Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 31, Issue 3

Volume 31, Issue 3, February 2013, Page 40-409

Study the Effect of Annealing Temperature on Some Physical properties of CdO Thin Film Using a Gas Sensor for CO and H2

Hayder Mohammed Ajeel; Ashwaq A. Jabor; Mohammad Khamas Khalaf; Resoul Hussain Mukalaf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 286-297

We have investing the effect of annealing treatment of CdO films, deposited by chemical deposition using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique , on the film properties . The CdO thin film were Prepared by using cadmium acetate at concentration (0.03M) and base solution from ammonium hydroxide solution on glass substrate. .It's found that the optical, electrical and gas sensing (H2, CO) properties of the films are effected by the annealing temperature.

Isolation and Characterization of Nisin-Like Peptide Produced by Lactococcuslactis Isolated from Indian Curd

Saba A. Mahdy; P.T. Kalaichelvan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 298-309

Twenty isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from traditional dairy Indian curd were tested for sugar fermentation test, strains were preliminarily identified as Lactococcuslactis sp. lactis by physiological and biochemical test. The identification by PCR analysis and partial 16S rRNA confirmed that N5 were 100% identical to Lactococcus. lactissp. lactis. The results revealed that only the bacteriocin produced from strain N5 was shown as being active against mostly gram positive bacterial indicators. The bacteriocin produced also exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on the foodborn pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, which is mostly reported as the dominant foodborn pathogen in foods. This bacteriocin producing LAB The bacteriocin has a broad antibacterial spectrum similar to that of nisin and inhibited several related species of lactic acid bacteria and other Gram-positive bacteria. The inhibitory activity of the bacteriocin was found to be stable over a wide range of pH and temperature. The molecular weight of the peptide was judged to be 3.5 kDa by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results indicate that bacteriocin produced by L. lactis sp. lactis N5 is a nisin-like bacteriocin.

Antimicrobial Effect of Pomegranate Peel Extract on Some Pathogenic Microorganisms

Suhad A. Ahmed; Nagham H. Abood; Abbas A. Al-Janabi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 316-324

A different concentration of pomegranate peel extract were prepared (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5mg/ml) and tested their effect on the growth of some pathogenic microorganisms including (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaricus, Candida tropicalis and Candida albicans). The results showed a significant sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaricus, Candida tropicalis and Candida albicans to the concentrations starting from 0.3mg/ml except E. coli which exhibited significant sensitivity to the concentration 0.2mg/ml. The yeast isolates showed a significant sensitivity to the pomegranate peel extract start from 0.4mg/ml concentration.

Genetic Based Method for Mining Association Rules

Bushra Khireibut Jassim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 325-331

In this paper genetic based method proposed for mining association rule, the benefit of this method it mining association rule in one step and it does not require the user-specified threshold of minimum support and minimum confidence deciding suitable threshold values of support and confidence is critical to the quality of association rule technology. Specific mechanisms for crossover operators have been designed to extract interesting rules from a transaction database.
The method proposed in this paper is successfully applied to real-world database. The results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is a practical method for mining association rules.

I-V and C-V Characteristics of Porous Silicon Nanostructures by Electrochemical Etching

Fatima I. Sultan; Amna A. Slman; Uday M. Nayef

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 332-338

Porous silicon (PS) layers has been prepared in this work by electrochemical etching (ECE) technique of a p-type silicon wafer with resistivity (1.5-4 Ω.cm) in hydrofluoric (HF) acid of 20% concentration. Various affecting studied etching time (10, 30, and 45 min) and current density (15 mA/cm2). We have study the morphological properties (AFM) and the electrical properties (I-V and C-V).
The atomic force microscopy investigation shows the rough silicon surface, with increasing etching process (etching time) porous structure nucleates which leads to an increase in the depth and width (diameter) of surface pits. Consequently, the surface roughness also increases.
The electrical properties of prepared PS; namely current density-voltage characteristics under dark, show that the pass current through the PS layer decreased by increasing the etching time, due to increase the resistivity of PS layer. The PS layer shows a rectifying behaviour with different rectification ratio. C-V measurements shows that the increase of the etching time decreases the capacitance of the PS layer. This behavior was attributed to the increasing in the depletion region width which leading to the increasing of built-in potential.

Characteristics of Nanostructure Porous Silicon Prepared by Anodization Technique

Ayoub H. Jaafar; Uday M. Nayef

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 339-347

Porous silicon (PS) layers are prepared by anodization for different current densities. The samples are then characterized the nanocrystalline porous silicon layer by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Reflectivity and Raman. PS layers were formed on a p-type Si wafer. anodized electrically with a 10 and 40 mA/cm2 current density for fixed 20 min etching times.
We have estimated crystallites size from X-Ray diffraction about nanoscale for porous silicon and AFM confirms the nanometric size and therefore optical properties about nanocrystalline silicon yields a Raman spectrum showing a broadened peak shifted below 520 cm-1.

Enhancement of Porous Silicon Formation by Using Laser Irradiation

Aseel A. Hadi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 348-356

In this work porous silicon where prepared by chemical etching assisted with laser. The structural and optical properties of porous silicon are investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and FTIR spectroscope. FTIR spectrum exhibit the formation of SiHx (x=1,2) and Si-O bonds. The atomic force microscopy AFM investigation shows the surface roughness (RMS observed was 1.52nm with laser and 1. 86 nm without laser ) and pyramid like hillocks surface on entire surface which can be regarded as a condensation point to form small skeleton clusters which plays an important role for the strong visible luminescence.

A Simple Hybrid Scheme for Denoisin the Medical Ultrasound Images

Nedhal Kareem; Yasmin Abdul Ghani; Mais Abid Khalil

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 357-367

The medical ultrasound images are usually corrupted by type of noise called ‘speckle’. This noise is caused by the coherent nature of the scattering phenomenon. There are many filters used to reduce the effect of speckle noise like mean, median, Lee, Kaun, Gamma, Weiner, Frost. Recently, One of the most commonly speckle denoising filter is wavelet filter.
In this paper, A simple hybrid scheme is suggest to denosing the ultrasound images. this scheme consist from two interacted filter (winner and mean filter) with window size 3*3 and designed simple adaptive filter(SAF). The adaptation of SAF depends on nonlinear gain function. In order to test the efficiency of the suggested scheme, its performance was compared with performance of other filters like mean, wiener, and wavelet filter

Characteristic of Hybrid Chestnut shell Fillers/ Epoxy composite

Sewench N.Rafeeq; Samah M.Hussein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 368-380

This paper presents the study of characteristic including (mechanical, thermal, and some dielectric properties) of chestnut shell filler/ epoxy composite. Composite plate was made by hand-layup technique. The filler content was 5% by weight. The tensile, impact, hardness, flexural strength and compression were showed to be increased while Young's modulus was little increased. The dielectric strength, dielectric constant, and volume resistivity were evaluated. The bending (Young's modulus values) and hardness tests were also estimated as a function of water submersion time at room temperature for a period up to 8weeks. The obtained results indicated that the composite has responded to water absorption.

Design of Software Approach for Speeding up Addition Arithmetic Operation

Imad Matti Bakko

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 381-390

This paper presents a new method to perform arithmetic addition operation on numbers in a faster way in comparison with the exist one on computers.
The proposed method builds a new architecture for the Adder Circuit in the CPU, which does not perform any carry operations. In fact, there is no need for a waiting time to perform carrying bits from low order positions to high order positions when adding two numbers.
The new method is successfully tested with many different examples.

The Photoluminescence Characteristics of Partially and Fully (P-N) Porous Silicon

Alwan M. Alwan; Muna. S. M. Jawad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 391-399

In this work, we present results of photoluminescence (PL) properties of fully (p-n) porous silicon device. Porous silicon layer has been prepared by Photo-electrochemical etching under different etching time of abrupt (p-n) silicon junction. The photoluminescence spectra, it is found that the formation of fully penetrate porous silicon layer can lead to decrease in the photoluminescence intensity. The reduction of the PL intensity is referred to the increase of non- radiative recombination process between the electron and hole. The obtained fully porous silicon layer in high etching time regime and this layer cannot be used for perpetration of light emitting devices, while the partially (p-n) porous silicon layer in the PL intensity has a higher value and good characteristics, this layer is suitable for (LED).

Antimicrobial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Myrtus Communis Extract

Ghassan M. Sulaiman; Hamssa E. Abd-ul-Wahed; Afnan Ismail Abd-ul-Wahab; Abbas Abdullah Mohammad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 400-409

In this work, antimicrobial potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized from extract of Myrtus communis on different pathogenic bacteria and yeast was investigated. 10 mL of extract was mixed with 90 mL of 2 mM aqueous AgNO3 and heated at 70 °C for 3 min. A change from greenish to dark brown color was observed. Characterization using UV-VIS spectrophotometery and X- ray diffraction analysis were performed. The UV-Vis spectral analysis showed silver surface plasmon resonance band at 425 nm. X- ray diffraction showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centered cubic structure (FCC) of the bulk silver with broad beaks at 38.50° and 44.76°. Antimicrobial activity against six microorganisms was tested using well diffusion method. The synthesized silver nanoparticles efficiently inhibited various pathogenic organisms in a dose-dependent manner was more pronounced against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria. The approach of green synthesis seems to be cost effective, eco-friendly and easy alternative to conventional methods of silver nanoparticles synthesis. The powerful bioactivity demonstrated by the synthesized silver nanoparticles leads towards the clinical use as antimicrobial.

Induction of Sperm Head Abnormalities in Male Mice by Using Dill Extracts

Abbas A. Al-Janabi; Suhad A. Ahmed; Mohamad Kamal Amin; Dalal sabri bedan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 40-48

The objective of the present study is to detect the genetic effects of methanolic extract of Dill plant in morphological phenotypic big sperm abnormalities of male mice (Mus musculus).Sixty mice were used and divided into three groups by 20 mice for each group and each group was divided in turn into four groups: the first control group, while tested the remaining three groups with alcohol extract in concentrations ranged (0.5, 1, 2) mg/ml within periods (1, 3, 5) week. The results showed the presence of abnormal change in the form of the heads of sperm in the stages of spermatids ,spermatocytes and spermatogonia where it was observed the presence of significant differences (P≤ 0.05) in sperm cells and spermatocytes of the sperm when compared with control while the difference was highly significant (P≤ 0.01) in spermatogonia and for the three doses in a period of 5 weeks. So we can conclude that doses of dill extract may permanently sterilize mice.

Study the Physical Properties of Polymer Blends Reinforced by Metal Laminates and Micro Cotton Powder

Balkees M. D. Al-Dabbagh; Alaa Mohammed Hamzah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 49-65

This research includes the preparation of polymers mixtures consists of resins (Unsaturated Polyester with Polyurethane) (UP+PU), where the optimal mixing ratio has been selected on the basis of the best impact strength. It is found that the mixing ratio with percentage (60% Polyester+40% Polyurethane), where it has been used to prepare the samples. The mechanical tests have been performed on the prepared samples; in addition the effect of increasing the temperature (22±2 °C (R.T.), 35±4°C, 50±4 °C) has been studied on the samples. A four samples where prepared from the polymers mixtures using the above mentioned mixing ratio by using the method of hand casting technique; these samples are: polymers mixture consisting of (UP+PU), added to it the micro cotton powder with weight ratio (2%) once and for copper by weight ratio (39%) with volumetric fraction of copper (5%) again, as well as composite material was prepared from the same polymers mixture adding to it micro cotton powder filling and chips together in the same weight ratios mentioned earlier. Some mechanical tests were conducted include: (Flexural strength and Tensile strength). A sample of the four polymers mixtures have been examined using the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and study the effect of adding reinforcement materials, and also study the topography of the surface of each sample and the knowledge the fine structure for each mixture. Results showed that the reinforced blends with micro cotton powder and copper (UP+PU+MC+Cu) possess better mechanical properties of Flexural strength and Tensile strength, also it has all tests are affected by temperatures.