Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 31, Issue 4

Volume 31, Issue 4, March 2013, Page 66-558

Additional Processes in Prearation Tank and Primary Settling Tank for Wastewater Treatment Using Laboratory Unit

Ali. S.Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 410-418
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.4B.1

Laboratory unit was designed to simulate (T2) line in Alrustamyia station for sewage treatment southern part of Baghdad city . The work involved two stages, before and after prearation tank and primary settling tank. Storage wastewater samples problem was overcome through using rotary cooling system at 2 C . The encouraging results obtained from previous work (new chemical treatment of prearated wastewater) were employed for the completion of our continuous feeding experiments on a laboratory unit scale . The flow rate was used as a control factor for monitoring the concentration of pollutants in the treated wastewater treated . The selected flow rate included the basic design flow rate of the T2 line (1X) and new flow rates (2X and 4X). The our new techniques involved the continuous feeding were reduced the concentrations ofBiological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Suspended Solid (TSS), liberated the entrapped oil and greases as well as reducing other pollutants. It was found that 2X flow rate was the best flow rate which doubled the quantity of wastewater treated and reduced the resident time of treatment to the half.

Ontology Based Image Analysis in Autonomous Computer Environment

Mohammed Gheni Alwan; Ali Shawket Thiab; Ragheed Dawood Salim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 419-430
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.4B.2

Human visual system can interpret and perceive images at different levels where colour, shape, texture and object detection are low level features interpreted well by healthy human visual system, in the same manner detected objects are perceived according to ontological approach.
This paper is devoted to present Content Based Image Retrieval system as continues efforts to bridging the semantic gap between semantic concepts and low level feature of images.
The proposal presented by this paper is focusing on investigating images for conceptual objects topology, by integrating knowledge of multiple Agents collaborated to abstract images into concepts.
Agents individually or collaboratively will promote low level image features to semantic concepts and these concepts will be subjected to certain ontology designed in specific domain to semantically index this image and later to be retrieved according to special query accommodating indexing strategy.

Dill Effected on lipid profile of mice

Suhad A. Ahmed; Abbas A. Mohammed; Sallal A. Abdullah; Ali H. Saadoon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 431-435
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.4B.3

The present study was carried out to determine the effect of methanol extract of Anethumgraveolens(Dill) on serum lipoproteins in hypercholesterolaemic mice.A total of 24 male mice (average 25gm body weight) were used in this study. Mice were divided into four groups was injected with 100mg/kg ofalloxan to induce hyperglycemic in mice, the first group (1) was used as control (+ve) group (6 mice) which fed on basal diet only and the other three groups fed on basal diet containing 0.5, 1 and 2mg/ml of methanol extract (single daily dose of 1 ml). The experimental feeding period was 21 days.The changes in serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured by using enzymatic kits.However, the HDL-Cconcentrate decreased relative to control mice. Treatment of hyperlipidaemic mice with dill extract in concentration 1 and 2mg/ml up to 21 days reversed the serum lipid levels compared to mice which were fed basal diet only.

Optical Spectral Study of Rhodamine Dyes Mixture Solution in Chloroform

Slafa Ismael Ibrahim; Majid Hameed Abdulmajeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 436-447
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.4B.4

The spectral properties (absorption and fluorescence) of laser dyes (Rhodamine6G, Rhodamine 3GO and Rhodamine B) mixture have been studied. This type of laser dye belongs to the Xanthenes family, it has dissolved in chloroform to prepare (1*10-5 M) in different ratio such as (1R6G:1R3GO:1RB, 2R6G:1R3GO:1RB, 3R6G:1R3GO:1RB, 4R6G:1R3GO:1RB, 1R6G:2R3GO:1RB, 1R6G:3R3GO:1RB, 1R6G:4R3GO:1RB, 1R6G:1R3GO:2RB, 1R6G:1R3GO:3RB, and 1R6G:1R3GO:4RB) at room temperature.
The quantum efficiency of the dissolved Rhodamine in chloroform has been computed by using the above ratio and their results are as follows (89%,92%, 93%,95%,92%,93%,94%,84%,84%,and 84%) respectively.
The Radiative lifetime have been computed as given
(0.188,0.19,0.203,0.209,0.198,0.196,0.201,0.191,0.207,and0.219ns)respectively. Fluorescence lifetime have been also computed as given
(0.167,0.174,0.189,0.198,0.182,0.183,0.189,0.160,0.174,and0.184ns) respectively.

Auto TellerMachine (ATM) System security with user Signature Image as Password

Mais Abid Khalil

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 448-459
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.4B.5

This Paper will discuss Auto Teller Machine (ATM) system security facts and theft problems, crimes, hacking and attacks. In this paper will Implement ATM system that use the user signature image as password beside user’s PIN information, to realize more secure verification and authentication to ATM bank users, also to strength the ATM security for prevent theft and to combat ATM crime. The ATM system will implement Inquiry, Deposit, and Withdrawal transactions for users.

Annealing Effect on the Growth of Nanostructured TiO2 Thin Films by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD)

Sarmad S.Kaduory; Ali A.Yousif; Adawiya J. Haider; Khaled Z.Yahya

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 460-470
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.4B.6

In this work, Nanostructured TiO2 thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique on glass substrates at 300 °C. TiO2 thin films were then annealed at 400-600 °C in air for a period of 2 hours. Effect of annealing on the structure, morphology and optical properties were studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements confirmed that the films grown by this technique have good crystalline tetragonal mixed anatase and rutile phase structure and homogeneous surface. The study also reveals that the RMS value of thin films roughness increased with increasing annealing temperature .The optical properties of the films were studied by UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The optical transmission results shows that the transmission over than ~65% which decrease with the increasing of annealing temperatures. The allowed indirect optical band gap of the films was estimated to be in the range from 3.49 to 3.1 eV. The allowed direct band gap was found to decrease from 3.74 to 3.55 eV with the increase of annealing temperature. The refractive index of the films was found from 2.27 -2.98 at 550nm. The extinction coefficient increase with annealing temperature.

Color Removal from Industrial Textile Wastewater Using Chemical Adsorption

Najah M. Al-Shuwaiki; Balasim A. Abid; Mahmood M. Brbooti

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 471-489
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.4B.7

Industrial wastewaters from local state textile industry (Al-Khadimia Textile Co.) as well as aqueous prepared solutions of color dyes were subjected to simple physico-chemical treatment. The effect of pollutants concentrations, magnesia and other coagulants doses, filtration rate and the overall run time on the water quality were studied in detail.
The treatment involves the addition of either magnesia or lime-water suspensions (combined with CPE) in various doses, 0.1-1.0 g/l to the wastewater and colored samples, to study the effect of varying doses on the treatment efficiency. The optimum values of MgO doses were found to be 0.2-0.4 g/l for synthetic colored. Doses of 0.05-0.2 g/l were the best for industrial wastewater. The removal efficiency of all the pollutants in the different samples increases to more than 95% by increasing the pH values to the range of 9.5 to 10 with MgO coagulant and pH of 11.5 to 12 with CaO coagulant.
In the jar experiments the rotation speed, N, of 120-140 rpm, for two minutes was the most favorable speed of coagulation mixing for industrial waters. For flocculation, the mixing speed of 35-40 rpm, (G of 40-45 s-1) gave the best removal efficiencies with 20-30 min detention time.
At the best operating conditions of the pilot plant, the removal efficiencies of Turbidity, TSS, and color were 97-99%, 94-96%, 94-95%. The TDS removal efficiency was of 39% for Al-Khadimia wastewater.

A Comparison between Single and Multi- Crossover Pointsto Break Hill Cipher Using Heuristic Search: MA & GA

Dalal A. Hammood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 490-504
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.4B.8

Hill cipher is a classical cipher which is based on linear algebra. In this method, matrices and matrix multiplication have been used to combine the plaintext.
Heuristic search is a search techniques. The methods of HS are: (GA, SE, EP, MA, TS). Genetic algorithms are one of Heuristic search, it is search techniques which is used natural selection. GAs select optimal solution through three operations, they are : selection, crossover and mutation. The parameters are kept in memory and the best values of fitness have been selected to represent next generation.
Memetic Algorithm is one of Heuristic search , a memetic algorithm is an extension of the traditional genetic algorithm. It uses a local search technique to reduce the likelihood of the convergence, to reach the best solution.
This paper focuses on using MA and GA to find optimal solution to cryptanalyse Hill cipher. Then comparing two methods of crossover to see which one has best solution, and comparing between GA and MA to see which one has best solution.
MATLAB is used as M-FILE.Theresults ofcryptanalysis cleared as following:-
1- Without genetic algorithms: The number of correct letters for the key was 1 out of 9.
2- Using genetic algorithms: two methods are used, and they have been compared of crossover, they are single and multi- crossover points randomly. After (250) generation, the number of correct letters was 4 out of 9 when single crossover point is used. The number of correct letters was 8 out of 9 when multi crossover point are used. So multi crossover point have best solution. Genetic algorithms are applied successfully.
3- Using Memetic Algorithms. After (100) generation, the number of correct letters was 8 out of 9. So MA is better than Genetic algorithms.
4- the number of correct letter was 9 out of 9 when the MA is used.

Kinetics of Growth and Structural Characterization of Cd1-Xznxs Thin Films Synthesized By Cbd Method

Selma M.H. Al-Jawad; Fadheela H.Alioy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 505-519
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.4B.9

In this paper, we reported the study of Cd1-xZnxS thin film which have been deposited on glass substrates by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD ) technique by using Cadmium sulphate, Zinc sulphate, thiourea, Ammonia and EDTA. The thickness of Cd0.5Zn0.5S thin films with different deposition times, pH, and temperature are also study and show increase with increasing times pH, and temperature. The optimum condition to prepared Cd0.5Zn0.5S thin films were obtained in times 3h, temperature 80 ºC, and pH 10.
Structure and surface morphology of Cd1-xZnxS thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force microscope (AFM), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Measurements. The XRD indicates that all the grown films show only one diffraction peak located at (2θ= 26.7°) with hexagonal structure in predominant (002). The average grain size changes from 9.3nm to 4.48nm with the increase in zinc content (x = 0 to 0.65). It was found that as the zinc content increases, the peak intensity decreases and for (x ≥ 0.7) the films have amorphous character. The values of lattice constant ‘a’ and ‘ c’ have been observed to vary with composition from 5.75 nm to 4.68 nm and 6.66 nm to 6.62 nm, respectively, with the increase in zinc content (x = 0 - 0.65). The AFM studies showed that the smooth surface texture was observed in the deposited Cd1-xZnxS films with x= 0.3, the surface roughness of the Cd1-xZnxS thin films is about 2.66nm to 9.47nm and the root mean square (RMS) is about 3.41nm to 11.9nm with increase in zinc content x = 0.3 to 0.6. The SEM exhibits that grains in the film are distributed to cover the surface of the substrate completely, the grains become small in diameters with increasing Zn-contents.

On Some Properties of Characteristics Polynomials of the Complete Graphs Kn

Nuha A. Rajab; Samaa F. Ibraheem; Eman H. Ouda

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 520-528
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.4B.10

This paper discusses the properties of the characteristic polynomial of the complete graphs Kn, n=1, 2… respective to the adjacency matrices. Two different types of matrices, the adjacency matrix and the signless Laplacian matrix, are presented. A recurrence relation for computing the characteristic polynomials depending on the adjacency matrix is introduced. We deduce that the coefficients of the polynomials based on the two different matrices have a relationship with Pascal triangle. The coefficients are computed using Matlab program. Many other properties of these coefficients are discussed also.

Object Color Estimation Using Digital Camera for Noncontact Imaging Applications (Case Study: Teeth Color Estimation)

Sinan Majid Abdul satar; Mehdi Munshid shellal; Ahmed Chyad Kadhim; Zainab M. Abdul Ameer

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 529-538
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.4B.11

There has been a considerable effort in several fields, for objective color analysis and characterization. This paper study the problem of teeth color estimation using the most common color space in current use being the Commission International ed’ Eclairage L*a*b* parameters of the captured images were derived from Photoshop software and saved as digital shade guides. A set of ceramic teeth shade was used, Images were captured with high resolution digital camera with LED flash and the data obtained was used to calculate the L*a* and b* values, these values conventionally obtained directly from RGB space. This paper proposed a method to estimating teeth color information from acquired camera data by calculating the L*a*b*values from the device independent color space the CIEXYZ space using transformation matrix which is involve calibration and characterization parts. The results showed significant correlation between data obtained from the digital camera using calibration and characterization process with that obtained from spectrophotometer, also the result showed that the digital camera can be used for color measurements in dental clinic, where the digital imaging could be an alternative for using colorimetric or spectrophotometric methods.

Biological Treatment of Grey Water Using Sequencing Batch Reactor

Rasha K. Sabri

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 539-550
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.4B.12

The present study included the application of Sequence Batch Reactor SBR technology for the treatment of domestic grey water which represents (50-80%) of the households wastewater.
Different cycle times were used 6, 8 & 12 hrs. at each cycle time, The characteristics of (PO4-1, NO3-1, COD) were studied of influent, effluent and through interaction samples in the reactor to evaluate the efficiency of the treatment technology used.
It was concluded that removal efficiency of organic matters (COD) increases with increasing the cycle time. Nitrate ( NO3-1 ) removal was dependent on the availability of nutrients for microorganisms. On the other hand, optimum removal of phosphate occurred when aerobic and anoxic periods were equal.
when comparing the values characteristics (S.S, pH) for treated grey water with the Iraqi specification, it was found that there was a fair convergence in values. As for the values of electrical conductivity (EC), they were considered suitable for good bearing salts plants according to U.S. Salinity Laboratory classification.

An Investigation of Reliability and Life Time Prediction for Power MOSFET Using Electronically and Statistical Technique

Abdul-hasan Abdallah Kadhim; Munaf Fathi Badr; Abdulkhaliq A.AL-Naqeeb

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 551-558
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.4B.13

This work is aimed to estimate the life time of the MOSFET power transistor through an empirical implementation work merged with statistical applications. In the empirical part the MOSFET power transistors are subjected to high frequency(50kHz) via an electronically controlled model using advanced driving circuit (IR2113) that reduce the Miller effect of load side reflected to the transistor gate, so minimum voltage noise , to obtain accurate results. The statistical approach is based on developing simulation technique using Weibull distribution to estimate the life time of MOSFET power transistor. Two methods (maximum likelihood and order regression) were applied for simulated data of the actual performance to provide an accurately prediction of the failure time. The transistor was tested by supply variable voltages from zero to break down voltage and different results are observed. The results show that the first of the suggested method gives a best performance for simulation results compared with the two of the conventional methods.

The Ability of Zinc Phosphide and Brodifacoum to Induce Sperm Head Abnormalities in Wildtype and Laboratory Mice

Abbas A. Mohammad; Njah Shamo Kati; Ismael Kadum Shuber

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 66-75
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.4B.14

Genotoxic effects of two wildly used rodenticides in Iraq (Zinc phosphate and Brodifacoum) were administered in to the Balbc and wildtype mice, by using sperm head abnormality and reproductive activity.The results showed that the rodenticides have the ability to induce sperm head abnormalities at equal rate in both Balbc and wildtype mice. Also these rodenticides showed a reduction in the individual of both sexes which might lead to a dominant lethal mutation
(Embryo mortality no zygotes) in both Balbc and wildtype .

Effect of External Compressive Stresses on the Path of Ultrasonic Waves Propagating in Various Cementeous Media

Anaam Wadi Watan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 76-85
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.4B.15

In this work, detailed investigation was carried out on a large number of casted cement blocks,which have been immersed in water for various time periods . It was shown that the physical and mechanical properties of the cement castings depended on the immersion period as well as on the solidification degree of the cement,which implies the effectiveness of the degree of hydration of the cement samples.These specimens were subjected to external compressive stresses,ultrasonic testing showed that the velocity of the ultrasonic waves dependent the applied stresses values .
There is a critical stress after which the velocity seem to be reduced suddenly and effectively .This may be correlated with the initiation of cracks as a first stage of failure .This sudden reduction in wave velocity was only clear in specimens whose completed hydration and curing .However, this behaviour was not exhibited in specimens with lower degrees of curing or hydration before that critical stress,the wave velocity seem to gradually reduce due to various degrees of defotmation .