Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 30, Issue 17

Volume 30, Issue 17, October 2012, Page 355-3111

Investigation of the performance of a Solar Powered Adsorption Heat Pipe

Abdual Hadi N. Khalifa; Asaad T.AL-Omran; Aedah M.Jawad Mahdy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 17, Pages 2937-2950

An adsorption heat pipe was designed and built from a stainless steel tube of 32
mm outer diameter, 30 mm inner diameter and 1000 mm long, the inner surface of the
tube was coated by 10 mm thickness of active carbon, which was assumed to be the
adsorbent, while the adsorbent was assumed to be the methanol, or acetone. The
adsorption heat pipe consist of three zones, namely adsorption/ desorption, adiabatic
and evaporation/condensation zones. Electrical heater with variables capacity is used to
heat up the unit generator during desorption process, water was used to cool the
condenser, while air was used to cool the generator. Two types of adsorption pair are
used, namely active carbon-methanol and active carbon-acetone. The effect of heat
input to the generator on the heat pipe surface temperature and evaporator temperature
are studied. The results showed that the adsorption heat pipe can work at a relatively
low temperature namely 70-100 oC, the time required for cooling process in the range
of 18 to 24 minutes, and activated carbon – Acetone pair gave a good behavior for the
heat pipe due to the short cycle– time compared with that for activated carbon –

Control of Corrosion of Copper-Alloy Condenser Tubes by Chemical Treatment

Wassan Abduallah; Nawal Jassim; Qais A.Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 17, Pages 2951-2965

The present work deals with the study of the factors that affect the corrosion
resistance and heat transfer resistance of treated condenser tubes by surface filming with
ferrous sulfate solution. The reduction of corrosion rate on the filmed surfaces was
determined under dynamic conditions using weight loss method. The variation of the
corrosion rate at different exposure time and different fluid velocities of the filming
solution were studied throughout the laboratory corrosion system. While the effect of
surface filming on depression of heat transfer process in term of increasing the heat
transfers resistance was studied throughout the laboratory thermal system. The results
indicated that the filming solution reduced the corrosion rate of copper alloy to 52.7%,
but the heat transfer resistance increased from 12.88 to 18.73*10-4 m2K/W. Moreover, the
metallurgical investigation clearly revealed the feature and nature of the film formed on
the metal surface.

Bolometer Detector Modeling and its Performance Indexes

Mehdi Munshid Shellal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 17, Pages 2966-2986

Bolometer detector is one of thermal detectors. In this research the essential
concepts and parameters are included which cover the main types of bolometer
detectors. But the actual values of parameters used here in simulation are adopted
from [7] for semiconductor bolometer. This detector operates for all optical
wavelengths of different sources. From analysis and results obtained, it is shown
that minimum and maximum values of specific Detectivity D* for cryogenic
temperatures from 0.5 K to 10 K are 0.25~10 / and 5 ~
10 / , respectively and the values between them when the incident
radiation frequency is 100 Hz.. It is seen that for frequency greater than 1Hz, the
specific Detectivity increases rapidly which means that the bolometer detector will
respond for high frequencies in a manner more speed than that of low frequencies.
It is found that as the value of Ąth is increased, the temperature change in detector
sensor is decreased. That is decreasing Ąth enhance the performance of bolometer
detector. It is found that the responsivity of this detector follow its output voltage
which in turn follow the bolometer temperature change.

Effect of Surface Treatment on the Adhesion Forces between PVC Adhesives and PVC (Pipe - Fitting)

Zoalfokkar Kareem Mezaal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 17, Pages 2987-2998

This paper aims to improvement adhesion forces between (USA PVC adhesive ,
Commercial PVC adhesive and USA CPVC adhesive) and (PVC pipe – PVC fitting)
by using surface treatment (mechanical and chemical treatment) for external surface of
pipes and internal surface of fitting with depth (25 mm) . Before pipe adhesion test the
samples put under some environmental conditions such as (at room temperature , at (80
oC) for (4 hr) , at (- 2.5 oC) for (4 hr) , at ( tap water) for (48 hr) , at ( 3.5 % NaOH) for
(48 hr) and at ( 3.5 % NaCl) for (48 hr) ) .
Appearance of results of pipe adhesion testing for (PVC pipe – PVC fitting) with
PVC adhesive, without surface treatment only (cleaning), under environmental
conditions , the failure (pulling) happened in adhesion zone (adhesive adhesion failure)
. As appearance of results of pipe adhesion testing for (PVC pipe – PVC fitting) with
PVC adhesive by using surface treatment (surface roughness with abrasive paper and
chemical treatment with alcohol), under environmental conditions, the failure
happened in PVC pipe (pipe cohesion failure).

Experimental Investigation of Shear- Critical Reactive Powder Concrete Beams without Web Reinforcement

Kaiss F. Sarsam; Ihsan A.S. Al-Shaarbaf; Maha M. S. Ridha

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 17, Pages 2999-3022

جرت عملیة استقصاء عملي على سلوك عتبات خرسانیة عالیة المقاومة مصنوعة من
المساحیق الفعالة. خمسة عشرة عتبة تحوي حدید تسلیح طولي تم صبھا وخالیة من تسلیح القص.
المتغیرات الرئیسیة التي تم دراستھا ھي محتوى الالیاف الفولاذیة, نسبة حدید التسلیح الطولي,
نسبة فضاء القص الى العمق الفعال ومحتوى السلیكا الفعالة. اعلى قیمھ لمقاومة الانضغاط كانت
110 میكاباسكال باستعمال نوع واحد من الالیاف الفولاذیة. تم اقتراح علاقات للتنبؤ بمقاومة اجھاد
القص لعتبات خرسانة المساحیق الفعالة الخالیة من تسلیح القص. العلاقات االمقترحة اظھرت
تطابقا جیدا لمقاومة اجھاد القص بالمقارنة مع النتائج العملیة.

Performance Evaluation of Path Loss in Mobile Channel for Karada district in Baghdad City

Ahmed A. Jaafar; Aied Khalaf Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 17, Pages 3023-3038

In this work Hata, Lee, Walfisch-Ikegami and Free Space Loss models have
been compared with practical path loss based on series of measurements in Karada
district in Baghdad for GSM900 downlink band. Hata model showed the closest
path loss predictions with mean square error = 10.8 dB, but these results are far
from good prediction results and need enhancement. Hata model was optimized
using Least Squares method based on measured received signal power. The
optimized Hata model showed much better results from the original Hata with
mean square error = 6.96 dB. The simulation and calculations were implemented
using MATLAB R2009b. The measurements were done using Field Test Display
(FTD) with a compatible hand phone to measure signal strength. A Ground
Positioning System (GPS) was used to measure the distance from transmitter.

Experimental Evaluation of Effect of Flange Dimensions on Shear Behavior of NSC and SCC Double Tee Beams

Ali H. Aziz; Mohammad Zohair Yousif; Laye K. Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 17, Pages 3039-3053

This study deals with, experimentally, the effect of flange dimensions on shear
behavior of normal strength concrete (NSC) and self-compacting concrete (SCC)
double Tee beams.
Twelve beam specimens as well as a series of control specimens are tested. The
beam specimens were divided into two groups (based on concrete type) and each
group are divided into five subgroups (based on flange dimensions).The webs
dimensions, beam depth, beam length, spacing between webs, longitudinal
(tension) reinforcement and transverse reinforcement (stirrups) were kept constant
in all beam specimens.
Experimental results showed that the ultimate capacity increased about (6%-
12) and (9%-20) when the flange width (dimensions) increased from (320mm) to
(450mm) for NSC and SCC respectively. Presence of large compression flange
lead to increase the stiffness of tested beams due to contribution of additional
concrete parts, and this leads to increase in carrying capacity.

A Laboratory Evaluation of Stabilization of Silty Clay Soil by Using Chloride Compounds

Muhanned Qahtan Waheed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 17, Pages 3054-3064

Large areas of Iraq consist of soils with high clay contents which have low
strengths and bearing capacity.This problem has an influence on construction of
road and highway, if adequate support does not exist, the road will rapidly
deteriorate. The solution to these construction problems is by soil treatment with
chemical additives. The main objective of this study is to investigate effectiveness
of salts used as an additive in stabilization of silty clay soil. Three types of salts
used which are sodium chloride (NaCl), magnisum chloride (MgCl2) and calcium
chloride (CaCl2). Various amounts of salts (2%, 4%, and 8%) were added to the
soil to study the effect of salts on the consistency limits, compaction characteristics
and CBR value.The test results indicated that the liquid limit, plastic limit and
plasticity index decreased as the salts content increased. The addition of salts to the
soil increased the maximum dry density and reduced the optimum moisture
content. The addition of (2 %) salt to the soil causes increases the CBR value
between (8 to 28 %), while, in samples containing large amount of salt (4 and 8 %)
the increase was between (55 to 80%).The CBR value increased as the salt content
increases for different type of salt and the greatest value is found in the soil treated
with (4%) calcium chloride which was equal to (80 %).

The Relationship between Quality, Benchmarking, Reliability and Globalization In Industrial Engineering Activity

Saleh J. Fendi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 17, Pages 3065-3081

The study is perhaps the first to evaluate and establish the relationship between
Quality, benchmarking, Reliability and globalization in industrial engineering activity
in Emirates, where the study was conducted on international companies operating in
Dubai. The study seeks to understand the impact & effect of globalization on all the
various topic of industrial engineering that distinguish implementing quality
management program, reliability program and ISO certified and benchmarking
companies from none implemented benchmarking or quality, reliability, ISO program.
Also the study tries to evaluate the effect of these factors on the organizational
performance. The study found a number of significant relationships between the
reliability, and globalization in industrial engineering activity. It also found support for
the argument that high reliability, high quality and benchmarking practices will
improve industrial engineering and at the end result will improve overall organizational
performance in large, medium and small global businesses. Therefore the results
achieve the goals of industrial engineering to eliminate wastes of time, cost, materials,
energy, and other resources to increase profits.

Detoxification from Cotyledons of Apricot Seeds (Prunus armeniaca) and its Effect on the Properties of Raw Material and Extracted Oil

Firas Hashim Kamar AL-Hamadani

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 17, Pages 3082-3097

Detoxification from seed cotyledons of (Prunus armeniaca) was carried out by
soaking of seed cotyledons in water before and after extraction of oil, and the results
showed that seed represent (15) % of fruit weight, where hull and cotyledons weight
percentages were (62.19) % and (37.81) % of the mature seed respectively. The seed
cotyledons contained high level of crude oil (50.93) % and medium level of protein
(30.03) % and low level of carbohydrate (12.70) % also very low percentage of the ash
and fibers. On the other hand, the seed cotyledons contained high level of hydrocyanic
acid (0.27) %. The percentages of free fatty acids in the extractable crude oils before
and after removing of the toxicity were (0.81) % and (1.69) %, respectively. The
predominant fatty acids found in the crude oil were oleic, linoleic and palmatic acids
and the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids reached (94) % from total fatty acids. The
oil separated into eight components using thin layer chromatography, in which the triethyl
glycerol was the main component. The crude protein and ash content of powder
was reduced after removal of the toxicity by soaking in water. The percentages of
hydrocyanic acid before and after extracting oil between (2.30-3.37) % of the total
hydrocyanic acid in the powder. The effect of removing of the toxicity on mineral and
amino acid content of powder was relatively low especially after toxicity removing
before oil extract. However, the powder was found to have most of the essential amino

Studying the Effect of Glass - Fiber on Electrical Conductivity of Polyamide Composite Material

Nirvana A. Abed Alameer; Duha Abed Alameer; Haidar A. Hussein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 17, Pages 3098-3103

The electrical conductivity of glass fibre reinforced polyamide composite materials
was investigated for both weight fraction of glass fibre and frequency. This study is
focused on various types of glass fibres (S, E&C) and different weight fractions (10,
20, 30 &40) at frequencies (50, 500, 1000, 105 &106) Hz. The results exhibited
addition glass fibre fillers on matrix material were apparent good electrical
conductivity at high weight fraction comparing to their low percentage account of the
fillers created conductive path in the matrix material, it reached to (2.52, 2.1&2.21)*
10-10 S/cm for C-glass fiber, E-glass fiber and S-glass fiber; respectively at %40 weight
fraction. Also that electrical conductivity increased with increasing in frequency due to
charges movement in the dielectric material.

Laser Energy Effects on Optical Properties of Titanium Di- Oxide Prepared by Reactive Pulsed Laser Deposition

Mukkaram. A Fakhry; Farah A. Hattab; Esraa K. Hamed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 17, Pages 3104-3111

In this Work, Laser energy effects on optical and morphological properties of
TiO2 thin film has been carried out using Reactive Pulsed Laser as a Deposition
technique (RPLD). Q-switched Nd-YAG laser with (ë=1.06ìm, t =7nsec) and
different energies have been used to ablate pure Titanium target and deposited thin
films on glass substrates with constant substrate temperature of (343K). The optical
properties of the films prepared include Optical transmit ion and absorption
measurement, surface uniformity measurement and FTIR structure of these films.
The results films show that high transparency reached to about (85-98) % can be
achieved with TiO2 film which itself decreases sharply with the increasing of Laser
energy while the optical band gap is (3.7-3.9) eV at optimum Laser energy in all
results (800mJ), the FTIRstructure result at 800 mJ is the optimum and peaks
absorption of TiO2 are (408.91, 439.77, 524.64) cm-1.

Studying The Effect of Annealing Temperature and Annealing Time on Physical Properties of Graphite

Ali M .Mousa; Samer Bahjit

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 17, Pages 355-359

Graphite electrodes prepared by using carbon black as a filler material and
phenolic resin as a binder. The samples treated thermally within temperature rang
of 750-950)c for two and three hours . the variation in electrical resistivity and
structural properties as a function of the two variables were studied . electrical
resistivity decreased with increasing treatment temperature and time. Increasing
temperature resulting in graphitization degree increasing ,also the inter atomic
distance comparing to the standard values decreased with increasing treatment
temperature and time of treatment.

Wood's Coating by Polymeric Materials for Fire Resistance

Hazim Falah Hassan; balkees Mohmmed Dhaiaa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 17, Pages 360-368

The research involves using phenol – formaldehyde (Novolak) resin for making
Novolak compact with hexamethyltetraamine (HMTA ) in different ratio (15%) and
(20%) by weight , also this work involves preparing composite material by using
Novolak as a matrix , while flint was used as resin forcing material and making
composite compact with ratio of hardener (15%) and (20%) by weight. The research
was studied some of thermal properties such as thermal conductivity and thermal
Erosion resistance. The results show that the flint and increasing the (HMTA) leads to
increase thermal Erosion resistance and thermal conductivity . The results show that
the immersion in water leads to increase thermal conductivity .

Evaluation of Corrosion Résistance for Austenitic Stainless Steel Weldment in Different Solution

Entisar Mohson Hameed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 17, Pages 369-381

This paper is amid to study the effect of immersion solusion type on corrosion
resistance of austenitic stainless steel AISI 304L .
The process welding carried out on sheet metal by using four types of
electrodes (E308L,E309L,E312,E347) to obtain butt joint welding under constant
conditions polarity(DCSP) , voltage(30)v, current (120)A .
Welding speed (100) mm/min and two weld passes by using electrode of
diameter 3 mm.
Many specimens for corrosion test were manufactured in (20*20*8) mm from
welding joint stainless steel.
Corrosion test was implemented by using weight loss, specimens were
immersed in two solution (1% H2SO4) Sulphric Acid and (3.5%Nacl) sea water for
(1-30 ) days and corrosion rate was measured.
The results show that sulphric acid was more effected on stainless steel.