Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 12,

Issue 12


Mechanical and Morphological Properties of HDPE: PP and LDPE: PP Polymer Blend Composites Reinforced with TiO2 particles

Sihama I. Salih; Abdullkhaliq F.hamood; Alyaa H. Abdalsalam

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 12, Pages 2211-2227

In this research two groups of polymer blends have been prepared First group included (High density polyethylene (HDPE): Polypropylene (PP))While the Second group(included Low density polyethylene (LDPE): Polypropylene (PP)) both groups prepared withpolypropylene of (20% and 80%). From the results of tensile test for the prepared blends it has been showed that the optimum blending ratio was (20%LDPE:80%PP and 20%HDPE:80%PP) which thenreinforced with (2, 5 and 8wt%) oftitanium dioxide (TiO2), particle size (0.421μm). Titaniaparticles were
mechanically mixed with the polymers prior tomelt mixing for better dispersion.
Polymerblend composites were obtained by using single screw extruder. Results showed that mechanical properties increased as titania content increased except elongation.Furthermore the result recorded highest values ofimpact strength and fracture toughness at2%wt TiO2which is 312 Mpa and 572.8Mparespectively,for the polymer blend (20%HDPE: 80%PP) composite and for the polymer blend (20%LDPE: 80%PP) composites the impact strength and fracture toughness are 262.5Mpa and 468 Mpa respectively.The mechanical properties values of 20%HDPE: 80%PP is higher than 20%LDPE: 80%PP polymer blendcomposites. Scanning
electron microscopy (SEM) imagesshowed that there isbonding developed between TiO2 and polymer blends in some regions.

Removal of Copper (II) from Wastewater Using Modified Carbon Nanotubes

Mohammed Ibrahim; Adnan A. AbdulRazak; Ayad Dari Jaafar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 12, Pages 2228-2241

In the present work, carbon nanotubes were prepared by Chemical Vapor
Deposition (CVD) method, acetylene gas was used as a carbon source. In CVD
system, a catalytic growth of CNTs is carried out by decomposition of acetylene
(C2H2 ) at a temperature of 750 0C for one hour ,argon is used as an oxidation
protection gas. The carbon nanotubes produced are purified to remove impurities
such as metal catalyst and then functionalized by treating with HNO3. Scanning
Electron Microscopy (SEM), FT-IR spectra and BET for Surface Area measurement
technique were used for characterization of CNTs. CNTs with about 30 nm in
diameter and with length of several microns were obtained. The effects of initial
concentration of metal (ppm), pH, carbon nanotube (CNT) dosage (mg) and contact
time (min) on the adsorption of Cu+2 ion were studied.
The results show that the pH of aqueous solution is one of the major parameters
that control the adsorption of ion at the solid-water interfaces. Maximum removal
percentage of Cu+2 species is achieved at pH 8, CNT dosage of 50 mg/L and initial
concentration of 50 mg/L and it is 98.39%. The constants of Langmuir and
Freundlich models are obtained from fitting the adsorption equilibrium data. The
correlation coefficients of Langmuir and Freundlich models are 0.75 and 1,
respectively, indicating that the Freundlich model is more appropriate to describe the
adsorption characteristics of Cu+2 onto CNTs.

The Effect of Tool Geometry for Resistance Spot Welds on Crack Growthin Specimens of Mild Steel

Nadhim M.Faleh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 12, Pages 2242-2250

A mechanism of crack growth was investigated in resistance spot welds of mild
steel. The experiments in this study were designed to investigate the effects of the
electrode cap geometrieson fatigue life of the resistance spot weld specimens. Two
types of electrode cap geometries were used. These types are 4.8 mm and 6.3 mm
nose,used with the same shank in welding operations of 2mm mild steel plate. To
obtain the goal, operating factors were precisely controlled, especially the electrode
force and welding current of spot welds, to keep the same operating conditions while
changingthe electrode geometries. The life test results showed an improvement in the
fatigue life of resistance spot welds. The increment was 30% in heavy loads and 10%
in low loads based on tool geometry. The improvement in the fatigue life was
produced by reducing the diameter of the nose in the geometry of the tool.

The Assessment of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water from Baquba Water Treatment Plant

Mudhar A. Alwahab Rajib

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 12, Pages 2251-2260

This study was achieved for the purpose of determining concentrations of inorganic
heavy metals for Baquba drinking water by taking samples from the water treatment plant
during the period (February 2011) to (February 2012), and these tests included heavy
metals concentrations: iron, copper, lead, nickel, and cadmium. Then, the results were
compared with the standard of World Health Organization to determine the expected
increase in concentrations of these elements, accompanied with the side effects on human
health.
According to this study, it was reached to the fact that the station drinking water
concentrations are accepted with iron, copper and lead but with high cadmium
concentrations more than recommended international standards with respect to most
samples. Also, these tests represented the presence of discrepancy in nickel
concentrations along the tested period above and below the permissible limit.
According to the researcher; this is caused by the disposed of sewage waste water in
the course of river in some districts of the province without any treatments and also by
the excessive using of fertilizers in the agricultural fields near the banks of the river.
It is unfortunate that the station has low efficiency in minerals treatment due to the
lack of modern techniques.

Improvement of Face Recognition System Based on Linear Discrimination Analysis and Support Vector Machine

Thair A. Salh; Mustafa Zuhaer Nayef

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 12, Pages 2261-2272

Face recognition is one of the most important research fields in many of applications
and it is used in various domains including human computer interaction, security
systems and personal identification. Many of face recognition systems have been
developed for decades. In general, the accuracy of the face recognition system is
determined by the accuracy of the method that is used to extract features and the
accurate of the classification method. This paper introduces an improvement of face
recognition system by using Linear Discrimination Analysis and Support Vector
Machine. Two types of experiments off-line and on-line are done. In off-line
experiment, the Olivetti Research Laboratory face database is used and in on-line
experiment, DVD Maker 2 adapter is used to capture live image from digital camera,
and digitalize it to be compared with training database. The Comparison with Linear
Discriminate Analysis and Artificial Neural Network is implemented .The results show
that the proposed method gives better results in off-line experiment than previous
methods in terms of recognition rate.

Reducing the Impacts of Distributed Generation in Transmission & Distribution Networks Protection Using Fault Current Limiters

Wafaa Saeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 12, Pages 2273-2291

Increase in power generation capacity of electric power systems has lead to
increase in the fault current level. In some cases fault current levels are exceeding the
interrupting capability of existing transmission and distribution substations circuit
breakers. Since short-circuit currents contain extremely high energy and can damage
electrical equipment, either requires the replacement of a large number of existing
substation breakers with higher rating breakers or the development of some means to
limit fault current. Different technologies have been employed to design Fault Current
Limiters FCLs such as turn-off a solid state switch to using superconductors that
respond with increasing resistance in event of fault current. A proper design of
Modular Level Based Solid-State Fault Current Limiters is proposed in this paper,
describes the functioning of FCL and the amount of impedance they are required to
insert in series with transmission or distribution substation are discuses. This will
allow near instantaneous breaking of bus ties in transmission and distribution
substations to reduce the available short circuit current and allow existing circuit
breakers to clear at lower fault current levels. Since FCL's are installed in each phase
of the line, the fault is viewed in perspective of per phase. For the purposes of this
study, we consider phase to ground fault& phase to phase fault scenarios.

Study of Some Properties of SnO2 Thin Film

Alaa A. Abdul-Hamead

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 12, Pages 2292-2298

In this paper thin films of Tin oxide SnO2 was prepared by spray pyrolyess method
on glass and pure silicon substrates at deposition temperature(300,400,500) Cᵒ, from Tin
chloride at concentration(0.1 M) .
The films thickness were about 0.1 ±0.02 μm and Atomization rate was about
(1 nm/s).
The test was done on prepared film by XRD and optical microscopy addition to
sensitivity to nitrous oxide gas at different test temperature (25, 50, 75,100) Cᵒ.
Result shows that the crystallization increased by increasing deposing temperature
and the sensitivity increased by rising the gas concentration or temperature.

Galvanic Corrosion of Dental Alloys and Amalgam in Artificial Saliva Containing Citric Acid

Rana A. Majed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 12, Pages 2200-2310

In this work galvanic corrosion potentials and currents were measured using
polarization curves of some dental alloys (amalgam, Co-Cr-Mo, Ni-Cr-Mo, SS 316L, Ti-
6Al-4V alloys) in artificial saliva containing citric acid with three concentrations 3,6 and
9 g/l at 37oC. All galvanic corrosion data were measured to coupling of amalgam and
other alloys to investigate the galvanic corrosion between filling and other dental devices
such as partial-denture framework, crowns, bridges, and endodontic instruments.
The results of galvanic corrosion show that the coupling between amalgam and Ni-
Cr-Mo alloy gives higher galvanic corrosion current than other metallic contact, and then
the contact between amalgam and Co-Cr-Mo alloy was heavier compared with coupling
of SS 316L and Ti-6Al-4V alloy with amalgam. The increasing of corrosion for alloys
containing chromium due to rapidly converting of Cr6+ to Cr3+ and this phenomenon
decreases the concentration of chromium ions at surface and then increases the
dissolution of metal atoms, while decreasing of galvanic corrosion of Ti-alloy coupled
with amalgam due to the passive oxide surface layer (TiO2).

Enhancing Thermal and Water Absorption Properties of Unsaturated Polyester and Epoxy by Nanocarbon Black Powder

Mohammed S. Hamza; Amer Hameed Majeed; Hayder Raheem Kareem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 12, Pages 2311-2319

This paper covers the effect of nanocarbon black powder (N220) on the some
physical properties (thermal conductivity and water absorption) of unsaturated and
epoxy resins filled with nanocarbon black powder (N220). The polymer
nanocomposites, were prepared with (1 to 10 wt%) of carbon black nanoparticles
using ultrasonic wave bath machine dispersion method. The results had shown
thermal conductivity of unsaturated and epoxy resins improved by (131.37% and
78%) respectively, at 10wt. %. The water absorption reduction by (55.41% at 4 wt.%,
51.76% at 6 wt.%) for unsaturated polyester and epoxy nanocomposite, respectively.

Modeling of DC Elevator Motor Drive forMid-rise Building

Jamal A. Mohammed; Ahlam L. Shuraiji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 12, Pages 2320-2342

An elevator is a platform, either open or enclosed, used for lifting people or
freight to upper floors within a building. Elevators are a standard part of any tall
commercial or residential building. Mid speed elevators are commonly used in
various mid-rise buildings today.
In this paper, a new type of gear traction machine drive system with a
permanent-magnet (PM) DC motor for mid-rise and mid-speed elevators is
presented. This application of PM motor to the elevator traction machine enables
several improvements including higher efficiency, greater ride comfort, and
miniaturization and so on.
The ideal elevator drive at larger horsepower levels should have efficient
power conversion, regeneration, low harmonic distortion, and near unity power
factor at the utility power lines. Therefore, voltage-fed 3-phase PWM rectifier is
adopted so that DC bus voltage regulation, bi-directional power flow and
controllable power factor with reduced input current harmonics are possible.

Skin Cancer Prognosis Based on Color Matching and Segmentation of Pigmented Skin Lesion

Muthana H. Hamd; Laith M. Mohamad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 12, Pages 2343-2356

This work develops a new computerized vision of skin cancer diagnosis based on
color matching of pigmented skin lesion and some parameters of ABCD method.
Initially, the clinical diagnostic criteria have been translated to mathematical
concepts. So the lesion edge detection; symmetry; even-symmetry; and segmentation
are computed. Then, the suspicious images would be classified into one of three
categories: benign (mole), malignant (melanoma/non-melanoma), or unknown tumor
using image profile information. The remaining malignant images (melanoma, Basal
Cell Carcinoma, or Squamous Cell Carcinoma) would be further classified using
matching procedure for color spectrums (Red, Yellow, Brown, Black/Gray) with
lesion pigment. The lesion image is segmented into four quarters and the matching
procedure of 120 spectrums is started searching for better result with mean squared
error less than 0.003. The software has been tested over 40 classified images and it
successfully re-classified 92%. This result could be improved if lesion quarters and/or
spectrums are increased.

Investigation and Simulation of Catalytic Reforming Reactions of Iraqi Heavy Naphtha Using Pt-Sn/Al2O3 and Pt-Ir/Al2O3 Catalysts

Ramzy S. Hamied; Shahrazad R. Raouf; Khalid A. Sukkar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 12, Pages 2357-2380

In the present work experimental and simulation studies have been carried out
to describe the reaction kinetics of catalytic reforming process using Iraqi heavy
naphtha as a feedstock. Two types of bi-metals catalysts were prepared (Pt-
Sn/Al2O3 and Pt-Ir/Al2O3) supported on γ-Al2O3.
The main three described reforming reactions were investigated (dehydrogenation,
dehydrocyclization, and hydrocracking) to characterize catalysts performance in
term of activity and selectivity. The performances of catalysts were investigated
under the following operating conditions: reaction temperature range of 480-510
˚C, weight hour space velocity range of 1-2 hr-1, pressure at 6 atm, and hydrogen to
hydrocarbon ratio of 4:1.
The results showed that the higher conversion of Iraqi heavy naphtha
components (i.e., paraffins and naphthenes) increased with temperature whereas,
weight hourly space velocity has shown inverse impact on conversion. On the
other hand, it was concluded that the yields of aromatics and high components are
increased for both types of catalysts (Pt-Sn/Al2O3 and Pt-Ir/Al2O3) under the same
operating conditions.
A comprehensive mathematical model and simulation was developed in the
present work to describe the reaction kinetics of reforming reactions. The
comparison between the concentration of (paraffin’s, naphthenes, and aromatics),
and temperature profile of experimental and simulation results showed a good
agreement and the deviation confined between them in the range of 1.93% to
14.51%.

Enhancement of Linear Induction Motor Performance Using Indirect Field–Oriented Voltage Control

Adil Hameed Ahmed; Hydier yosife Abd

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 12, Pages 2381-2391

In this work, the mathematical model of linear induction motor (LIM) has
been described and the dynamic behaviors have been simulated taking into account the end effects. Firstly, the validity of the LIM model is verified by considering its open loop characteristics; where both no-load and load changed are included. Secondly, a scalar control has been suggested and its robustness against variation of parameters is examined. Finally, the vector control with indirect field oriented
control has been included and its simulated results are compared to those of scalar control to show the effectiveness of both control schemes on the robustness measure of LIM behavior. The sophistication and complexity of speed controller is beyond the scope of the work, therefore, a conventional controller based on Proportional Integral (PI) action is sufficient for the present work. The LIM responses such as
thrust force, velocity, currents and voltages are simulated and outputted using MATLAB/SIMULINK package (R2010a).

Design and Testing Solar Dryer Performance

Enas Mozahim Abed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 12, Pages 169-184

In this paper we design and testing solar dryer performance that made of three main part, which were solar collector, box dryer and chimney. The solar collector was made in trapezoid shape the bigger base down, the collector were inclined with thirty degree, the upper base connected with box dyer, that let the hot air reach to box dryer, which were
making hotter by black rock effect in the solar collector to the box dryer and the tray. The last was the chimney. The aim of the chimney is to replace the moist air by dryer air and prevent the air turbulent movement, satisfying the continuity equation, the chimney was
open to with diameter of (D=21cm).
The drying process was in summer season of (100 gm of Okra), were selected and studying the daily efficiency of drying, which reach (35%) the maximum value at 12:00 pm in 24/7/2012, and the minimum value at 12:00 pm in 26/7/2012 reach (16%).
For the same day the reduction reason in efficiency was due to sun set down gradually but depending on observed heat in black rock.
To improving and increasing the drying efficiency process the fan was applied at the chimney outlet to take the air out and increasing the velocity of its movement, and changing the free air movement to forced movement inside the solar dryer. (now the movement will be mixed by free and forced).In natural convection the velocity was (V=0.1m/s) at the solar collector input, while after the fan applying in the chimney outlet the velocity in the solar collector input has become (V=0.3m/s). After calculating the efficiency we notice that the value increase to
(52%) at 10/8/2012 between the 2:00 pm and 4:00 pm, which means the efficiency, was increased by (14%). The efficiency increasing percentage got from this process is a high good value in indirect solar dryer depending on changing the heat type from solar radiation to observed
heat and then heating the air of drying process.

Experimental and Theoretical Study of The Influences of Pipes Sizing on the Hydraulic Systems

Abdulkarem Swadi Saleh; Jafer Mahdi Hasan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 12, Pages 185-212

Ensure this research design and implementation of Primary hydraulic system with external variable load for the purpose to studying the influences of the dimensions of pipes in hydraulic systems, we have been designing two lines for oil,one long (far from the power source) and the other short (close to the source) as it is used in practical applications in factories. The testing process included measuring the
speed of the piston in the cases of the long way and short way (with the load) at the same pressure and flow and record the difference in speed of the piston in this two cases and also included practical tests measure the speed of vibration and acceleration of vibration on the tip of the arm piston at various pressures, as well as for various
flow also for two cases (long way and short way) at zero position and non zero position of directional valve, for the purpose of showing the effect on the piston performance and directional valve. The theoretical side has included work a mathematical model of each part of the hydraulics system and then work a theoretical analysis of the hydraulic cycle combined and for two cases (long way and short way impose zero) for two types of actuator since been developed for the final transfer
function for each case. It turns out that the effect of the length of the pipe is clear from the difference between the transfer functions, as well as the comparison between symmetric piston and non symmetric piston. Been an increase in the speed of the piston in the case of the short way compared to the long way in range of (0.0074 cm ⁄ sec). It was also recording speed of vibration and acceleration of vibration of the short and long ways at different flow and pressure and show that acceleration of vibration and speed of vibration are greater in the case of the long line. It was also that Bulk modulus affect the value of the amplitude frequency and increase laden mass on the tip of the plunger lead, reduced amplitude of the frequency. It was concluded that the
non-symmetric piston gives better results in terms of lower frequency amplitude.