Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 31, Issue 18

Volume 31, Issue 18, October 2013, Page 1-160


Experimental Study of Drag Reduction Phenomena within Pipe Flow in a Closed Circuit System Using Surfactant Additives

S. A. Alramadhni; N. J. Saleh; G. A.R. Rassol

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 18, Pages 1-13

Pipe lines and tubes are used throughout the worlds for the economic transportation of crude oil, petroleum derivatives, gas and water. A drag reduction phenomenon within pipe flow in a closed circuit system was studying experimentally using Surfactant Additives.
Closed circuit system consist of two loops pipes (0.0254 m & 0.0508 m) ID respectively was constructed from carbon steel metal , total length of pipe was around 16 m and the test section was 4m. Similar closed circuit system consist of two loops of PVC pipes with the same diameters were also built. The idea of using PVC pipe was to be used inside carbon steel pipe to get smooth surface similar to using complaint coating like epoxy or polyethylene or poly vinyl chloride (PVC).
The effect of using two kinds of Anionic and Nonanionic surfactants (SDBS, POEA) Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate and Polyoxyethylene Alcohol respectively were studied, Small amount of surfactant additives (50 ppm up to 300 ppm), were added to the solvent (kerosene) which was selected to be the fluid flow through the closed circuit system, choosing kerosene ( refinery product) to improve its flow (increasing flow rate).
A comparison between results obtained by carbon steel and PVC pipes were carried out. The best results obtained indicate that PVC pipe gave around (53% -66%) flow rate increase in kerosene compared with flowing in carbon steel pipe. On addition of additives for SDBS in kerosene improved flow rate about (61% to 69%).

Experimental Study and Simulation of Iraqi Heavy Naphtha Catalytic Reforming Reactions Using Pt-Ir-Sn/AL2O3 and Pt-Ir/AL2O3 Catalysts

Ramzy S. Hamied; Shahrazad R. Raouf; Khalid A. Sukkar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 18, Pages 14-35

In present study experimental and mathematical model have been carried out to describe the reaction kinetics of catalytic reforming process using Iraqi heavy naphtha as a feedstock for the process. Two types of catalysts were prepared (Pt-Ir-Sn/AL2O3 and Pt-Ir/AL2O3) supported on γ-AL2O3. The main three described reforming reactions were investigated (dehydrogenation, hydrocracking, and dehydrocyclization) to characterize catalysts performance in term of activity and selectivity. The performance of catalysts were investigated under the following operating condition: reaction temperature range of 480-510 ˚C, weight hour space velocity range of 1-2hr-1, pressure at 6 atm, and hydrogen to hydrocarbon ratio of 4:1.
The results show higher conversion of Iraqi heavy naphtha components (i.e., Paraffins and Naphthenes) with higher temperatures whereas; weight hourly space velocity has shown negative impact on conversion (i.e., higher WHSV shows lower conversion). In general, it was noted that the yields of aromatics and light components are increased for both types of catalysts (Pt-Ir-Sn/AL2O3 and Pt-Ir/AL2O3) under the same operating conditions. Results of tri-metal catalyst better than bi-metal catalyst.
A comprehensive mathematical model and simulation was developed in the present work to describe the reaction kinetics of reforming reactions. The model predicts the concentration, conversion, and temperature profile with time and axial direction of the reactor. The comparison between experimental and simulation results of the concentrations of (Paraffin’s, Naphthenes, and Aromatics), and temperature showed a good agreement with a deviation confined 19.50%.

Hydroisomerization and Hydrocracking of n-Heptane over Nanoporous Trimetallic (Pt-Ni-Co/SBA-15 Catalyst)

Talib M.Albayati; Aidan M. Doyle

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 18, Pages 36-52

The heterogeneous hydroisomerization and hydrocracking of n-heptane was carried out within the pores of the mesoporous SBA-15 silicas, within which was encapsulated trimetallic nanoparticles of Pt-Ni-Co. The structural and textural features of the nanoporoussilicas, both with and without encapsulated nanoparticles, were characterised using small angle X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDAX, nitrogen adsorption-desorptionporosimetry/BET surface area analysis,Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopyand transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
Catalytic testing was conducted using a plug-flow reactor in a catalyst testing rig under tightly controlled conditions of temperature, reactant flow rate and pressure.Species were leaving the reactor andanalysed by Gas Chromatography. The results show thatPt-Ni-Co/SBA-15 had a high activity for conversion of n-heptane (around 85%). The catalyst was found to be stable to heating and did not undergo any significant deactivation during reaction at temperatures up to 400 °C.

Developing a Database System for the Laboratory Tests

Nahla Alwan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 18, Pages 53-68

The objective of this research was to develop a database to store results of laboratory tests of crude oil and this will lead to improve the quality of Petroleum products and to reduce operating cost in the same time. Statistical process control give many tools including the seven quality tools which can be used to determine if the manufacturing process within control limits of crude oil specification and to detect any problem. Using Microsoft Access 2007 program offers many possibilities such as developing database, using statistical tools, building form, query, generating reports, importing and exporting data to statistical program such as Microsoft Excel 2007. Therefore the development of a database with Microsoft Access 2007 will provide electronic data store and using statistical control tools and this will leads to diagnosis problems in production process and improve the quality of petroleum products

Modeling of Pollutants Prediction from Fuel Burning in Oil and Gas Refineries

Qais A. Rishack; Salih E.Najim; Rafid M. Hannun; Nick Syred

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 18, Pages 69-87

Oxides of nitrogen (NO + NO2 , (NOx)) are emitted from refineries, not only contribute to the production of photochemical smog at ground level but also cause damage to plant life and add to the problem of acid rain. The small amounts of prompt NO produced in the furnace chambers and oil refineries because the formation of NOx can be attributed to four distinct chemical kinetic processes: thermal NOx formation, prompt NOx formation, fuel NOx formation, and intermediate N2O.
In this paper, the portions of pollutants that resulted in fuel burning (liquid or gas) in oil and gas refinery were studied by modeling of emitted gases in furnace chamber. The case study at Nassiriya power plant with different loads (70 – 210) MW was studied. The method of finite volume was studied to predict the pollutant portions by using FLUENT computer code (FLUENT is one of largest codes of computer programs which solve thousands of flow and combustion cases. The case study was drawn graphically then imported to solve by FLUENT). These types of pollution species are NOx and SOx as the important air pollutant influenced the human health. The numerical analysis in calculating the pollutants of chamber gave the findings of crude oil emission in combustion is higher than that at using gaseous fuel.
So, the methods of decreasing NOx and SOx pollution by water injection and exhaust gas recirculation are used in refinery operation were presented

Treatment of Oily Wastewater by Induced Air Flotation

Thamer .J.Mohammed; Shahad .S. Mohammed; Zaidoon khalaf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 18, Pages 88-99

In this study induced air flotation (IAF) through Perspex glass column (ID 10cm and 150 cm heights) has been studied experimentally to treat the oily wastewater of Iraqi North Oil Company. The column operated in a semi-batch mode (batch wastewater, continuous air injection).
Different samples of oily wastewater (30,100,800ppm) were used. Air introduced at different superficial gas velocity through porous (pore size 120µm) distributor which located at the bottom of column. Different speed of the stirrer (50 to 250) rpm was used to indicate it effect on the removal efficiency of oil from water.
The study showed that the removal efficiency of oil was increased with increasing initial oil concentration, it reached up to 76 %. While it became 89% when using stirrer.
The experimental results were translated to a computer program to predicate empirical correlation.

Simulation and Optimization of Depropanizer Using Hysys Simulation Package

Nidhal M. Abdul Razzak Al-Azzawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 18, Pages 100-121

A new depropanizer is designed for the revamped petrochemical complex PC1 in Basrah. Conventional fractionation column is used to match the design of the existing plant. The feed to the new depropanizer is the bottom product of the revamped deethanizer of the ethylene plant. Hysys package (3.2) is used for the short-cut method, rigorous model and tray sizing. Different variables have been studied such as total number of stages, reflux ratio, feed location and feed temperature. The optimum number of stages is found to be (55) stages and the feed location is at tray 25th from top, with feed temperature of 32ºC. The tray layout and sizing is estimated using Hysys, all trays are forced to have the same design so that the column maintains the same diameter throughout its height.

Investigation the Activity of Pd Loading on Commercial Monolithic Catalyst in Automobile Exhaust Gases

AbdulHalim Abdul K .Mohammed; Shahrazad R. Rauof; Intisar Hussain Khalaf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 18, Pages 122-135

Catalytic monolith reactors have numerous applications in industrial processes and as technical devices, so the focus is set specially on automotive catalytic converters.
The present work aimed to study the experimental performance of monolith reactor on the oxidation and reduction of exhaust gas (NO, CO, and HC) which emitted from gasoline generator. Commercial and modified commercial ceramic monolith catalyst was used in the present work. The modified commercial catalyst was obtained by loaded Pd metal .A laboratory unit was constructed for this purpose where a versatile stainless steel monolith reactor of 0.02 m inside diameter and 0.2 m height was used.The catalytic performance of the catalysts was studied in the following operating conditions, in a border range of gas space velocity(17.69 – 44.23s-1), reaction temperature(373 – 673 K), bed length(0.075 – 0.15 m) and at atmospheric pressure and constant air/fuel ratio (14.6).
The results show that the conversion of NO, CO and HC are slightly changed with the bed length . The conversion of exhaust gas reactant enhances in presence of water, increases with the increasing reaction temperature and decreases with increasing gas space velocity. Monolithic catalyst which loaded with 0.4% Pd gives high conversion compared with an commercial catalyst (unloaded) for the HC oxidation reaction more than CO oxidation and NO reduction.

Effects of Raw Oil Deposits upon Occupationally Exposed Workers

Sedik A.K. Al-Hiyaly; Layla L. Alwan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 18, Pages 136-146

Consumption raw oil may cause different pollutants which may have various environmental and health effects upon those occupationally exposed workers in industrial activities that used this energy.
A total of 60 workers from Qubiasa cement factory and 10 individuals from well away sites were examined during this work for vanadium blood content after being subjected to personal interview using questionnaire sheet consisting information health background and any signs that may be accounted for certain organic and psychological syndromes.
The results have found that vanadium blood content in occupationally exposed sample was varied from 9.07 ± 3.73 µg/cm³ to 16.89 ± 7.79 µg/cm³ and in environmentally exposed sample was 6.82 ± 1.69 µg/cm³ while in control sample was 4. 42 ± 0.7 µg/cm³. This, blood vanadium content was significantly (P ≥ 0.05) related to the exposure periods.
Also, this work has shown that several health symptoms such as teeth decay , hair fallen , weight fluctuation and vision impairment in most of those occupationally exposed workers while such signs were not found in both environmental and control samples Interestingly, the number of health syndromes that tested workers had, were found to be due ( P ≥ 0.05 ) to exposure times and not to the worker age.
However, the most occupationally examined workers have shown several psychological problems such as stress, depression and malaise. Finally, this study may need further investigations on similar samples to support a conclusion that these signs may be accounted for early diagnosing of any health sever or even lethal diseases to avoid such various diseases infections by different air contaminants caused by raw oil consumptions.

Removal of Phenols from Refinery Wastewater using Trickle Bed Reactor

Muhammad Fadel Abd; Farah Talib Jasim; Luma Shihab Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 18, Pages 147-160

The present work aims to study the performance of a trickle bed reactor for phenol degradation in refinery wastewater by investigating the applicability of a commercial 0.5% platinum/alumina catalyst, which is used currently for desulfurization process in the North Refinery Company-Iraq. Synthetic wastewater experimentally was prepared to simulate the specification of samples taken from North Company Refinary. Results showed that initial phenol concentration had adverse effect on phenol removal. The results exhibited that the highest phenol conversion of (98.47%) was obtained over 0.5% Pt/γ-Al2O3 at the studied conditions (i.e., operating pressur 0.8 Mpa, operating temperature 1200C, LHSV 2.5 h-1, and air superficial velocity 0.25 m/s), with initial phenol concentration of 200 mg/L. The present method characterized by low residence time, the end-products are environmantally harmless no sludge production which requires further treatment

To Prepare Special Formula to be Used as Diesel Fuel

Taghreed M. Hameed; Laith Hamzah Thuaban; Seham Mzher; Aqeel Talip Jafar; Wurood Ali Aboud

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 18, Pages 1-10

The basic idea for this research is summarized in preparing special formula consisting of cut hydrocarbon petroleum with pure water and a combination of surface tension materials and the formula prepared in the form of emulsion (diesel-water) which is being stabilized in storage temperature and at temperatures and colliding pressure during use .The prepared emulsion is used in the interior combustion engines to increase the efficiency of fuel and reducing of toxic gases emissions and contaminated particles.
Iraqi diesel fuel product in" Daura Refinery” was selected and the emulsion was prepared by mixing with gradual addition of water to the diesel containing small amounts of (surface- tension) material. In this research variables and optimum conditions of preparation and their impact on stability were studied such as water/diesel ratio, concentration of surfactants, mixing periods and mixing speeds. The physical properties of formula prepared were measured such as density, viscosity and surface tension. The results show that the optimum conditions of preparation were: 5% water/diesel ratio; 0.2% concentration of surfactants; 3 min. mixing period and 4000 rpm mixing speed.

To Study the Viscosity Index of SN500 and SN150 Base Oil with Vegetable Oil and Selective Polymers as Additives

Kitab Omer Mohammed; Rafi Jamal yacoup

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 18, Pages 11-25

Viscosity index is one of the most important parameter for the lubricating oils performance. The effect of additives on the viscosity index for mineral lubricating oils SN500 and SN150 have been studied by adding castor oil, olive oil, corn oil, sunflower oil in addition to Glue Adhesive and poly isotridecanol ethoxylated used by North Oil Refineries Company for comparison the results. The viscosity has been measured at 40°C and 100°C according to ASTM D445 and viscosity index calculated according to ASTM D2270. It has been found that corn oil has the best effect of the vegetable oils in improving the viscosity index of the mineral base oils. The influence of additives on the pour point was also evaluated, castor oil showed the best result of all vegetable oil in depressing the pour point of the Base oil.

Preparation of Biopolymer and to Study Its Possibility to Remove Vanadium from Crued Oil

Muntaha N athewani Abedl Hussin abedoun; Muhanad Zuhair Abdulrahman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 18, Pages 26-32

Syntheses of biopolymer (Alginic acid) was made by reaction of sodium alginate with hydrochloric acid (concs) in aqueous ethanol with ratio (30:70) as adsorption material to remove vanadium from crude oil directly during the purification.
Effect of come factors on adsorption steps by this acid were studied such of time, pH value and concentration.
The capability of this biopolymer for adsorption (in aqueous solution) was known form previous study , and this property become useful to help this work for removing of vanadium from crude oil as take place in refinery. The results also showed that the concentration of Vanadium was decreases with the greater weight of the polymer additive, where focus was before Added 75.0 ppm, while the 67.5 ppm , when adding 0.025g, of polymer. And became (18.75ppm) after the addition of 0.05g of the polymer, Thus results show that whenever the greater weight of the polymer, decreased the concentration of Vanadium.

Laboratory Study for Histopathological Effects Propduced from Exposure of Common Carp Fish Cyprinus Carpio L. of Al-Dora Refinery Waste

Sarab R.M; Majida S.A; Ghadaa A. H; Russul B. H

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 18, Pages 33-41

The pathological effect due to effect of petroleum hydrocarbon on common carp Cyprinus carpio and then reflected indirectly on human health was studied. Seven groupsof fish were exposed to seven different concentrations (0.04,0.08,0.12,0.16,0.20,0.24,0.28)ml100ml consequences , the eighth group was left as control group (without addition) The fish was observed for 72 hours to detect the non killed concentration (LC0),the concentration kill half (LC50) and concentration killed to all (LC100) (0.20,0.24,0.28)ml/100ml respectively . A group of fish was exposed acutely to the concentration (0.20) that does not killed. The fish carried to another aquarium contain tap water and watched for seven days after that we take tissue sections from the exposure fish organs (liver, intestine , muscles, gills, brain, kidney ).The samples was diagnosed Histopathologically, The Results showed an appearance of pathological signs represented by nervous signs, abnormal swimming produce by toxic effect on the central nervous system and histopathological changes represented by congestion of blood vessels, perivascular inflammatory cuffing chronic type in addition to vaculation of the cell and single cell necrosis in some of them