Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 14,

Issue 14

Improvement of Vertical Savonius Wind Turbine Performance

Musawi; Mohammed Hassan Ali Al

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 14, Pages 2596-2610

This work presents a study of the vertical Savonuis wind rotor, including design,
construct, and test, with a new configuration parameters, to improve its performance.
The new rotor's parameters consist of two stages-four blades (main and
secondary). The blades are arranged such that, leaving a separation gap between the
inner ends of the blade to get the benefit of the air flow reaction energy in the bucket
on the exit side, The secondary stage height equals 1/4 of the rotor height. The blades
of the second stages are shifted by 45 degrees from main stage on the same axes.
It is expected that the secondary stage assists the starting of the rotor and prevents
the counter torque to appear in the static and dynamic torque cycle.
This Savonius rotor turbine was tested on the subsonic wind tunnel model AF100
made by TecQuipment Ltd., with the range of wind velocities (U=0 to 20 m/s), on no
load, it is found that the rotor started rotation at wind velocity of 1.2 m/s. The test of
static torque Ts was done under constant velocity of 12 m/s, and dynamic torque T
was performed under air velocities of (U=10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 m/s).
Testing results show that the Savonius rotor turbine can start at low wind velocity
from any position. The static torque coefficient Cts was improved, with peak to peak
value of (17.2 – 39) % in the positive range during cycle of α=180º. The maximum
power coefficient approach to (Cp=16% at λ= 0.8). Comparing the performance of
this turbine with the others show that the power and torque coefficients are improved.

Influence of Ceramic Particles Reinforcement on some Mechanical Properties of AA 6061 Aluminium Alloy

Jameel Habeeb Ghazi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 14, Pages 2611-2618

This paper is to investigate the influence of adding 5,10 and 15 weight percentage
silicon carbide particles on some mechanical properties of 6061 Aluminium alloy.
The composites Al6061/SiC were prepared by stir casting technique.
The results revealed that as the reinforcement content was increased, there were
significant increases in the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and hardness of
composites accompanied by a reduction in its percentage of elongation.
Microstructural studies have been carried out to understand the nature of structure.

Experimental and Theoretical Study of Vacuum Cooling System

Ahmed A. M. Saleh; Qussai J. Abdul Ghafour; Luay T. Al-Rawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 14, Pages 2619-2631

A vacuum cooling system and the parameters which affect on its performance
were studied experimentally and theoretically. For the experimental study the rig was
built up to studying the performance of cooling system in three cases. These cases
are: Cooling water by vacuum only, cooling water in conventional method, and
cooling water by vacuum with condensation.
The experimental results show that the addition of a condenser to the vacuum
cooling system leads to sweep of largest amount of generated vapor, also the time
consumed for the process was decreased. The times required for cooling 45 g from
water from temperature 29oC to 10oC for the three test cases were 4375 second, 3535
second and 263 second, respectively. Vacuum cooling with condenser is a fast
cooling of three systems test, which is about (13.7 times) faster than the system of
natural convection cooling. To work properly, the existence of condenser is very
important in vacuum cooling. It normally removes the large amount of water vapor
generation (about 94%).
For the theoretical study, a computer program was built up by employing the
governing equation to simulate the performance of the vacuum cooling system. The
theoretical results indicate an acceptable agreement with the experimental results.
Also, the results show that the decreasing of condenser temperature causes decreasing
of cooling time according to the equation (t = 0.2031Tcd4 - 2.8958 Tcd3 + 16.406
Tcd2 - 21.104 Tcd + 313.39), and increasing the evaporation surface area leads to
decreasing of cooling time according to the equation (t=1/ (0.0006*Area+0.0005)),
and the increasing of water mass causes in increasing of cooling time according to the
equation (t=7.2667*mass+14).

Study Natural Convection in a Porous Trapezoidal Cavity with a Square Body at the Center of the Enclosure

Zainab K. Radhi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 14, Pages 2632-2649

Steady state free convection heat transfer in a two dimensional trapezoidal
enclosure filled with a fluid-saturated porous medium with a square solid body
located at the center of cavity, is performed in this study. The bottom wall of the
cavity was heated with a sinusoidal temperature distributionq = l(1 - cos( 2pX )) ,
the inclined walls are insulated (adiabatic) and the top wall is maintained at q = 0.
To obtain the effects of the presence of a square body on heat transfer and fluid
flow inside the enclosure, three different temperature boundary conditions were
applied for the body as cold ( θbody=0) , heated (θbody=1) and adiabatic ( = 0)

q at
different Ra numbers. In this study, the governing equations were solved
numerically using finite element software package (FLEXPDE). Results for the
mean Nusselt number, Num, the contour maps of the streamlines and isotherms are
presented. It is observed that fluid flow and temperature fields strongly depend on
thermal boundary conditions of the body. A comparison of the flow field, isotherm
field and averaged Nusselt number, Num with previous work, which revealed a
good agreement.

Bi2-Xhgxsr2-Ybaycacu2o8/Ag Sheath HTSC Wires, (Hg, Ba) Substitution Effect on the Critical Temperature

Akram R. Jabur; Matti N. Makadsi; Mohammed S.Mehde

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 14, Pages 2650-2664

Bi2-xHgxSr2-yBayCaCu2O8 High Temperature Superconductor (HTSC) has been
prepared as a pellet by solid state reaction with a certain substitution percentages (0
,0.05 ,0.1) of Hg and Ba substitution instead of Bi and Sr respectively . Then, HTSC
wires were fabricated from the prepared superconductor pellets using powder in tube
(PIT) method utilizing silver as the tube material. The prepared wires are of three types;
with monofilament MOF, 9 multifilament core 9MF and 81 filaments core(81MF).
Several cycles of mechanical drawing and rolling process performed to the starting
silver tube of 0.4 cm diameter and 5 cm length to minimize the filament diameter. The
average filament diameter with 81MFC wire was about 25μm measured with an optical
Tc critical temperature for superconductivity is measured for the pellets and wires
using four point probes techniques. These results show that the substation Bi by Hg
give a rise to the superconductor to improve highly Tc , while substitution Sr with Ba
lowers Tc .substitution of 0.05 , 0.1 Hg to the composition Bi2-xHgxSry-2BayCa1Cu2O8
will raise the transition temperature (Tc) . Also substitution of Sr by Ba decreases the
transition temperature (Tc), Hg( 0.05 – 0.1 ) substitution still raise Tc after substitution
of Ba with (0.05 – 0.1). low – Tc phase (2212) , 2201 phase in B-2212 system and the
addition of Ag to silver sheaths and a small amount of impurity phases appear in the
result of XRD analysis.

PSO-Based Optimum Design Of PID Controller for Switching Reluctance Motor

Ekhlas M. Thejeel; Mazin M. Mahdi; Zainab N. Abbass

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 14, Pages 2665-2679

This paper presents simulation results for three phase, 6/4 poles switched reluctance
motor (SRM) by using particle swarm optimization (PSO) method for formative the
optimal proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller tuning parameters.The
proposed approach has superior feature, including easy implementation, stable
convergence characteristics and very good computational performances efficiency.
The main focus of this paper is to investigate the dynamic performance of switched
reluctance (SR) motors. This investigation is achieved through simulation using
MATLAB/SIMULINK. Digital simulation results show that the designed (PSO) have
a good dynamic behaviour of the motor, a perfect speed tracking with no overshoot
and a good rejection of impact loads disturbance. The results of applying the (PSO)
mode controller to a SRM give best performances and high robustness than those
obtained by the application of others controller. The obtained results of the closed loop
PSO-PID response shows excellent performance with respect to the PID controller.

Increasing the Protocol Gain of Quantum Cryptography

Firas Ali Sabir Al-Juboori; Noor Kareem Juma; a Al-Mandilawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 14, Pages 2680-2691

Quantum cryptography is a technique to distribute a sequence of truly random
and unconditionally secure bits over a secure communication by applying the
phenomena of quantum physics. The distributed secret bits perform the secret key
which is used later to encrypt messages with an encryption algorithm, usually the
One-Time-Pad is used. Quantum Key Distribution solves the security problem in
classical cryptography by depending on the laws of physics which is focusing on
the physics of information. Quantum protocol gain usually is low due to the
quantum channel noise and the difference between the photon polarization at the
sender and receiver side; in this research, a method is proposed to increase the
protocol gain without decreasing the security level of quantum key. BB84 quantum
key distribution algorithm is implemented and simulated with MATLAB R2010a
simulation; and a comparison is made with A. Singh and N. Sharma [14] results.

Effect of Quenching Media on Wear Resistance of AISI 52100 Bearing Steel Alloy

Enaam obeid hassoun

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 14, Pages 2692-2700

A study has been made to evaluate wear behavior of AISI 52100 steel under
different quenching media. This investigation was accomplished by two stages. In
the first stage of the study , quenching treatment was applied to the steel alloy and
then cooling was carried out in various media (Oil , Polyvinyl Alcohol , Glycerol),
and finally low temperature tempering (200Co) was applied to the quenched
samples to eliminate internal stresses after transformation from austenization
temperature to the temperature which the samples were cooled. Microstructural
examination was achieve using light microscopic for all heat treated specimens after
metallographic preparations . In the second stage , pin - on - disk technique was
used to determine the wear rate of the treated specimens depending on weight loss
method . Worn surfaces of the steels were examined using light microscopic to
characterize the topography of the surfaces.
The results exhibited that (i) Martensitic matrices with retained austenite can be
obtained depending on the quenching medium . (ii) Chromium carbides have been
precipitated as a result of quenching heat treatment in different quenchants . (iii)
Quenching in oil and then tempering revealed wear resistance more than other
quenchants . (iv) wear cracks were presented on the worn surfaces of the steels
which was used in this work .

A Comparison Study of Mechanical Properties between Friction StirWelding and TIG Welded Joints of Aluminum Alloy (Al 6061-T6)

Muna Khethier Abbass; Hassan Hady Abd

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 14, Pages 2701-2715

In this study two different welding processes have been considered, a
conventional tungsten inert gas (TIG) and a relatively new solid state welding
known as friction stir welding (FSW). TIG welding process has been performed on
Al 6061-T6 of thickness 4mm by using filler metal of Al-Mg alloy type (ER5356)
according to AWS classification metal with tungsten electrode (EWth-2) and arc
voltage of (12V). Various welding currents of (125, 160, 200, 225) Amp were used
under argon as shielding gas of flow rate of (15-20 cf / hour) and welding speed of
280 mm/min.
Friction stir welding is carried out using automatic milling machine with five
different welding or bed speeds of (25-50-80-100-125 mm/min) and five different
tool rotation speeds of (630-800-1000-1250-1600 rpm). Tool steel of type R18
consists of a shoulder with diameter of (20 mm) and pin of diameter (5.5 mm). Xray
radiographic inspection, tensile test and microhardness test of FSW and TIG
joints at optimum welding conditions were made.
The results indicate that the best tensile strength of FSW joints is 289 MPa and
joint efficiency is 79% which were welded with welding parameters of (1250 rpm,
800 rpm and 50 mm/min, 125 mm/min) respectively. While in case of TIG joint the
best tensile strength is 210 MPa and joint efficiency is 57%.
It was found that the microhardness hardness values in the TIG welded joints
are lower than that of the FSW joints. The formation of fine equiaxed grains and
very fine strengthening precipitates (Mg₂Si) in the stir or weld region are the
reasons for higher tensile strength and hardness of FSW joints compared to TIG

Aluminum Filler Content Effect on the Dynamic Behavior of Sandwich Panel Subjectedt Impact Load

Farag Mahel mohammed; Khalid Mershed A; Sinan Zuhair Sabri

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 14, Pages 2716-2726

Experimental investigations had been done in this work to demonstrate the effect of
aluminum filler contents on the dynamic behavior of (30%) weight fraction glass-polyester
sandwich panel under low velocity impact. The composite sandwich panels are
manufactured using the honeycomb core and laminated composite face sheets. The wet
hand layup technique is used. The mechanical properties were tested based on ASTM D-
638. The panel is fixed from three sides and the other is free. The impact load is applied.
The dynamic response of the plate is measured using vibration data collector (TVC 200).
The panel is supported also on a rigid foundation. The steel impactor of 15 kg weight
dropped from 2 m height. The deformation is measured using vernier caliper. The results
showed that the mechanical properties are improved when the aluminum filler content
increased up to 5% and then decreased after that. The dynamic behaviors have the same but
differ in magnitude. The minimum deflection and deformation takes at 5% filler content for
both face and core. At 5% filler content the deflection and deformation decreased by 20%
and 56% respectively less than the unfilled panel. The effects of using different faces with
the same core have a little variation.

Practical Application and Construction for Mobile Robot

Mohamed Jasim Mohamed; Mustaffa waad Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 14, Pages 2727-2745

This paper describes the construction of a rover mobile robot which is used to
follow the resultant optimal path from the global path planning technique. A remote
computer is used to control the motion of the mobile robot and to upload the data of
the path wirelessly. The control (positioning and directing) of the robot is based on the
readings of two wheel encoders. The current direction and position of the robot are
calculated relatively to its previous direction and position. The control algorithm is
capable to move the mobile robot in order to follow a certain path. The software of the
control algorithm is executed using PIC microcontroller. To prove the efficiency of the
control algorithm, this algorithm applied on the constructed mobile robot to move it in
real world environment between different start and end points. The constructed mobile
robot shows that it can follow the required path and reach the target within specified
error percent.

Experimental Behavior of Circular Steel Tubular Columns Filled with Self-Compacting Concrete under Concentric Load

Saad N. Sadik; Wael S. Abdul-Sahib; Ammar A. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 14, Pages 2760-2772

This paper presents an experimental study on the behavior of circular, concretefilled,
steel tube (CFT) columns concentrically loaded in compression to failure. Selfcompacting
concrete (SCC) is used here as a filler in order to increase homogeneity of
the core and reduce segregation problems. Total six column specimens with different
lengths (0.4 m – 1.5 m) of constant diameter of 160 mm and wall thickness of 2.8 mm
were tested. The purpose here is to investigate the ultimate capacity and the
deformation behavior of different slenderness ratio columns. The behavior of these
columns in confinement was discussed.
Experimental results indicate that the compression force capacity is affected by
slenderness ratio of the column. For slender column the overall buckling was observed
while for the short columns the crushing and the local buckling is the dominant failure

Development of a Computer System to Find the Productivity of the Road Finisher

raid Salem abid ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 14, Pages 225-248

The infrastructures are one of the basic elements which reflect nation’s
development; therefore infrastructures are the main concern for all of the Officials
responsible for development and maintenance of infrastructures. Preceding from this
fact the main goal of the researcher is to build a management system, base on site
investigation for pavement plants in several projects, to study their productivity and
trying to improve them.
After the completion of data collection for all plants which were used for road
pavements, and process these data, several factors were found which affect their
Based on the above, many suggestions were made, that will rise the productivity of
these plants such as systematic planning, determine the requirements for the tracks that
is used, types and number of rollers and finishers, number of compacting, speed of
finisher, and gang size. All these factors may insure a good execution for the work, and
also the construction of height production asphalt patching plants, maintenance,
monitoring, daily tracking, training courses for the staff, provision of spare parts.
An equation is determined for the optimum number of tracks, and also another
equation for daily productivity per ton for the finisher is determined.
Idle time for the finisher is determined, from the collected data, and from the
finisher speed which was estimated in the finisher manual, and the asphalt layer
thickness and density, equals to (18%) in the branches and (22%) in the main roads.
The researcher is also determined a computer program for calculating the finisher
productivity depending on the surrounding environments.

Interactive Architectural Design

Enas Salim AbdulAhadd; Rana Mazin Mahdi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 14, Pages 249-263

Our time is an era of development of technological digital (connectional
_ Informational)، which affected on human life. Thus it has an impact on the
built environment according to the needs. In the same time it has to absorb the
achievements of digital technology including architecture. This is the focuses
of theresearch.
Architecture has proved through ages its ability to accept technological
development to generate output،to achieve the architectural innovation
through recomposing its figure getting to a state of mutual interaction with
The research reviews in its discussing literatures previous definition of
interactive Architecture and its historical development as a general placement
of the research moving in its special segment to explore the particularity of
interactive architectural design and its impact on architectural outcomes.
Research problem focuses on the most important strategies of interactive
design that represented by the interactive walls map with its application
mechanisms applied in the latest architectural designs of the world in progress.

Investigation of Correlation and Prediction of Excess Molar Volume Using Different Equations of States

M. O. Abdullah; Venus M. BakallBashy; Fatma Dhaif Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 14, Pages 2746-2759

Prediction and correlation of accurate value of excess molar volume VE are of
great interest for adequate design of industrial process and for theoritical
purpose.Soave RedlichKwong (SRK-EOS), Peng-Robinson (PR-EOS), and Peng-
Robinson-Stryjek-Vera (PRSV-EOS) are selected.Five Mixing Rules are applied
on different groups systems of different polarity which are: Conventional Mixing
Rules, Quadratic Mixing Rules, Adachi and SugieMixing Rules,a modified Adachi
and Sugie mixing rules. Another tried method to extend the applicability of CEOS
by usingthe best applicable EOS from the three selected EOS with the PRSV-EOS
with a new correlation method thatuses Excess Gibbs free energy (GE) and Huron-
Vidal Method.Also by means of using Huron-Vidal Mixing Rules (HV) .the
Huron-Vidal Method is developed by using an adjustable parameter hij.The
developed applied method gave very acceptable results for binary mixtures. To find
the applicability of the gated constant for different group families; same constants
of the binaries which confirm the ternary system are quite well applicable to
calculate VE data for ternary system with very reasonable accuracy.