Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758



Studying of Wear Rate for Ternary Polymer Blends under the Influence of Chemical Solutions

Ban Ayyoub Yousif; Balkees M. Dhyaa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 7-, Pages 809-819
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.7B.1

This work has been done with use of Epoxy and Novolac resins mixed with either polyurethane (PUR) or polysulphide(PSR) rubbers to compose ternary polymer blends. Two groups of samples are prepared:
1. Blend A (70% Epoxy +15%Novolac+15%PUR).
2. Blend B (60% Epoxy +20% Novolac +20% PSR).
These blends were tested by wear instrument, This test is carried out on samples under the influence of normal conditions (room temperature) and after immersion of blend samples in chemical solutions (H2O, H2SO4 and KOH) for (15, 30 and 45) days. The normality for these chemical solutions is (0.2N). After immersion the blend samples in chemical solution, their wear resistance decreased. The properties of blend that contains polyurthane rubber were affected more. The test results are affected by all the chemical solutions, but the alkaline solution KOH is the most effective solution. For wear test, results show that wear rate increases with increasing applied load, and increases or decreases with sliding velocity (depending on if it is high or low respectively).

Preparation of Biomagnetism Composite Material for Medical Applications

Eman Abdulwahed Othman; Abdulkareem Ibraheem Aboud; Thair Latif Muzel; Abdulsalam Khashan Swadi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 7-, Pages 820-828
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.7B.2

The colloidal non-aqueous precipitation method was used to prepare a biocompatible magnetic ceramic–polymer composite [Hydroxyapatite/ Polyvinylachohol (HAP/PVA)] for medical applications. The starting materials used for preparing hydroxyapatite (HAP) were calcium nitrate and diammonium hydrogen phosphate, while the biodegradable polyvinylachohol (PVA) and nanosized iron oxide particles (γ-Fe2O3) were used to generate a biocompatible magnetic gel film. The results showed that the specimens of composite containing up to 30wt% hydroxyapatite didn’t explore any of phase separation; further the incorporated of the ferrite enhanced the affectivity and the stability of the composite. The surface morphology and magnetic properties of the gel films were studied and the magnetization measurements were carried out at 5-300Kº. it showed that no remnant magnetization at 300 Kº, but at 5 Kº hysteretic loop was observed leading to confirm that the superparamagnetic nature of the nanosized maghemite particles didn’t affect in presence of the polymer and its behavior considered as superparamagnetic material.

Synthesis of Si Nanoparticles by Milling Technique

Khawla S. khashan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 7-, Pages 829-836
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.7B.3

Silicon (Si) nanopartilces which studied are in the size range (7 – 23 nm) have been synthesized by mechanical milling. The milled powder was etched by HF & CH3COOH acids. The size, structural, and optical characterization of these nanoparticles were determined by X-ray diffraction(XRD),Atomicforce microscopy (AFM),Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-VIS spectroscopy. The result confirmed that Si isnanoparticles in crystal phase with band gap 3.15eV, due to the effect of quantum confinement. This technique has been shown to have an advantage over other methods of producing nanoparticles because of low cost, small particles size, low agglomeration, narrow size distributions and uniformity of crystal structure and morphology

Approximate Solution of Linear Boundary Value Problem Defined on Semi Infinite Interval

Bushra E. Kashem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 7-, Pages 837-845
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.7B.4

This paper presents an algorithm for Boundary Value Problems (B.V.P) defined on semi infinite interval approximately. Firstly, the problem is transformed into a new equivalent Volterra integral equation and then Hermite polynomials are used for solving V.I.E approximately with the aid of spectral method. The V.I.E reduces to linear system of algebraic equations with unknown Hermite coefficients'. Comparisons between the exact and approximated results of this method are given via two test examples and accurate results are achieved.

Effects of Mg Concentration of MgxZn1-XO Nanostructure Thin Films by PLD on Optical and Topographical Properties

Ali J.Addie; Jehan A.Saimon; Adawiya J.Haidar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 7-, Pages 846-858
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.7B.5

In this work, MgxZn1-xO thin films were synthesized by pulsed laser deposition technique, the morphology and optical properties of MgxZn1-xO films were characterized by Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-VIS spectroscopy. The MgxZn1-xO films have been deposited on sapphire substrates with different Mg contents (x= 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1), using double frequency Q-switching Nd:YAG laser (532nm), repetition rate (6 Hz) and a pulse duration of (7 ns).
The present of hexagonal and cubic structure of MgxZn1-xO thin films was shown from X-ray diffraction measurement. The optical transmission results show that the transparency of the MgxZn1-xO films are greater than 85% in the visible region which increases with the increasing of Mg content. The absorption can be extended to lower wavelength range with higher magnesium contents, which can improve the transparency in the ultraviolet wavelength range. The band gap energy was found to be changed to the higher energy side with the increasing of Mg concentration. By changing Mg content from x=0 to x=1, the optical band gap of MgxZn1-xO films can be tuned from 3.4 eV to 5.9 eV, while the refractive index decreases from (1.96 – 1.75) as Mg-content increases from (0 to 1) at constant wavelength 400nm. This provides an excellent opportunity for bandgap engineering for optoelectronic applications. It is found from the AFM studies that the surface roughness of the films decreases with increasing the Mg content and the smallest grain size (33.8nm) with Mg content (1).

Effect of Different Doses of Paracetamol on Liver Enzyme Activities in White Albino Male Mice

Arieg A.W. Mohammad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 7-, Pages 859-866
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.7B.6

A study investigated the effects of paracetamol on the level of liver enzyme activities that induced hepatotoxicity in white albino male mice. In this study forty mice where used, divided to four group, three of them where ingested orally different doses of paracetamol for three month and compared with control group, also GOT, GPT, ALP and GGT where measured.
Biochemical analysis showed highly significant difference in serum GOT, GPT, ALP and GGT in all experimental groups as compared to control group. In conclusion the paracetamol induced hepatotoxicities in mice in prolong period treatment.

An Investigation of Electrical Properties of (p-n) Porous Silicon Layer

Muna Salih Mohammed Jawad; Alwan. M. Alwan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 7-, Pages 867-878
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.7B.7

In this work, we studied the electrical properties of (p-n) porous silicon layer under different etching time. The (p-n) porous silicon layer prepared by photo-electrochemical etching process. The dark I-V characteristics; give us rectification ratio with wide range as a function to etching time. A high value for the rectification behavior is related for etched samples at low etching time. While the increasing of etching time to high value show a non rectification behavior in (p-n) porous samples. The values of the photo-current for (p-n) porous sample at low etching time has very small value compared with the other (p-n) porous silicon samples at high etching time and this behavior in PSi layer in high etching time cannot be employed light emitting diode applications. While the layer prepared at low etching time is well suitable for light emitting device.

Similarity of Solutions of Non Conformally Perfect Fluid Models of Embedding Class One

Dhuha Majeed Salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 7-, Pages 879-887
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.7B.8

The Study of similarity Transformation Method has played a remarkable role of dealing with many immediate theoretical and practical applications in our life problems, such as physical and engineering problems [6].This method find the solution for the complicated problems which contains coupled higher non linear partial differential equations. By using this method we can seek a solution to spherical fluid spheres models. In this paper we found a new solution and analyzed it with respect to its physical acceptability conditions [5].Here we deals with a perfect fluid distribution described a metric in the non conformally flat form ,it has been a subject of interest. The science of hydrodynamics deals with motion of fluids which is defined as a collection of molecules [2]. All liquids are compressible to a slight extent, but for many purposes it is simpler to consider the liquid as being incompressible. However the pressure is the same in all directions for a perfect fluid. [8].

Biological Effect of Aqueous Extract and Ethanolic Extract of Malva Leaves and some Antibiotics against some Local Pathogenic Bacteria

Hamssa Emad Abdulwahed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 7-, Pages 888-893
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.7B.9

Malava is an important medicinal plant used as a remedy for cut wound, eczema, dermal infected wounds, bronchitis, and digestive problems. To evaluate the scientific basis for the use of the plant, the antimicrobial activity of different concentrations of aqueous and ethanolic malva leaves extract were investigated in vitro against five pathogenic bacteria (Proteus sp, Salmonell sp, Kliebsiella pneumoniae,Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aereus) The results indicated that all concentrations showed an antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria, the highest activities were against S.aureus,with the inhibition zone was (25 )mm ,(20)mm at (0.1)% ethanolic and aqueous con respectively .The biological activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of malva leaves when compared with some antibiotic include: Tetracycline, Gentamycin, Ampicillin, Carbinicilin and Erythromycin. Antimicrobial of the lowest conc(0.01%) of malva leaves was better than all antibiotics against all tested pathogenic bacteria.

One-Step Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles UsingPulsed Laser Ablation in Water: Influence of the Laser Wavelengths on Optical Properties

Abdulrahman K. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 7-, Pages 0-0
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.7B.10

Laser ablation has proven to be an effective method for generating nanoparticles. In this work, we have successfully produced pure cupper nanoparticles in fast and one-step method by Nd-YAG irradiation of cupper target with a 1064 and 532 nm laser wavelengths in pure water. The particle size, shape and size distributions were measured using a transmission electron microscope TEM. The UV–VIS spectroscopy has been employed for the optical properties. Nanoparticles with diameters 30 nm were observed to be formed in the colloidal solution. The UV–VIS spectrum of the material shows weak plasmon peak around 620 nm, indicating the formation of copper oxide nanoparticles. A clear blue shift is observed in the direct band gap (4.3 eV) of these nanoparticles presumably to the quantum confinement effects exerted by the nanosize.

In Vetro Cell Divission of Pelargonium Pith Tissue

Naji Swadi Nasser

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 7-, Pages 903-908
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.7B.11

Culture media were used to develop a rapid production system for geranium (Plargonium X hortorum) in vitro. Pith tissue was excised from the stem and induced to divide on White medium supplemented with10-6 M 2,4-D and kinetin. Once they have been induced to divide, they maintained on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2,4-D and kinetin, at 10-6 M. Non differentiated organs are produced in the established pelargonium pith callus. Pelargonium pith callus were obtained on medium was very friable. By gentle shaking, free cells were obtained and small cell clumps, which can be used as inocula for plante cultures. The plating efficiency has been brought to about 33% on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 10-6 M 2,4-D and 6-dimethylallylaminopurine. Single cells have been observed to divide in the presence of other cells and cell clumps, but never happen in complete isolation

Development of Modern Mobile Web Applications Based on Three Logical Layers Schema

Sarah Y. Yousif; Suhiar M. Zeki; Mazin S. Al-Hakeem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 7-, Pages 909-919
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.7B.12

Smart mobile technology is increasingly being utilized as a tool for information dissemination and collection; in addition to support many services such as telephone calls, SMS and MMS messages, e-mail, Web access, etc. The open architecture of these devices is encourages for rapid application development and release. Most people who own smart mobile devices prefer to browse the Internet through these devices, the Mobile Web refers to the use browser-based access to the Internet application from a mobile device which connected to a wireless network. Despite that the Web applications suffer from the interoperability and usability problems.
In this paper, we design and implement a mobile web application for UOT (University of Technology) and mobile application server (MAS) based the three logical layers schema using Apple's Xcode IDE and SQLite database as an Independent on the mobiles operating system and Independent on the specifications of these devices by overcomes the interoperability and usability problems.
Also the implemented mobile web application for UOT enforces security sense when data transported across communication and provides encrypted communication and secure identification using built-in SSL/TLS protocol.

The Study of some Plant Extracts Effect on Free Radicals Removal from DNA in Vetro

Abdul Wahid B. Al-Shaibani; Esmaeel K. Shubber; Azhar M. Haleem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 7-, Pages 174-180
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.7B.13

The removal efficiency of Several plant extracts of Nagilla sativa linn, Allium sativum sativum and Allium sativum ophioscordon of free radicals from pure DNA molecule at concentration 5 µgm / ml have been studied when we added 1×10-5 M of H2O2 with plant extracts mixture by measuring absorbency at 260 nanometer . Breaking index for nitrogen base pair was calculated. The plant extracts showed high ability in free radicals scavenge when used in concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, 100) µgm / ml which effect in DNA molecule. Also the DNase activity from different plant extracts was measured in DNase agar. Alcoholic mixture activity of three plants in (1،10،100) µgm/ml concentration was studied by monitoring the protection effect on pBR322 plasmid DNA from Escherichia coli which was protect t pBR322 plasmid he plasmid DNA from breaking by H2O2.

Using Diode Laser for the Determination of Blood Glucose Concentration

farah shmel; Nehia N. Hussien; Saria D. Mohamed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 7-, Pages 181-190
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.7B.14

In this study sugar concentration was measured by using diode laser, and compared were blood with those obtained from normal spectroscopic methods were the results laser system was arranged with a by using diode laser with wavelength of 532nm and power of 1 mW was used . While the Values ranged by using spectroscope technique between (70-102mg/dl) ,Wille the measured concentration of blood sugar by laser technique give (69.87-102mg/dl). The standard deviation was calculated and represents the relative comparison between both methods. The comparison results showed that determine the concentration of blood sugar using diode laser technique has a high accuracy and it cost less than that obtained by the spectroscope methods

Design a Computerized Lexicon for Machine Translation from Arabic to English

Matheel emaduldeen Abdulmunim; Suhad Malalla Khadim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 7-, Pages 191-202
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.7B.15

Lexicon plays an essential role in natural language processing systems and specially the machine translation systems, because it provides the system's components with the necessary information for the translation process. Although there have been a number of researches in natural language processing field, not enough attention has been given to the importance of the lexicon and specially the Arabic lexicon. The aim of this paper is to determine the basic requirements to build a lexicon used for machine translation purpose from Arabic to English language and organize lexicon contents in such form to provide efficient memory usage and minimize the retriever time, and also determine how can we retrieve these tokens from the lexicon after analyzing them by using morphology analyzer.
The proposed lexicon based on the Arabic root in storing its words, it use the logical terms to represent its knowledge and uses B+tree data structure to organize this knowledge. And the proposed lexicon has been built by using the visual logical programming language (Visual Prolog).