water environments. Results indicate that
the composite degrade during cycling. Exposure to salt water (salt water is used to
simulate the sea water) provides the most significant reduction in fatigue life. The
corrosion environment reduces the fatigue strength by 61% compared to dry fatigue.
Based on previous damage model [16], corrosion – fatigue nonlinear damage model is
presented in this paper, which contains one material constant; the inverse slope (α) of the
S-N curve. Six specimens of two levels loading of composite material were used to verify
the present model; the results showed that the predicted life is in good agreement with the
experimental results.

Study the (Wear, Roughness, Micro hardness) of the Electroplated Layers on Low Carbon Steel Improved by Shoot Penning

Abd Al- khalaq Fawzy Hamood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 16, Pages 2910-2922
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.16.13

In this study an electroplating method has been employed (with zinc, nickle).
Studying of mechanical, surface, metallurgical properties for each coated systems
and made a comparison among them and with shoot penned coated systems. Low
carbon steel alloy has been selected as a substrate. Studying of specified
properties including coating thickness and dry corrosion properties (oxidation at
high temperature) and comparison the results of each treatment with other
treatment results. Coated samples with nickel and zinc by electroplating methods
are used in order to compare among the resulting coating layer properties. Shoot
penning method also has been employed to the two coatings in order to determine
the compression residual stresses role in the variation of studied properties.
Results showed that nickel coating layer has higher oxidation resistance than zinc
coating layer at high temperature, but has lower roughness, micro hardness, wear
resistance and density. Microstructure inspection results showed ferrite- pearlite
phases in the treated samples for all coated systems, This ensures that this
treatment will not subject to any phases transformation, and formation of coating
layer with a different thickness as illustrated by micro structure images.

Investigation of the Dowel and Friction Forces in Fiber Reinforced Ultra High Performance Concrete Beams

Kaiss F. Sarsam; Maha M. S. Ridha; Zainab H. Mahdi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 16, Pages 2923-2936
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.16.14

The phenomenon of dowel action as a shear transfer mechanism across cracks
has long been recognized as an important component of the overall shear resistance
capacity of reinforced concrete beams. The dowel contribution to shear depends
primarily on the tensile resistance of concrete along the splitting plane and the
bending resistance of the longitudinal bars. Fiber Reinforced Ultra High
Performance Concrete (FRUHPC) is an advanced cementitious material consisting
of a dense, high strength matrix containing a large number of evenly embedded
steel fibers. Therefore, FRUHPC can be expected to improve dowel and friction
resistance to shear.
This paper reports the experimental study of the components of shear force
applied to FRUHPC beams, especially the effects of friction shear force and dowel
action. Six FRUHPC beams (120*150*1500)mm dimensions with and without
preformed cracks were made with three volume fractions of fibers: 1% , 1.5% and
2%. The presence of steel fibers enhances the performance of shear transfer
mechanisms by friction or interface shear along the diagonal crack surface. Thus
the contribution of this mechanism to the total shear strength carried by the beam
was around 36.4% for FRUHPC beam with 2% fibers content. In the absence of
friction or interface shear along the diagonal crack surface mechanism (preformed
cracks beams) dowel action was the predominate contributor. However, the
contribution of this mechanism to the total shear strength carried by the beam was
around 45.4% for HPRPC beam with 2% fibers content. Also, an expression for
evaluating the dowel force is presented in this research. The coefficient of multiple
determination (R2) was (0.835).

Laser Treatment of Plasma Spraying Alloyed Coatings

Mohammed Jasim Kadhim; Sami Ibrahim Jaffar; Eman Adnan Anon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 16, Pages 343-354
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.16.15

Ni23Cr6Al0.4Y plasma sprayed coating on nimonic75 substrate was remelted using a 1
kW continues CO2 laser. The topography, microstructure, phases and chemical analysis
of plasma sprayed and laser melted regions were examined using various techniques
including scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA),
energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The plasma
sprayed coatings consisted heterogeneous microstructure of lamella with unmelted
particles, voids, porosity and cracks. It was found that the depth of melting increased
with increasing the specific energy. Homogenous and shiny melted regions were
achieved without voids, porosity and cracks after laser melting. Thin upper surface
layers with shallow cracks were observed due to the rich layer of α-Al2O3 and YAlO3.
No phases changed were found before and after laser melting of plasma sprayed layers.
The phases formed are mixtures of γ’, β, YAlO3 in the matrix γ. The microstructure
formed after laser melting is fine cells.
Keywords: Plasma sprayed coating; Laser melting, Ni solid solution; YAlO3; α-Al2O3