Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 6,

Issue 6

Synthesis and Microbiological Investigation of Progesterone Derivatives

Hiba H. Ibraheem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 6, Pages 687-697

New derivatives of progesterone were synthesized by the reaction of progesterone with hydrazine and thiosemicarbazide then cyclized by using of ethylacetoacetate and ethylallylmalonate. The new compounds were characterized by using of Melting point and FT-IR spectroscopy. The new compounds were tested against selected types of gram positive and gram negative bacteria,and show encarge activity.

Image Coding and Decoding by Using Wavelet Transform

Maysaa Hameed Al-Hamdani

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 6, Pages 698-713

Human perception of image is, in part, reliant on detection of formant frequencies and their transitions times. Subjects utilize formant transition length to categorizei looks. Image coding and decoding by wavelet is an active area of image research and this done by take the wavelet transform to send the information the frequency domain ,impossible to recognize responsible to the filters of the program and in the same manner but in the reverse form take the inverse wavelet transform and return to the time domain .

Synthesis and Study of the Structural and Electrical Conductivity for Nanocrystalline PbS Thin Films

Ali M. Mousa; Selma M. Al-Jawad; SuadM.Kadhim Al-shammari

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 6, Pages 714-719

Structural and electrical properties of prepared nanocrystalline lead sulfide thin films were studied which deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) techniques. The films were obtained in a reaction bath at times of (15, 30, 45,60and90) min. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements confirmed that the thin films grown by this technique had good crystalline cubic structures and homogeneous surfaces. The dc electrical conductivity found in the range of 10-6 -10-5 (Ω.cm)-1.

Functionalization and Characterization of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Using Chemical Oxidation Method

Adawiya J. Haider; Mohammad . R. Mohammad; Duha S. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 6, Pages 720-727

Functionalized MWNTs have been of interest for dispersion enhancement in processing or for chemical modifications. Modification of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) by ultrasonication with oxidizing acid mixtures is frequently used to functionalize CNTs. In this work, the functionalization process of MWCNTs involves using a mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid and nitric acid (95% H2SO4: 65%HNO3, 3:1 volume ratio), ultrasonicated at 250C for 30min. The results confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). From the FTIR spectrum, the existence of carboxyl group indicates the functionalization of MWCNTs on the outer surface wall. SEM micrographs show the occurrence of surface modification on the MWCNTs structure. Finally, a well dispersed of MWCNTs colloidal was successfully obtained with less MWCNTs structure collapsed.

Classification of Images Using Decision Tree

Emad K. Jabbar; Mayada jabbar kelain

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 6, Pages 728-739

In this paper, the proposed system is based on texture features classification for multi object images by using decision tree (ID3) algorithm. The proposed system uses image segment tile base to reduce the block effect and uses (low low) Wavelet Haar to reduce image size without loss of any important information. The image texture features like (Entropy, Homogeneity, Energy, Inverse Different Moment (IDM), Contrast and Mean) are extracted from image to build database features. All the texture features extracted from the training images are coded into database features code. ID3 algorithm uses database features code for classification of images into different classes. Splitting rules for growing ID3 algorithm are Entropy, Information Gain used to build database rules, which depend on if_then format. The proposed algorithm is experimented on to test image database with 375 images for 5 classes and uses accuracy measure. In the experimental tests 88% of the images are correctly classified and the design of the proposed system in general is enough to allow other classes and extension of the set of classification classes.

Proposal to Enhance Network Routing by Using Ant Colony Optimization

Soukaena Hassan Hasheem; Duha Mustafa Saleh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 6, Pages 740-754

This research introduces a proposal to enhance routing in internetworking depending on Ant Colony Optimization (ACO). The proposal concentrate on truth said: ACO itself is a metaheuristic, so when combined with an actual problem area, it can lead to several heuristics. From that, the two ACO algorithms Ant Colony System (ACS) and MAX-MIN Ant System (MMAS)have been successfully applied to NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems, like TSP (Travel Salesman Problem), are extended to be used for solving routing problems. This research presented AntNet, based on mobile agents, whose use is currently oriented towards packet switching wirednetworks, such as Internet, which inspired from ACO, implemented then obtained results are analyzed and critical parameters are determined and so several modifications of AntNet were proposed, in what was called AntNet3.
AntNet3 improve an existing network routing technique in terms of speed of convergence when considering delay as the most important parameter for network convergence. In general the proposed modification demonstrates a method by which delay and network overhead can be significantly reduced without a higher loss rate or jitter. Experiments also indicate that the performance of the modified AntNet, AntNet3, is significantly improved when paths are long or alternative paths are few. Furthermore, under normal state of network operation, i.e. when all nodes are actively engaged in sending/receiving information, the modified AntNet significantly reduces the overall end-to-end delay.With AntNet3 route optimization will not get stranded into local optima and always new and better paths are explored even if the network topologies get changed very frequently (i.e network interfaces attached to terminals or attached to different network may become up and down very frequently physically and consequently may change the topology of the network). Hence problem of stagnation is solved. Finally, the Proposal was implemented in Visual Basic (VB8) programming language.

A New Algorithm to Preserve Sensitive Frequents Itemsets (APSFI) in Horizontal or Vertical Database

Hussein K. AL-Khafaji; Noora A. Al-Saidi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 6, Pages 755-769

This research aimed to preserve on privacy of sensitive information from adversaries. We propose an Algorithm to Preserve Sensitive Frequents Itemsets (APSFI) with two ramifications to hides sensitive frequents itemsets in horizontal or vertical databases which minimize the number of database scanning processes during hiding operation. The main approach to hide sensitive frequent itemsets is to reduce the support of each given frequents sensitive 1-itemsets to be insensitive and convert another insensitive to be sensitive in the same transaction to avoid the change of database size and transaction's nature to avoid adversaries' doubt. The experiments of APSFI showed very encouraging results; it excluded 91% of database scan operations in vertical databases and 41% in horizontal layout databases in comparison with the well-known FHSFI algorithm. The experiments depict the APSFI tolerance for database size scalability, and its linear outperformance, from execution time aspect, in contrast with FHSFI.

Speeding-Up Fractal Image Compression by Using Classification Range Blocks

Jamila Harbi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 6, Pages 770-779

In fractal compression technique, an image is partitioned into sub blocks called range blocks, each of which is encoded by matching it (after an appropriate affine transformation) with a block chosen from a large pool of domain blocks, which is constructed from the image itself. The problem is that the encoding is very time consuming because of the need to search in a very large domain pool.
Our proposed approach presents a speed algorithm to reduce the encoding time called Classification Range Blocks. This technique will be reducing the size of the domain pool. The proposed method yields superior performance over conventional fractal encoding.
In our proposed speeding technique, we partitioned the image by using fixed block size partitioning and computing the mean and variance for each blocks. The blocks have the variance ranging from (250, 500, 750, 1000, and 1250) only used in matching process between pair range-domain blocks.

Determination of the Stability Constants for some First Transition Elements Complexes with 3-(2- hydroxyl phenyl ) -2 – Pyrazoline In Aqueous Solution

Ahlam S.Maroof; Wesall Mtaab; Rasha W. Mohy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 6, Pages 780-791

Transition metal complexes Cr(III) , Fe(III) , Co(II) , Ni(II) & Cu(II) with 3-(2- hydroxy phenyl ) -2– pyrazoline have been prepared and characterized in aqueous solution. The complexes were characterized by infrared (IR), UV-visible & molar conductivity measurements. The bidentate ligand was bonded from one of the nitrogen atoms of pyrazolien & oxygen atom phenoxide group. The molecular structure for the complexes was proposed. The stability constants of these complexes were found by measuring electric molar conductivity in different concentrations was also found. The determined values of the prepared complexes increases according to the following sequence:
Co+2 > Cu+2 > Ni+2 > Fe+3 > Cr+3
This result agrees with the Irving Williamson series:-
Mn+2 < Fe+2 < Co+2 < Ni+2 < Cu+2 > Zn+2

Analytical Solution for the Fractional Partial Differential Equations by Adomian Decomposition and Modified Decomposition Method

Iman Isho Gorial

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 6, Pages 792-800

In this paper, analytical solution of the fractional partial differential equation has been presented. The algorithm for the analytical solution for this equation is based on Adomian's decomposition and modified decomposition method. The fractional derivative is described in Caputo's sense. The analytical method has been applied to solve a practical example and its results have been compared with exact solution.

Correlation of Total Cholesterol and Glucose in Serum of Iraqi Patients with Atherosclerosis and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Abbas A. Mohammed; Nidal Al Derzi; Rashed Taleb Rasheed; Hasan R. Obayes; Ghadah H. Alwan; Samah S. Adeeb; Abdulnasser M. AL-Gebori

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 6, Pages 801-808

Cholesterol is a fatty substance (lipid) classified as a waxy steroid of fat. It is absorbed by the intestine into blood stream and is packaged inside a protein coat a chylomicron. Blood glucose is a simple monosaccharide absorbed directly into the blood stream during digestion. The level of blood glucose normally represents a balance between the inflow of glucose into blood and it is uptake by the tissue. Atherosclerosis is a general term for a number of different medical conditions that affect the heart, this is occurs when the blood supply to a part of heart is interrupted, must commonly due to plaque, is build up in the coronary arteries consist of lipid cholesterol and calcium. It causes a damage of potential disease of heart muscle due to thickening and hardening of arteries. Diabetes mellitus is a disorder in which the level of blood glucose is persistently elevated above the normal range due to decrease secretion of insulin. The main objective of this study is to determine the concentrations of total cholesterol and glucose into blood serum of Iraq patients with atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus type 2. This study included 60 specimens of patients with atherosclerosis and 60 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus; their age range was 45-65 years. These patients were then matched by age and sex to 30 healthy individuals. Results revealed that there was highly significantly increased in the mean value of total cholesterol and glucose concentrations in patients of atherosclerosis (p<0.001) and diabetes mellitus (p<0.001) as compared with healthy individuals.

Influence of Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Wear of Aluminium 359.0 Alloys

Mohammed Saead Wahead; Huwaidah Ibrahim Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 6, Pages 126-138

The aim of this work is to study wearing of alloy 359.0 which are (Al-9%Si) before and after heat treatment. First heat treatment is precipitation hardening ,Second Laser surface treatment ,The microstructure after precipitation process and laser application effected on the hardness and wear rate.

The Study of Inhibitory Effects of Some Plant Extracts on Lymphocytes from Healthy Person

Azhar M. Haleem; Esmaeel K. Shubber; Abdul Wahid B. Al-Shaibani

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 6, Pages 139-155

The present study aimed to select plant extract or mix. of plant extracts have inhibition effect on Cancer cells from untreated CML patients the results showed the following.
Some plants extracts were used (aqueous, alcoholic, oily, alkaloid and flavonoids) from Nigella sativa seeds, Allium sativum Sativum and Allium sativum ophioscordon fruits and the inhibitory effects five different concentrations (0.1,1,10,10,1000) µg/ml was investigated on peripheral lymphocytes from healthy persons by using cytogenetic analysis BI,MI,RI,CA,SCE and CCP.
The alcoholism mix. have the greatest inhibitory effects by reducing all cytogenetic parameters, this was selected to study its effect on patient’s lymphocytes.

Daily Temperature Variation Effect on Air Pollutants Concentration for some Meteorological Station in Iraq

Imad Khraibet Rashid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 6, Pages 156-166

In this work, we depend onmeteorological information data taken from the Europeans Center for Medium Weather Forecasting (ECMWF).Four selected position have been investigated in Iraq : Baghdad, Basra, Mosul and Rutbathrough the whole year rangefrom 1 /1/2009 to 31/12/2009.
Also,month-hourly concentrations average have been investigated for CO, NOxconcentration , as well as , the correlation of the monthly average of CO , NOx concentration with temperature and estimatethe simple linear regression for this correlation so as to show the temperature effect on the pollutant concentrations. It found that higher monthly-hourly concentration for CO, NOx concentrations at six clock (06:00)in the morning and lower monthly-hourly concentration at six clock(18:00)in the evening at all studied position. We have concluded effect correlation of temperature on pollutant concentration it was revers correlation, whenever the temperature increased, the pollutant concentration decrease.
Higher correlation between temperature andpollutant concentration of appeared in heavypopulation areas due to human activity in different fields and that lead us toconclude two formulas. We can through these two formulas estimate pollutants concentration average and temperatureaverage if the data available of the two variables for the same studied periods.

Measurement of Fluoride Content in many Grands of Tea in Iraqi Markets

Thaer Nasser Daood AL-Saoor

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 6, Pages 167-173

The fluoride contents in the infusions of (10) commercially available in the local market in Iraq of tea brands in leaf and bag forms was determined by a fluoride ion-selective electrode method. The effect of brewing time on fluoride release from tea was assessed. Results showed that fluoride release increased with increasing brewing time (3, 5 ,10 min). Fluoride level after 5 min brewing for
green tea bags, black tea leaves and black tea bags was in the range of (80mg/kg),(122~309mg/kg)and(308~348 mg/kg) respectively .The WHO guideline for daily fluoride intake is( 2.00 mg) for children and ( 4.00 mg) for adults. Assuming that one consumes 4 cups of tea everyday (400 mL) and each cup uses (2.5 g ) of tea leaves, the daily fluoride intake from black tea leaves may be in the range ( 1.22 ~ 3.09 mg ). Similarly, intake from the green tea bags about (0.80 mg). Similarly, intake from the black tea bags may range from (3.01 ~ 3.45 mg ) . Thus according to the WHO recommendation for daily fluoride intake the black and green tea bags and black tea leaves are safe for all age groups .