Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 30, Issue 19

Volume 30, Issue 19, November 2012, Page 405-3473

Study the Job Shop Scheduling By Using Modified Heuristic Rule

Ali F.Mwazie AL-hajamie; Sawsan S. AI-zubaidi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 19, Pages 3280-3300

The process of scheduling is considered as one of the more important production
planning processes which faces the management of companies, because of the pressure
of competition processes. The management of companies and firms take automation of
this process to get speed and precisions to take suitable decisions. Various kinds of
scheduling problems have received a lot of attention from researchers in a number of
fields. So far research has primarily been focused on finding a good solution with
respect to makespan and total completion time. Heuristic rules have strong advantages
in that these are easy to understand, easy to apply and require relatively little computer
time. For that the researcher has designed a system aided by computer for operations
scheduling on machines in job shop production system based on new heuristic rules to
help scheduler in solving problem in this field. This system is named "Computer
Aided-Job Shop Scheduling" (CA-JSS). It is construction based on two suggested rules
those are called "Modified Least Work Remaining" and "Modified Most Work
Remaining". We wiII apply it particularly on group of cases. We have been divided
these cases into two stages. In the first stage ten examples taken from scientific
references are used as theoretical cases, in second stage we take practical case from
State Company for Electrical Industry (SCEI). The CA-JSS proved its efficiency and
ability in scheduling the operations. The results appear for this system in some cases
best than (Win QSB) software.

T-Semi α-Operator

Intidhar Z. Mushtt

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 19, Pages 3301-3307

In this paper we have defined the T-operator ,T-semia -operator and
we studied the relation among them, and we define T-semia -open, Tsemi
a -regular, and monotone operator, also we defined (T,L) semia -
conations ,(T,L) strongly semia -continues ,(T,L)semia-homeomorphism
,(T,L) strongly semia -homeomorphism and we study the relation among
them .

Improvement of The Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Clay Bricks by Using Local Materials in Iraq

Haqi Ismael Qatta

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 19, Pages 3308-3327

This research studies the effect of adding industrial wastes materials with
different percentages on the thermal and mechanical properties of clay
bricks . Different types of admixtures were used in this work, including
rubber cuttings, wood saw dust and barley reeds ash with ( 5%,10% 15%
,20% ) by weight of each one respectively. Thermal conductivity, specific heat
capacity, compressive strength, flexural tensile strength, porosity and variation
of density have been examined for each samples at all percent of addition
and comparing with the reference clay bricks samples . Test results show that
the admixtures effect on the properties of clay bricks, when used barley reeds
ash which the best additives because take good properties, the density of clay
bricks is reduced 33%,thermal conductivity reduced 46% and the compressive
strength increased 20% comparing with the standard bricks. The experimental
work carried in the industrial factory of clay bricks in the Nahrawon city in

A Neural Network Model to Predict Ultimate Strength of Rectangular Concrete Filled Steel Tube Beam – Columns

Ahmed Sagban Saadoon; Kadhim Zuboon Nasser; Ihsan Qasim Mohamed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 19, Pages 3328-3340

In this study, a model for predicting the ultimate strength of rectangular
concrete filled steel tube (RCFST) beam-columns under eccentric axial loads has
been developed using artificial neural networks (ANN). The available experimental
results for (111) specimens obtained from open literature were used to build the
proposed model. The predicted strengths obtained from the proposed ANN model
were compared with the experimental values and with unfactored design strengths
predicted using the design procedure specified in the AISC and Eurocode 4 for
RCFST beam-columns. Results showed that the predicted values by the proposed
ANN model were very close to the experimental values and were more accurate
than the AISC and Eurocode 4 values. As a result, ANN provided an efficient
alternative method in predicting the ultimate strength of RCFST beam-columns.

Deformation Analysis of Road Embankment Foundation Soil Improved with Fiber Glass

Zainab Ahmed Alkaisi; Zena Hadi Alqaissi; Najwa Wasif Jassim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 19, Pages 3341-3361

The main objective of this research is to evaluate the improvement of embankment
soil foundation soil using the fiber glass treatment. To accomplish the main objective,
laboratory tests, includes direct shear test and unconfined compression test are made to
evaluate the potential of acting the fiber glass as cementing agent in terms of strength
parameters (cohesion and angle of internal friction). The ANSYS program of version
(12.1) was employed for analyzing embankment foundation system. The results
showed that increasing the percent of fiber glass from (1 to 3%) reduce the vertical and
horizontal displacement about (75%) at 3%, and reduced the horizontal and vertical
strain about (75%, 85%) respectively at the same fiber glass content (3%). This means,
that the general role of adding the fiber glass works as a tender to soil mixture not as
fiber reinforcement. So it can be concluded that the fiber glass act as cementing agent
as shown in the obtained experimental results for strength parameters (cohesion and
angle of internal friction ) from the direct shear and the unconfined compression test
that carried out in this works.

Preparing of Barium Titanate Using Chemical Method and Studying of Its Structural Properties

Mukhlis M. Ismail; Abdulkarim Z. Khalf; Rawa A. Helal; Oday N. Salman; Thawra F. Ramadan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 19, Pages 3362-3370

Single crystalline BaTiO3 (BT) was prepared using TiCl4, BaCl2 and oxalic
acid. The structure of the prepared nanocrystalline BT powders were a tetragonal
perovskite according to XRD and HRTEM analysis. Annealing powder to 750oC
show that pure BT phase was formed according to XRD, TG, and FTIR
spectroscopy. The TEM images of the prepared powder reveal spherical
morphology of BT, while a finger twin, dendritic and embryo shape are observed
of BT powder calcined at 230, 530, and 750oC respectively. SAED and HRTEM
images showed a high crystalline BT powder and a single crystalline BT

Digital Single Phase Power Factor Optimizer Based on FPGA

Jabber H.Majeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 19, Pages 3371-3383

In this paper, an FPGA (Field-programmable gate array) model of digital single
phase power factor optimizer has been built. The proposed optimizer is based on
measuring the phase shift time between voltage and current waveforms. Therefore,
it is required to reduce this time to make the voltage and current waves in phase as
possible. Thus, the power factor will be in maximum value (closed to unity). The
process of improving the power factor is carried out by connecting a set of
capacitors in parallel with the load. The proposed power factor optimizer has been
built using VHDL (Very high speed integrated circuit Hardware Description
Language), simulated using Xilinx ISE 9.2i package and implemented using
Spartan-3A XC3S700A FPGA kit. Implementation and Simulation behavioral
model results show that the proposed optimizer satisfies the specified operational
requirements and reflected impressive results when applied to different loads.

The Effect of Hold Time on the Spring Back Phenomenon In A V- Dies Bending Process

Aseel Hamad Abed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 19, Pages 3384-3393

Bending process is the one important process in the sheet metal forming in
many industries, the main problem of bending process is the spring back
phenomenon which is happens after removing the punch. This research involves
theoretical and experimental study of the effect of holding time on spring back
value of sheet material in V-bending die with 900, with different rolling direction
and different holding time (0,10,20,30) min. (Al –Si) alloy having the thickness of
(2 mm) were employed as the work pieces material for all experiments. The results
revealed that as the hold time increases, the spring back decrease and spring back
ratio increases.

Influence of Inverter Switching Conditions on PMBLDC Motor Performance

Jamal Abdul-Kareem Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 19, Pages 3394-3409

Permanent Magnet Brushless DC (PMBLDC) motors are generally powered by
a conventional three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) or current source inverter
(CSI) which is controlled using rotor position. By varying the commutation
(switching) angles of the transistors in the inverter circuit, the performance of these
motors could be greatly varied. This can studied in this paper using the dynamic
motor model, which was performed using Matlab/Simulink software package. A
study on the influence of switching angles on motor performance shows that the
motor operates better when advancing the switching angle, and there is certain
angle at which the motor operates with the highest efficiency. An improvement of
the different operating characteristics of PMBLDC motor has been accomplished
by adjusting the chosen set of the switching angles and using appropriate
conduction angles.

Study on the Effect of Annealing on Structural and SensingProperties of CdO Thin Films for (CO2 ,H2S) Gases

Hayder Mohammed Ajeel; Shatha Shammon Batros; Ashwaq Abdul Hussin Jabor; Karamh Abd Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 19, Pages 3410-3420

Cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films have been deposited by Successive Ionic
Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method by using cadmium acetate at
concentration 0.03 M and based solution from ammonium hydroxide on glass
substrate. The structural and sensing properties of the as -deposited and annealed
films are studied in details. The XRD and AFM analysis for its structural
characteristic has been preformed .The average grain size of deposited film are
increased after annealing . The sensing properties also are calculated and it is
found that the sensitivity are increasing after annealing, and for CO2 gas are
better than the sensitivity for H2S gas . The I-V properties are calculated for the
films before and after annealing for the two gases.

SWOT Analysis Map for Current Situation of Two Mahala in Najaf Center

Abdul Razzak Ziboon; Imzahim Abdul Kareem Alwan; Hadeel J. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 19, Pages 3421-3434

This paper presents an analysis situation two Mahala in Najaf Center. It uses to
determine all internal resources, capabilities and obstacles (strengths and
weakness), and external factors (opportunities and threats). A powerful tool for
doing such analysis is Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT).
It helps revealing obstacles, capabilities, problems and aspects in the city. It
achieves by Questionnaire that gives for sample people. GIS programs has been
used to produce map of current situation two Mahala for both Educational and
Health Centers services in Najaf Center.

Natural Convection Heat Transfer in Enclosure with Uniformly Heated Inner Elliptic Cylinder and Outer square Cylinder

Akeel Abdullah Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 19, Pages 3435-3456

Experimental and numerical simulation study for natural convection heat
transfer formed by uniformly heated inclined elliptical cylinder concentrically
located in an enclosed square cylinder subjected to the ambient have been
investigated. Experiments have been carried out for Rayliegh number ranges from
0.9×106 to 3.3×106. The enclosure angles of inclination are f =0o (horizontal), 45o
(inclined), and 90o (vertical), and for axis ratio of elliptic cylinder
(minor/major=b/c) of 1:2, while the dimensions of outer square cylinder was
0.5×0.5×2 m. A numerical simulation was conducted by using commercial
Fluent CFD code to investigate the steady laminar natural convective heat
transfer for air between a heated elliptic cylinder and its square enclosure. It
covered a range of hydraulic radius ratios (HRR) of 1.97, 2.62, and 3.93 and
for orientation angles j = 0o (the major axis is vertical), 30o, 45o. Two
values of Rayligh number were taken: 0.9×106 and 3.3×106. The experimental
results showed that the heat transfer process improves as Rayliegh number
increases and is better in f =0o than other angles of inclination at the same
heat input. Theoretical results showed that the HRR, Rayligh number, and
angle of orientation have significant effect on the physical behavior of
stremlines and isotherms inside the equivalent annular gap.

Fabrication of Te Micro-Tubes and TeO2 Micro-Wires From Powders by Cold Spray

Mohammed S. Hamza; Alaa A. Abdul alhameed; Sinan salman Hamdi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 19, Pages 3457-3466

A one-dimensional micro-structured tellurium (Te) microtube and tellurium
dioxide (TeO2) microwire were successfully prepared by cold spray process in
large scale by a facile approach of sprayed (Te), (TeO2) dry powder in an inert
atmosphere using helium gas onto glass substrate. Tellurium and Tellurium dioxide
were sprayed by heating carrier gas at (200,300,400 and 500 °C) and 2 MPa
pressure on the glass substrate (100°C). Heat treatment was done under vacuum
(0.0133mbar) for (30 min) at (200°C) for Te and (400°C) for TeO2.The prepared
microtubes and microwire was examined by XRD, AFM and SEM. The result
showed that the obtained microtubes and microwire were highly pure.

Testing the Applicability of Submerged Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) Technology for Municipal Wastewater Treatment in Iraq

Talib R. Abbas; Mohammed A. Abdul-Majeed; Inmar N.Ghazi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 19, Pages 3467-3473

Operation of a one module hollow fiber submerged type MBR system was
tested in this work. The system was operated at fixed permeate flowrate of 12 l/hr.
The hydraulic retention time of the aeration tank was about 8.3 hr. The mixed
liquor suspended solid (MLSS) concentration was maintained in the range 5000-
5500 mg/l. The results show the workability of this system under Iraqi conditions
without any difficulties. About 85% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal
was achieved. The value of turbidity is well below 0.61 NTU throughout the
operation time.

The Effect of Heat Treatment on Phase Formation of Ti-Al-C thin films

Ahmed Mohamed Hasan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 19, Pages 405-419

A variety of different chemical compositions Titanium-Aluminum-Carbon thin
films were achieved by combinatorial magnetron sputtering. The as-deposited
ternary diagram can be divided into two regions. The first region consists of
titanium carbide structure with substitutional Aluminum atoms at the Carbon rich
side of the diagram. The second region consists of the amorphous phase at the rest
of the appearing diagram. At 500°C the amorphous phase transforms to titanium
carbide structure with substitutional Aluminum atoms and at 600 and 700°C many
ternary phases have been shown by X-ray diffraction at different regions while the
Carbon rich side sustains the titanium carbide structure with substitutional
Aluminum atoms. This work could be considered as a leading study in the way to
produce the ternary ceramics at temperatures below the conventional ranges in
powder metallurgy as it had been proved earlier by us.