Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 31, Issue 17

Volume 31, Issue 17, October 2013, Page 296-3390


Differentiating Clayey Soil Layers from Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) and Induced Polarization (IP)

Nadia A. Aziz; Mahmoud R. AL- Qaissy; Hussein H. Karim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 17, Pages 3216-3234

Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) method is one of the most promising
techniques which is well suited for the applications in the fields of geohydrology,
environmental science and engineering. The present work is aimed to show the
efficiency of 2D Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) and Induced Polarization (IP) in
probing the subsurface soil for site investigation and differentiating the clayey soil
layers as it is a common practice to measure the IP sounding along with resistivity for
correct interpretation of field data. The study has demonstrated the practical
application of 2D ERI and IP tomography along 7 lines using Wenner- Schlumberger
array. The data analysis comprises of 2D inversions using the RES2DINV software,
thus 2D electrical resistivity and IP imaging sections have been obtained. The depth of
investigation was 4 m, and resistivity values range from <1 to 292 ohm.m. Two
electrical layers were recognized: the upper layer with high resistivity (7-71 ohm.m)
represents the loamy soil extends to a depth around 1.3 m; and the second layer with
low resistivity (<1-9 ohm.m) represents the clayey layer. Some anomalous low and
high electric zones are appeared reflecting the inhomogeneity in deposits. The IP
values are ranging from -2 to 17 mV/V showing good confirmation with resistivity
data, where high chargeability are associated with low resistivity. The study reveals
that combining IP with resistivity surveys is recommended since IP is, sometimes, very
effective in relieving ambiguity in interpretation.

Wear Performance of a Laser Surface Hardened ASTM 4118 Steel

Assifa M. Mohamad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 17, Pages 3235-3244

In this investigation ASTM 4118 steel was treated by using pulse Nd: YAG
laser with wave length 1064nm and pulse duration 100ns. In order to assess the
new tribological properties of laser surface hardened ASTM 4118 steel, the wear
resistance between specimens treated with laser and those of conventionally
hardened under dry sliding conditions was compared. The change of wear
mechanisms in laser hardened 4118 steel resulted in distinct difference in wear
rates.
The results showed that quenched zones not only had sufficient depth of
hardening and higher hardness, but had more retained austenite and finer carbides
because of a higher degree of carbide dissolution. Laser surface hardened ASTM
4118 steel specimens exhibited superior wear resistance to their conventionally
hardened specimens due to the change in the microstructure hardening, high
hardness. The wear mechanism for both the laser quenched layer and
conventionally hardened layer was highly similar, generally involving adhesive
wear mechanism , material transfer, wear induced oxidation and plowing. Also the
results of hardness show that increases with increasing of laser energy by 70%.

Process Capability Evaluation for a Non-normally Distributed One

Samah Ali Aufy; Mahmoud Abbas Mahmoud

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 17, Pages 3245-3258

The common process capability indices (PCIs) Cp, Cpk, Cpm are widely used in
practice. The use of these PCIs is based on the assumptions that process is in
control and its output should be normally distributed. In practice normality is not
always fulfilled. Therefore, the use of common PCIs leads to erroneous in
capability evaluation. In this paper, capability evaluation for non-normally
distributed process is carried out in industrial environment with two approaches.
The first includes transforming data to normally distribute by Box-Cox
transforming method then using the common PCIs. This method failed to transform
these data. The second approach includes the use non-normal percentile method
with Burr XII distribution. This paper proves that the second approach is more
effective in evaluating the capability of this process. Practical case is applied in the
State Company for Electrical Industries (SCFEI) particularly in (Water Pump)
factory and Minitab 16 Software is used to reduce the long calculation of statistical
values and to plot control charts.

Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor Based on Neurofuzzy

Abdulrahim T. Humod; Wiam I. Jabbar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 17, Pages 3259-3273

The main objective of this work is to improve the speed and torque responses of
three phase Induction Motor (IM) during different loads and speeds conditions.
Induction Motor is most commonly used in different industrial applications, that
require fast dynamic response and accurate control over wide speed ranges.
Therefore, this work proposes Direct Torque Control (DTC). Particle Swarm
Optimization (PSO) technique is used for optimal gains tuning of PI. The results
show the improvement in the speed response of DTC, in terms of reducing steady
state error, ripple reduction in the torque and speed responses. Neurofuzzy
(ANFIS) controller is used to improve the performance of PI-PSO controller.
ANFIS controller is trained by using PI-PSO data. The results of the ANFIS
controller are better than PI-PSO in terms of torque ripple minimization, less
steady state error in the speed response and more robustness. The simulation of the
overall drive system is performed using MATLAB/Simulink program version 7.10
(R2010a).

Design of Robust Compensating Controller for Lateral Motion of the Vehicle

Hayder Sabah. Abad Al-Amir

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 17, Pages 3274-3284

In this paper, robust compensating controller is proposed to control the lateral
velocity and yaw rate of the vehicle during turning .This controller uses the errors
of the lateral velocity and yaw rate as input and the front steering angle and
differential brake force as output.
A vehicle model of dynamic lateral motion is heavily influenced by vehicle
parameters such as vehicle speed, vehicle mass and road-tire interaction. These
vehicle parameters vary during operation; therefore variations of parameters are
taken into considering in controller design. The compensators of the controller
become function to variations of vehicle parameters to improve the dynamic
responses of lateral velocity and yaw rate. The simulation results of the proposed
controller with lag brake and front steering models give acceptable responses
through reaching to the desired conditions with short transient period and steady –
state error is equal to zero for different cases.

PSO Based PID Controller Design for a Precise Tracking of Two-Axis Piezoelectric Micro positioning Stage

Hazem I. Ali; Yasir Khudhair Abbas; Ali Majeed Mahmood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 17, Pages 3285-3297

In this paper the design of an optimal PID controller for single and double axis piezoelectric micropositioning stage system is presented. The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method is used to tune the parameters of the PID controller subject to specific objective function. The proposed controller provides a high performance trajectory tracking responses of the piezoelectric micropositioner stage.A simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed control
algorithm.

Studying the Affect of Current on (MRR) and (EW) in Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM)

Ahmed Bassil Abdulwahhab; Shukry Hamm; Maan Aabid Tawfiq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 17, Pages 3298-3311

The experimental work of this study leads with electro discharge machining
(EDM). A system for machining in this process has been developed. Many
parameters are studied such as current, dielectric fluid, thickness of the workpiece.
The main aim of this work is to calculate the metal removal rate (MRR), electrode
wear (EW) using copper electrode when machining stainless steel 304 specimens
of thickness (0.4, 0.5, 1mm). Different current rates are used ranging from (10, 15,
20, 25, 30)Amp, and using tap water as a dielectric solution, it found that low
current gives a less material removal rate and electrode wear while high current
gives a high material removal rate and electrode wear, the dielectric fluid is
changed in order to enhance results. The results show that maximum MRR is
achieved 1.01164mm3/min when machining thickness of workpiece 0.4mm and
using electrode of copper metal which gives minimum EW 0.04gm, while when
using thickness 0.5mm it gives MRR 0.43828mm3/min and EW 0.12gm, for
thickness 1mm the MRR 0.33964mm3/min and EW is 0.11gm. The results show
also that using distilled water as a dielectric fluid with copper electrode and
thickness of workpiece 0.5mm gives minimum MRR 0.13854mm3/min and less
EW 0.08gm compared with using tap water.

Snubber Network Design for Triac Driving Single – Phase Industrial Heater by Applying Fuzzy Logic Method

Yesar Noori Lafta; Aslan Sabah aldeen Abdi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 17, Pages 3312-3321

Power switches require snubbing networks for driving single – phase industrial
heaters. Designing these networks, for controlling the maximum allowable rate of
rise of anode current (di/dt) and excessive anode – cathode voltage rise (dv/dt) of
power switching devices as thyristors and Triacs, is usually achieved using
conventional methods like Time Constant Method (TCM), resonance Method
(RM), and Runge-Kutta Method (RKM).
In this paper an alternative design methodology using Fuzzy Logic Method
(FLM) is proposed for designing the snubber network to control the voltage and
current changes.
Results of FLM, with fewer rules requirements, show the close similarity with
those of conventional design methods in such a network of a Triac driving 1.2 kW
heater of an industrial plastic extruder machine.
The similarity, between Fuzzy Logic results and conventional techniques
results, is confirming the applicability of the fuzzy logic in designing these
snubbing networks.

New Method for Recycling of waste paper in useful products

Bahra D. Ghafour; Mohammed A. A; Falak O. Abas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 17, Pages 3322-3333

Waste paper recycling is a process by which waste paper or waste cellulose fibers
are processed together with some chemical additions to produce another product such
as file cover, greeting card paper board and duplicating paper for goods.
A new efficient and simple method has been designed then applied in a present
work. Different types of waste papers are introduced as (writing paper WT, news paper
NT and magazine paper MT) during an experimental design apparatus stages of
collecting, separating, cutting, digesting / cooking, bleaching, lifting couching,
pressing and drying, finishing for final applications at operation conditions.
The finish products go to checking their characteristics properties, physical and
mechanical properties such as specific gravity, moisture content, brightness color,
porosity, stiffness, tensile strength, tensile breaking, elongation, and tearing resistance.
The result for these properties proved that all types give good mechanical properties
for application in another utilization use as saving pads for goods with optimum
application of newspaper samples.

Prediction the Effect of Cutting Parameters on Surface Roughness Using Taguchi Method

Laith A. Mohammed; Ahmed A. Duroobi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 17, Pages 3334-3342

In this study, the prediction of surface roughness of milled surfaces was carried out
using Taguchi Method with four inputs, namely, cutting direction, stepover, feed per
tooth and workpiece surface geometry. A systematic approach to obtain an optimal
surface roughness was employed to consider the effects of Taguchi method for this
application using CNC milling machine with ball mill cutter. The results show that the
Taguchi method is an effective tool in predicting the optimum factors to obtain
minimum surface roughness, which are stepover, surface type, feed per tooth and
cutting direction respectively.

Preparation and Characterization of Nanoporous Zeolitic Membranes for Catalytic Applications

Talib M. Naieff Al-Bayati

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 17, Pages 3343-3357

The Hydroisomerization and Hydrocracking of n-Heptane was carried out in a
packed bed plug-flow zeolitic catalytic membrane reactor at a constant pressure
of (100 kpa).Material was encapsulated by trimetallic 1% (Pt-Ni-Co). The
structural and textural features for encapsulated nanoporous MCM-48 were
studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDAX,
nitrogen adsorption-desorption (BET) and FTIR. The characterizations were
carried out before and after loading.
The results show that the catalytic activity evaluation in a membrane reactor
revealed that trimetallic 1 % (Pt-Ni-Co)/MCM-48 catalyst possess a high activity
for conversion of n-heptane around (83%) at 400 ºC with a maximum selectivity
around (65%) at 325 ºC.

Geotechnical Properties of Expansive Soil Treated With Silica Fume

Zeena Waleed S. Abbawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 17, Pages 3358-3370

Problematic soils such as expansive soil are those clay soils which exhibited
significant volume changes as results of soil moisture variation, when a dry mass of
clay is allowed to absorb water, the effective size of particles increases and therefore
the clay mass swells. This type of soil, upon wetting and drying, causes sever damage
to structures built on such soil.
A treatment of swelling/shrinkage using silica fume was studied in this work. The
soil selected for the present investigation classified as (CH) according to unified soil
classification system with liquid limit = 51% and plastic limit = 27%. Soil specimens
were mixed with various percentages of silica fume contents (10%, 20%, 25%, 30%
and 50%) to determine their effects on geotechnical properties such as Atterberge’s
limits, compaction, unconfined compression and swelling properties.
The results show that the silica fume played an important role in improving the
problem of swelling behavior in expansive soil. The silica fume decrease liquid limit
and changed compaction parameters of expansive soils the moisture content values
increased and the maximum dry unit weight values decrease. Also the silica fume
increased unconfined compressive strength, decreased the compressibility and the
vertical swelling percentages of clayey soil-silica fume mixtures.

Study the Behavior of Long Spiral Tube Adsorber for Oxygen Separation from Air

Zaid A. Abdel-Rahman; Abdulbasit H. Mhdi; Ahmed J. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 17, Pages 3371-3381

Single long spiral tube column (25 mm diameter, and 4 m bed length) had been
constructed to study the separation of oxygen from air using commercial 13X
zeolite. The effect of adsorption pressure on the system breakthrough curves was
studied. Single column with initial air pressurizing simulates the work of 2-
columns, 4-steps PSA process, whereas single column with initial intermediate
pure oxygen pressurizing simulates the work of 2-columns, 6-steps PSA process
with pressure equalization steps of the two columns. No significant effect of
pressure on the product oxygen purity is noticed when pressure increased from 2 to
5 bar in both cases.
For initial air pressurizing case, the average maximum effluent oxygen purity of
88% is obtained. The range of zeolite loading capacity is q=0.25-0.35 mole N2/kg
zeolite, and only 40% of the range has been utilized before breakthrough time.
Whereas for initial oxygen pressurizing case, the maximum oxygen purity of 95%
is obtained. The range of zeolite loading capacity is q=0.39-0.87 mole N2/kg
zeolite, and 95% of the range has been utilized before breakthrough time, which
agree well with the equilibrium data of multicomponent Langmuir adsorption
equation.

Effect of Uric acid Level on the Corrosion Behavior of SS 316L and Co-Cr-Mo Used in Implant Applications

Kahtan K. Al-Khazraji; Rana A. Majed; Zina Noori Abdulhameed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 17, Pages 3382-3390

In this study electrochemical behaviors of SS 316L and Co-Cr-Mo alloys were
studied using electrochemical method by potentiostat in simulated body fluid (SBF) at
pH=7.4 and 37oC in absence and presence of 7 and 12 g/dL uric acid which causes
arthritis. Corrosion parameters for two implants were calculated which include
corrosion potentials (Ecorr), corrosion current densities (icorr), cathodic and anodic Tafel
slops (bc & ba), polarization resistance (Rp) and corrosion rates (CR).
Increases uric acid in human body gives decreasing in corrosion rate for SS 316L
because of formation organometallic complexes between acid molecules and released
metal ions, but an increase in corrosion rate for Co-Cr-Mo alloy because of low affinity
of cobalt ions to formation organometallic complexes. General comparison between
two implants shows that the Co-Cr-Mo alloy has lower corrosion rate than SS 316L in
the same conditions due to Cr content. This means that using Co-Cr-Mo alloy better
than SS 316L as bioimplant.

Effect Of Reinforced by Coconut Fiber Core on The Mechanical Properties for Un-Saturated Polyester Matrix Composite Material

Hind Basil Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 17, Pages 296-308

This work involves study tensile strength; hardness and thermal conductivity of
composite material consist of coconut fibers mixed with polyester resin. This
composite material was prepared by adding three percentage of coconut shells (1,2 and
3) wt% . addition of coconut shells improved mechanical properties for composite
material with three percentages , while led to decrease thermal conductivity because it
is behave as insulated material.