Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 30, Issue 18

Volume 30, Issue 18, October 2012, Page 382-3296

Experimental Study on Enhancement of Single-Basin Solar Still Using Dye Solutions

Kadhim H. S. AL-Zaedy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 18, Pages 3112-3125

An enhancement of single slope solar still using different dye solutions was
studied experimentally. Single-basin solar still can be used for water desalination.
Probably, they are considered the best solution for water production in remote, arid to
semi-arid, small communities, where fresh water is unavailable. However, the amount
of distilled water produced per unit area is somewhat low which makes the singlebasin
solar still unacceptable in some instances. The purpose of this work is to study
the effect of using different dye solutions in a solar still, and thus enhance the
productivity of water. Experimental results show that the productivity of distilled water
was enhanced for some materials. Using Methyline Blue solution increased the daily
water productivity by 18%. While using Methyle Orange solution increased by 28 %.
Also the better efficiency of 74.3 % has taken when using Methyle Orange solution
compared with efficiency of 62.53 % when Methylene Blue solution was used while
the better efficiency is 58.89 % when only water used in still. Therefore it is
concluded the productivity of water still per unit area is increased when using dye
solutions as Methylene Blue solution and Methyle Orange solution.

SWOT Analysis for Current Situation in Najaf Center

Abdul Razzak Ziboon; Imzahim Abdul Kareem Alwan; Hadeel J. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 18, Pages 3126-3140

This paper presents an analysis situation of Najaf Center. It uses to determine
all internal resources, capabilities and obstacles (strengths and weakness), and
external factors (opportunities and threats). A powerful tool for doing such analysis
is Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT). It helps revealing
obstacles, capabilities, problems and aspects in the city. It achieves by
(Questionnaire) that give for sample people. It found that the current situation for
Najaf Center in ST. It means that the city have Strengths points and also Threats

Improving Collapsibility and Compressibility of Gypseous Sandy Soil Using Bentonite and Kaolinite

Hussein H. Karim; T. Schanz; Maha H. Nasif

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 18, Pages 3141-3153

The sandy soil which covers the surface layer for the investigated area consists of
high gypsum content (50%). The soil was found to be a “collapsible” soil. Thus
bentonite and kaolinite have been used as an improving agents for such soil. The
essential idea of this study represents an investigation of the possibility of using
these materials as additives with different percents (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) to
enhance these soils. A testing program was conducted on 9 models of untreated and
treated gypseous soil specimens to study the behavior of such mixes as well as their
effects on physical properties, collapsibility and compressibility characteristics. It
was concluded that a significant reduction in collapsibility reaching 80 to 82 % for
the 10 percent mixed kaolinite and bentonite respectively. Lowest compression
index (Cc) and recompression index (Cr) have been obtained using the same
percentages of mixed additives. Generally, best improving results have been
obtained using bentonite additive (specially the ratio 10%) for its finer grains than
those of kaolinite.

Optimum Effect of Factors Influencing on Sacrificial Cathodic Protection for Steel Wall

Mohammad H. Hafiz; Wissam K. Hamdan; Saad E. Kaskah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 18, Pages 3154-3163

The Box-Behnken Design (BBD) is used to model the sacrificial Cathodic
Protection System (SCPS) to find the factors effectiveness behaviour. For protection
potential assessment the BBD receives (resistivity of environment, sacrificial anode
alloy, distance between anode and cathode and surface area for the structure to be
protected) as input and gives the protection potential as output. By applying BBD
with their analysis tools we get many results. The important results which are the
factors individual effectiveness on the sacrificial cathodic protection (SCP) process
are the resistivity which has the greatest effect on the potential protection (rank=1)
followed by sacrificial anode alloy type (rank=2), surface area for structure protected
required (rank=3) and distance between anode and cathode (rank=4). The interaction
of sacrificial anode alloy and cathode area (χ2χ4) has significant effect on CP process
with the limits which are used in this work while the other factors interaction (χ1χ2,
χ1χ3, χ1χ4,χ2χ3, χ3χ4) has insignificant effect on the limits which used in this work.

Numerical and Experimental Study of Isotherm Field Inside a Desktop P.C.

Adel Hannon Ayaal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 18, Pages 3164-3174

In this paper the heat transfer analysis from a heat generation components (central
processing unit CPU and power supply) in a P.C. desktop was studied. Experimental
and three – dimensional numerical study of laminar steady flow with mixed
convection has been analyzed(for Ra=8.3*10 5 ). The Computational Fluid Dynamics
(CFD) techniques are employed in numerical solution to calculate the temperature
distribution inside the computer, by solving continuity, momentum and energy
equations. This technique is based on structured grid (staggered grid) and finite
volume formulation to discretize the governing equations (reduced to algebraic
equations). The hybrid scheme and SIMPLE algorithm have been carried out to get
the final solution. Five cases are studies for different heat source and inlet air flow
locations. The temperature distribution and average temperature inside the computer
are calculated to reach the optimum thermal design of the five cases. The numerical
results obtained are found in a satisfactory agreement with the experimental results.
Further the results confirmed that the most important parameter affecting the thermal
behaviors is the position of heat-generation source and inlet air flow. The numerical
solution shows that the case (4) is the optimum thermal design by comparison with
other cases.

Design and Simulation of a Second-Order Universal Switched- Capacitor Filter as a 10-Pin Dual-In-Line Package Integrated Circuit

Abdul Kareem K. A. Raheem; Salam Waley Shneen; Manal Hadi Jaber; Ahmed H. Reja

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 18, Pages 3175-3191

This paper explains the design of a Universal (Low, High, Band and Notch)
Second-Order Filter using switched capacitor (SC) technique. The design depends
on the crystal oscillator circuit that generates two non-overlapping clocks by
making full use of the two independent comparators of the LM741. The oscillator
circuit is used to drive a switched-capacitor integrator which is used in the design
of the universal second order filter. The circuit is performed as a single IC
(Integrated circuit) which can be used for different standard applications. The
proposed IC design differs than other IC's such as MF10 by adding the notch filter
to this design for used in wide band of applications. The design is simulated using
MultiSim 9 program.

Vibration Analysis of Laminated Composites Using Experimental and Genetic Algorithms Optimization Technique

Nabil Hassan Hadi; Kayser Aziz Ameen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 18, Pages 3192-3218

In this paper, damage detection for different types of defects (delamination, crack
and hole) in the composite laminate plate and cylindrical shell be used to characterize
the vibration behavior experimentally which used two types of load (plus and sine
load) to find the frequency response. To this end, some plates and cylindrical shells
are made using hand-lay-up process. Glass fiber is used as a reinforcement in the
form of bidirectional fabric and general purpose polyester resin as matrix for the
composite material of plates and cylindrical shells. From the results, the damage
detection by using the Genetic algorithms is investigated. Also, these experiments are
used to validate the results of free vibration obtained from the finite elements

Numerical Solution of Calculus of Variations by using the Second Chebyshev Wavelets

Suha Najeeb Shihab; Asmaa Abdalelah Abdalrehman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 18, Pages 3219-3229

In this paper the second Chebyshev wavelets expansions with the operational
matrix is applied for solving calculus of variational problems , with the aid of
spectral method to reduce the variational problems in to a solution set of algebraic
equations . Finally, numerical examples are present to show the validity and
efficiency of the technique

Accuracy Assessment of LIDAR Data Using Longitudinal Profile of a Road

Abbas Z. Khalfa; Imzahim Abdul Kareem Alwan; Adnan R. Mechman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 18, Pages 3230-3240

LiDAR data gives accurate elevation therefore; we can obtain 3D
modelling from LiDAR data which can be used for many applications such as civil
engineering and surveying engineering, etc.
For accuracy assessment of LiDAR elevation data, a longitudinal profile are done
from field survey using laser level instrument type (Leica Sprinter 100) of a road
having about (350m) length, adjacent to the Building and Construction
Engineering Department, which locates inside study area, then compares it with
longitudinal profile, which drowns from LiDAR elevation data using (ArcGIS9.3)
program. According to the results analysis it can be stated that the elevations from
the LiDAR data within accuracy of (3-10) cm can be obtained.

New Moodle Module for Charging Course Materials Download Process Using Prepaid Card Technique

Jalal B. Raouf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 18, Pages 3241-3252

This work describes a new Moodle module, CFdownload, developed to set up
e-commerce system which allows charging the process of downloading files using
Prepaid Card Technique. This new module adds two features to Moodle, the first is
allowing the student to pay per file of course material download and not to pay to
enroll in the entire course as the existing Moodle system do, While the second
allows the student to pay using prepaid card technique (which is similar to the Cell
Phone prepaid card method) and not by credit cards (which are rarely used in the
developing counties) as the existing Moodle system do.

Aerodynamic Characteristics Improving of S809 Airfoil in Wind Turbine with Microtab

Ressan Faris Al-Maliky

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 18, Pages 3253-3267

In present work numerical two dimensions, steady, incompressible,
turbulent flow past S809 wind turbine airfoil with microtab at 95% of chord length
of leading edge in lower surface is analyzed by Fluent (6.2) program for model
consists of S809 airfoil without and with microtab at 95% of chord line have height
1.1% and other 2% of chord length undergo to turbulent flow k-. model, the flow
has Reynolds number is 106. The results are represented by velocity contour and
vector. Aerodynamic coefficients are drawn in graph. The results are showed an
increase lift and drag coefficient in existence microtab locate 95% of chord at it's
height 1.1% and 2% of chord to range of attack angle (0, 5, 10, 15, 20) degrees.
The results compare with experimental data of standard airfoil and existence 1.1%
chord length microtab and it is approximately good. Values of lift & drag
coefficient are increased for the existence of 1.1% chord length microtab while in
case the existence of microtab 2% chord length lift coefficient increased which it's
max. increment by 46% while, drag coefficient decreased it's min. increment to be
26% but not full range of attack angle.

Performance Evaluation of Electrocoagulation Technique for Removing Groundwater Hardness of Tikrit University

Maha I Alali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 18, Pages 3268-3279

The performance of Electrocoagulation (EC) process for removal of hardness in
groundwater(GW) of Tikrit University in Salahaddin province, north of Baghdad in
Iraq has been studied using aluminum (Al)electrodes with both bipolar and
monopolar configurations. The effect of initial pH, applied voltage(U), electrolysis
time(t), and electrodes configurations on the performance of EC has been
investigated. It was found that the best initial pHvalue to remove hardness(HD)was
9.5. The results indicated that increasing U and t had a positive effect on the
hardness removal efficiency(%Ehardness ) to reach 90.4%andit was influenced by the
electrodes configuration in which %Ehardness was 83.5% in bipolar connection
compared with 66.2%in monopolar connection.Also The electrical energy
consumption%Ehardness and the experimentally and theoreticallyelectrodes
consumption (Wexp ) and (Wtheo )were calculated.It was absorbed,as determined, that
there is no significant difference between pseudo-first and second-order kinetic
model except at 40 volt that the pseudo second-order kinetic model fits better than
the first-order kinetic model with the data of the electrocoagulation process. Finally
the cost at themost favorable conditions for EC process was calculatedresulting that
the electrocoagulation process is successfully applied to remove the hardness rate
from groundwater with high performance.

Study on Wind Loads Coefficients and Flow Field Characteristics Around the Parabolic Trough With Stiffeners

Mauwafak Ali.Tawfik; Bahaa.Ibrahim.Kazem; Haider.Hussein.Hamad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 18, Pages 3280-3296

In the current study, the numerical analysis of the flow field characteristics around
the parabolic trough with stiffener of solar polar concentrating power system is
performed. The presence of stiffener changes the velocity and pressure distribution
around the trough and then the wind loads also changed. Wind loads (drag, lift and
moment) coefficients for different wind speeds and angles of attack are simulated.
Pressure distribution, velocity distribution and turbulent kinetic energy for different
wind speeds and angles of attack are also simulated. To verify the numerical
simulation, comparisons with experimental results are performed. Reproducing of
experimental boundary condition is carried out in numerical simulations. The
numerical simulations are performed by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
package fluent 12.1. The results of this simulation show that the flow field
characteristics are strongly related to angles of attack and trough orientation. Also the
most important result of this study is that the presence of stiffener makes the trough a
more bluff body than the trough without stiffener. This development of trough
configuration will excite more vortexes shedding around the edges of trough

Effect of Zinc Addition on the Density and Wear Rate of Al-12Si Compacts

Mahde Mter Hanoon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 18, Pages 382-391

This research aimed to prepareAl-12Si alloys by powder metallurgy method because of its
commercial and technological importance. Aluminum and Silicon powders were used, then
mixed and blended together and classified into four parts, carbon powder was added to the
three parts (5,10 and 15% wt) and the last remain as it is. These powders were mixed to
ensure a good distribution of Zinc powder, and then they compacted in is ostatic cold pressure
at 10 ton, the compact samples were sintered in furnace under argon gas at 530°C for one
hour, These samples were then prepared (grinded, polished and etched) for them icrostructure
examination, density, porosity, microhardness, X-ray diffraction and wear resistance. The
results showed anincrease in the density and the hardness with addition ratio.

Use of Randomized Complete Block Design to Demonstrate the Impact of Types of Fertilizer on the amount of Rice Production

Asmaa Nuaman Abd Al jabbar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 18, Pages 392-404

The interest in agriculture since ancient time is one of the priorities of human being
because of their relationship and direct contact in his life in terms of providing food
for himself and his animals, which was relied upon to produce the daily foodstuff in
addition to being used for his travels is vital, so the development of this interest
depending on the years and states tried hardly to reach the highest agricultural
production to cover the growing of population and provide food for them and
building a strong economy which in turn leads to the creation of investment in the
areas of all agricultural (tangles form the user - the product), which in turn moves the
economy, which prevents the country such as Iraq from a country a yield economy
depends entirely on the oil only to country multi-sector (different), especially in the
long term in mapping the state in economic development, development and access as
an inevitable result of sustainable development with a basis of the individual and the
community all that is not only through scientific studies and accurate drawing to the
road-related agricultural production to determine the causes of failures and try to
resolve the dilemmas facing this important production and achieve food security as
this was our search for simple rice crop and the effects of fertilizer on the production
of a society based on the course of the Iraqi reality.