Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 31, Issue 2

Volume 31, Issue 2, January 2013, Page 32-385

The Effect of Rubber filled with Carbon Black in Design of Truck Tiressidewall Ricipe

Hussain J.M. Al-Alkawi; Dhafir S. Al-Fattal; Nabel K. Abd-Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 197-216

One of the main requirements of the truck tire sidewall are flexing resistance, tensile strength and tear resistance, as well as resistance to weather conditions experienced by tires during use, which include exposure to sunlight and ultraviolet radiation. Therefore, the requirements and changing circumstances led to develop the design parts of tires, and sidewall is more susceptible to these conditions, where it will be studying the properties of truck tire sidewall produced by Al- Dewaniya Tires Factory- Iraq, according to the specifications designed by Italian Perilli Co. since about 20 years ago, which prompted to development the mechanical and physical properties of those components.
The present work aim to design stocks with high specifications, through the study of the impact of the substantial material (rubber) in truck tire sidewall recipe. Natural rubber, Standard Vietnam Rubber (SVR5) and synthetic rubber, Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber(SBR1502),also the introduction of a new type of synthetic rubber is Poly Butadiene (BRcis), filled with carbon black (N550) as a reinforcement agent with fixed loading percentage (51pphr),as well as other components such as accelerators, anti-oxidants, anti-ozonants and vulcanizing agent. Through laboratory testing found that stocks containing (NR/SBR/BRcis) blending with (40/60/-), (40/50/10) and (40/40/20) as a percentage loading has given good results in many tests including tensile, tear, compression, hardness and fatigue crack growth resistance.

Effect of Reinforced System by Palm Fibers on the Mechanical and Insulation (Thermal and Acoustic) Properties for Polymer Composite Materials

Sihama E.Salih; Hanaa A. Al-Kaisy; Sarmad.I.Ibrahim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 217-234

The research aims to prepare composite materials of unsaturated polyester resin reinforced by palm fiber extracted from different locations (Trunk, Petiole (bases leaflet date palm tree), Rachis and Panicle) of the palm tree in Iraq. The study included the effect of fiber length and their location within the plant as well as the percentage of the volume fraction (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%) on the mechanical properties, thermal and acoustic insulation for all the samples prepared.
The results showed that mechanical as well as the thermal and acoustic insulation properties increase with increased the volume fraction for all kinds of the date palm fibers, whereas decrease with increased fiber length also those properties depend on the natural of the date palm fibers as the following sequence (samples reinforced by petiole fibers > samples reinforced by trunk fibers > samples reinforced by rachis fibers > samples reinforced by panicle fibers).

Effect of Exit Pressure of Steam Turbine Last Stage Cascade Blade on Two Phases of Saturated Vapor and Water Droplet

Assim H. Yousif; Amer M. Al-Dabbagh; Reyadh Ch. Mahawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 235-244

Experimental investigation was carried out in low pressure steam turbine cascade to determine the effect of exit pressure on two phases of saturated vapor and fine water droplet. Numerical investigation was also presented by assuming the flow is two dimensional, compressible, turbulent, viscous, with the aid of the classical nucleation model applied for the mass transfer in the transonic conditions to predict the two phases behavior in the cascade. Comparison between experimental and theoretical results for the cascade flow was found to be fairly acceptable. Experimentally it was found that the most important influence of rapid condensation on the pressure distribution is on the suction surface. Also when the outlet is termed supersonic the heat release causes a pressure rise in the zone of rapid condensation, therefore the term "condensation shock" for this feature is misleading. In the numerical approach when the flow is regard subsonic the rapid condensation zone occurs downstream the throat and not accompanied by a pressure rise, while in the experimental test for the same case there is no sign of this condensation.

Study the Effect of Erosion-Corrosion of Al-Mg-Si Alloy in Marine Environment

Nawale E. Abdal-Latefe; Mohammed Abdulateef Ahmed; Sondus Mohamed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 245-264

Erosion–corrosion of Al-Mg-Si aluminum alloy in NaCl–water solutions were studied by weight-loss measurements through an impingement jet system. The effect of sand concentration and fluid impingement angle, were investigated. The sand used is Iraqi silica sand from Al-ardhimah .
The result showed that, increasing erosion time, will increase the erosion rate of alloy samples for all sand concentration and impact angels. When the sand concentration is increased the erosion-corrosion rate of alloy samples will increase, and the maximum value of erosion –corrosion rates occur when the impact angle is about( 45◦).The surface morphologies of eroded surface after abrasive water-jetting, show that erosion rather than corrosion, controls the total Erosion-Corrosion rate of Al-Mg-Si alloy in sand-containing NaCl–water solutions.

Properties of High Strength Structural Lightweight Mortar Using Perlite as Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate

Rafal Naheth Wadie

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 265-276

In this research high strength structural lightweight mortar with compressive strength in the range of 33.5-52.5 MPa and unit weight in the range of 1625-2105 kg/m3 is produced using perlite as fine aggregate. The current investigation deals with using perlite fine aggregate as replacement of silica sand with different rates. These rates are taken as percentage rates from the sand volume with values 15, 30, 45, 60 & 75%. Compressive strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity and unit weight are conducted. The relation between these properties and the percentage of replacing of silica sand with perlite is obtained. The results show that using perlite as fine aggregate and as a replacement of silica sand reduces the unit weight of mortar with linear rate and at the same time producing high strength mortar, which can be used as structural lightweight mortar compared with normal weight mortar.

Speed Control For Separately Excited DC Motor Drive (SEDM) Based on Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Logic Controller

Alia J. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 277-295

This paper presents an application of Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) in the separately excited Direct Current (DC) motor drive (SEDM) system; the controller designed according to Fuzzy Logic rules. Such that the system is fundamentally robust. These rules have capability learning, can learn and tune rapidly, even if the motor parameters are varied. The most commonly used method for the speed control of dc motor is Proportional- Integral- Derivative (PID) controller. Simulation results demonstrate that, the control algorithms Neuro-Fuzzy logic and PID, the dynamic characteristics of the SEDM (speed, torque, as well as currents) are easily observed and analyzed by the developed model. In comparison between the Neuro-fuzzy logic controller and PID controller, the FLC controller obtains better dynamic behavior and superior performance of the DC motor as well as perfect speed tracking with no overshoot, and the proposed controller provides high performance dynamic characteristics and is robust with regard to change of motor speed and external load disturbance. This paper also discusses and compares the speed control systems of SEDM using PID- controller conventional and Fuzzy Logic-controller. The entire system has been modeled using MATLAB 10a/SIMULINK toolbox.

Using GIS Techniques to Study Morphometric Characteristics for Wadi Al-MLUSI/Western IRAQ

Zeyad Jameel Al-Saedi; Yousif Samir Mohmad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 296-306

Numerous quantitative relationships have been formulated to describe the nature of surface-drainage networks. These relationships have been used in various studies of geomorphology and surface-water hydrology, such as flood characteristics, sediment yield, and evolution of basin morphology.
The study area lies in west of Iraq, in Al-Anbar province. With an area of 2754.33 Km². And the geographic coordinates of the study area is (40°, 27` E- 32°, 47` N). (44°, 34` E - 33°, 36` N). DEM image were used with (90 m) resolution and the drawing tools in ARC GIS program to delineate the total basin of the study area and watersheds. We conclude that there were 31 watersheds in the study area and that group of parameters were calculated such as (Basin Area, Basin Length, Basin Diameter, Stream order Length, Differences between max and min Altitude, Elongation, Circularity, Stream Density, Basin Form, Relief). The study shows that the stream density was (8.481289828) Km/Km2 which mean that the study area has a good discharge of water and sediments, the elongation in the study area is (0.511549442) and that mean the study area is closer to a rectangular shape, and the relief in the study area is (3.2816911) m/Km and it reflects that the study area had poor effects of erosion and weathering.

A Study of the Effect of Iraqi Bentonite on Some Properties of Polymeric Blend

May A. Muslim; Najat J.Saleh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 307-324

In this research The specimens of composite materials were prepared from matrix (polypropylene and polymethylmethacrylate)(80 /20) wt% in different weight fractions(3,6,9,12 &15)wt% and different particle sizes(45,60,70&110)µm of Bentonite.
The results have shown that after the reinforcement with different weight fraction of Bentonite powder most mechanical properties such as hardness and modulus of Elasticity increase. Elongation decreases with an increase in weight fraction of (3, 6, 9, 12, 15) wt% and decrease with particle size decrease (45, 60, 70, 110) µm.
Also the results have shown that the thermal stability of PP/PMMA increases with addition of Bentonite and the thermal stability of small particle size (45 µm) was higher than larger particle size (110 µm).
PP/PMMA/BN [(80/20/15) > (80/20/12) > (80/20/9) > (80/20/6) > 80/20/3)].
The results have shown the diffusion coefficient (D) was increased with temperatures (30, 45, 60) C° and decreased with filler content (3, 6, 9, 12, 15) wt% increase.
The activation energy (E) increase with filler content (BN) increase and (E) increases with particle size of BN filler decrease.
Also the results have shown the addition of BN particles of PP/PMMA blend increases the discontinuity and restricts the growth of crystal therefore crystalline peak intensity is reduced in filler blend composite. Addition of large particle size of BN adversely affects the crystallization of PP.

Linear Programming for Job Evaluation

Haitham Saleem Dawood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 325-329

Administration deals with the issue of calculating the value of the work because of its importance in the selection of employees.
There are two different methods the (QUANTITATIVE) technique and (QUALITATIVE) technique.
In this research we have addressed ourselves to one of the quantitalive method, in order to Calculate the (RELATIVE FACTORS IMPORTANCE) to the value of work, by using linear programming method ,to build a linear model characterized by realistic values of results obtained but not including the value of the wage paid (PERFORMANCE EVALUATION) in any relation of the model proposed.
The important results derived from the research is the possibility of assessing the efficiency of performance in a more equitable and less time and efforts of the adoption of this approach of research, using custom software calculator to solve this kind of problems.

Strengthening of Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams by Cfrp Laminates

Sabih Z. Al-Sarraf; Hisham Al-Hassani; Ali S. Al-Jebouri

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 330-344

Experimental investigations of the behavior of reinforced concrete three-span continuous beams with 1200 mm length for each span, with cross-section 120 mm width and 180 mm depth strengthened by CFRP in flexure case of beams have been presented. The experimental program consisted of nine RC beams, which were strengthened at some locations with CFRP laminates and carefully designed to fail in flexure. The results show that the use of external CFRP laminate connected to the beams could enhance the ultimate flexural load capacity up to 102.88%.

Nonlinear Analysis of Ferrocement Flexural Beams

Ihsan A.S. Al-Shaarbaf; Nisreen S. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 345-364

This paper aims to study the behavior and strength of ferrocement beams under flexural loading. Seven specimens (four simply supported rectangular beams and three simply supported T-beams) are tested under flexural load. An analytical method is proposed to analyze the ferrocement beams. A three-dimensional finite element computer program is developed in this paper to study the nonlinear behavior of ferrocement beams. The quadratic 20-node brick elements are used to model the mortar. The wire mesh layers are considered as smeared layers embedded within the brick element. The skeletal bars are modeled as axial members embedded within the brick element. Material nonlinearity due to the response of mortar in compression, crushing, cracking in tension, tension stiffening and shear retention effect of cracked mortar and yielding of wire mesh and skeletal bar are considered. Good agreement between the experimental work results, the analytical and the finite element results are achieved.

Experimental Investigation of the Virtual Mass of Spherical- Cap Rigid Body

Abdullah A. Kendoush; Balasim Ahmad; Mohsin Abbas Mashay; Hussein Ali Hussab

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 365-378

The aim of the present work is to study the virtual mass (added mass) coefficients for spherical-cap bubbles were measured by using five different spherical-cap sizes made of steel. The bodies were suspended by a fine wire over an aluminum pulley to weights which provided the driving force. The time taken for the spherical-cap bodies to moving through different distances were measured with a stop-watch. The force balance of accelerated motion for spherical-cap bodies is investigated and added mass coefficient is measured. The added mass coefficient for spherical-cap bodies a simulation of spherical-cap bubbles with different wake angle (50,60.5,75,90,120) degree is (19.76,8.86,4.08,2.69,1.26) respectively. The experimental results are compared with the theoretical results from some investigators.

Seamless Handover by Optimal Route To Materialize ABC With heterogeneous B3GWN

Thamir R. Saeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 379-385

The actual trend is to integrate complementary wireless technologies with overlapping coverage, to provide the expected ubiquitous coverage and to achieve the Always Best Connected (ABC) concept. Therefore, the continuation of an active call is proof to that trend, and can satisfied that trend by good handover management.
This paper, focus on the vertical handover decision process and improvement of network performance when the user's position and optimum path are taken into account. From the results the improvement in handover time by(5-30msec) was materialize, well, reduce the memory size.

Performance Comparison of Activated Sludge Systems at Mesophilic and Thermophilic Modes in Treating Dairy Wastewater

Kossay K. Al-Ahmady; Mohamed Sameer Ghanim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 32-45

In this research, two activated sludgeexperimental laboratoryplants were
constructed and operated using dairy wastewater. One of these plants were operated
at high temperatures of (40 – 60 oC) “Thermophilic microorganisms reactors",
whereas the other one were operated at constant temperature of (25 oC)“Mesophilic
reactor”. The resultsshowed that the organic removal efficiency of "Mesophilic
reactor" was more than the "Thermophilic reactors" and it decreasedwith increasing
the temperature.The kinetic parameters for the both mode of operations were also
calculated. The value of the substrate removal rate constant (k) for the "Mesophilic,
25ºC" reactor was (0.017 day-1) and it was greater than others for the thermophilic
reactors.(k) and (Y) decreased with increasing the temperature. The values of (Ks),
(Umax), and (Kd) in the thermophilic reactors were more than the corresponding values
in the mesophilic reactor and increased with increasing the temperature.

Studying Alternatives and Traffic Solutions to Change an Existing Three Legs Intersection to an Interchange

Ahmed Sabhi Abdul-Jabbar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 46-70

Traffic congestion has become a phenomenon of the normal daily things to the Iraqis in recent years. In the present study, three legs ground intersection of, modern village in Alexandria / Babil province and a comprehensive study were made to identify the level of service at the intersection in the base year (2011), threealternatives have been proposed to ensure the work of the intersection in acceptable level of service in the target year (after 25 years from now). The highway
capacity software (HCS-2000) was used in the assessment and indicators of effectiveness for the intersection. Traffic analysis results showed that the intersection level of service works is of type (F) at both years of the foundation and goal (2011,2036). In the first alternative a Trumpet type interchange was suggested for the direction coming from Karbala to Baghdad, and the level of service for the intersection of this alternative ranges between (A) to (B) in the base year and ranging
from (B) and (C) in the target year. The second alternative includes the construction of two-way over-pass on the main road between Baghdad and Hilla; the results of this alternative are similar to the results of the first option alternative. The third proposal has included the establishment of one-way over-pass from Baghdad to Hilla; the
remaining movements in the intersection were controlled by a traffic signal. After analysis it was found that, the traffic level of service works the intersection of type (C) in the target year delay time of (23.4 sec), which is considered an acceptable level of serviceafter 25 years of theestablishment.