Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 32, Issue 3

Volume 32, Issue 3, March 2014, Page 62-799

The Effect of PVP Addition on the Mechanical Properties Of [84%LLDPE: 15 %(( 100- X) %PP: X%PVP):1%Basalt Particle] Polymer Blend Composites.

Teeb A. Mohammed; Akram R. Jabur; Sihama E. salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 3, Pages 573-585

Polymer blends composites were prepared according to the formula [84%LLDPE:15%((100-X)%PP:X%PVP):1%B.P] with weight ratios selected for X values (0,4,8,12,16 %), as strips by double screw extruder and use press process the strips to prepare the samples according ASTM specification, the mechanical properties were studied for all theprepared samples which are (tensile, flexural, compression, impact, hardness, and creep tests). The results are as following:- results showed increment of mechanical properties as PVP ratio increases except elongation, furthermore the results recorded highest values of fracture strength, young modulus, compressive strength, flexural strength, maximum shear stress, flexural modulus and creep modulus at PVP 8% wt. which are (31.32MPa, 0.14GPa, 27.4MPa,24MPa, 0.6MPa, 1.08GPa and 0.558GPa) respectively.
While the highest values of fracture toughness and hardness recorded at 12% wt. (1.4696Pa√m), and at 4% wt. (56.5) respectively.

ECG Arrhythmias Classification by Combined Feature Extraction Method and Neural Network

Khalooq Y. Al Azzawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 3, Pages 586-596

Electrocardiogram (ECG) became one of the most crucial tool for heart status diagnosis. Generally, several arrhythmias may appear based on different heart rate or ECG signal morphology variation. In this paper, a novel combined feature extraction method to present ECG arrhythmias is proposed. The combination between Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT) entropies and Power Spectrum Density (PSD) is suggested. For classification, Feed Forward Backpropagation Neural Network (FFBPN) is utilized. The experimental results showed that the proposed method can be beneficial for ECG signal arrhythmias classification. MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database was used for algorithm testing. The proposed method was compared with three state of art methods, where was of better performance reached about 80%. The proposed method as well as other methods was tested in noisy environment for comparison investigations. The suggested method is promising approach for arrhythmias classification. However, enormous testing data set might significantly improve the results.

Determination the Optimum Shot Peening Time for Improving the Buckling Behavior of Medium Carbon Steel

Al-Alkawi H. J. M; AL-Khazraji A. N; Essam Zuhier Fadhel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 3, Pages 597-607

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the optimum improvement of surface treatment on the dynamic buckling behavior of CK35 steel alloy due to shot peening based on the experimental results. Rotating circular column buckling test machine was used to evaluate the buckling life of column under compression and combined loading. The experimental results obtained show a favorable influence of shot peening treatment on mechanical properties and dynamic buckling behavior. A maximum significant life obtained at 25 min SPT (shot peening time) under dynamic buckling. The results showed that shot peening change the type of column from long to intermediate one based on Euler and Johnson formulas.

Simulation of Thermal Effects in Totally and Partially Pumped Solid-State Laser Rod with Side-Pumping Structure

Mohammed Jalal Abdul-Razzak

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 3, Pages 608-616

In this work, a steady-state heat transfer equation in a side-pumped Nd:YAG laser rod was solved numerically using finite element method (FEA). The resulting temperature and stress distributions were calculated under the condition of totally and partially direct side pumping structures with LASCAD software. From the result of simulation, we compare between the different pumping lengths, and mainly indicate the effect of pumping lengths on the temperature distribution, stress, displacement and the optical path difference (OPD).

Forward Analysis of 5 DOF Robot Manipulator and Position Placement Problem for Industrial Applications

Alaa Hassan Shabeeb; Laith A. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 3, Pages 617-628

In this paper, a forward kinematics problem is concerned with the relationship between the individual joint of robot arm and the position and orientation of the tool or end-effector. The standard Denavit_Hartenberg(D-H) analytical scheme is applied to building mathematical modeling to predict, simulate and recovering the end-effector location (position and orientation) placement of 5DOF R5150 Robot manipulator for different joint variables, the basic challenge associated with the R5150 arm is the limited information available on its governing control model for position placement. Two ways by which control can be effected on R5150 arm, this robot can be programmed by using either a hand-held terminal (teach pendant) or a RoboCIM simulation software. The non-versatility of this control software is seen in the non-availability of a programmable environment by users. The user interface of RoboCIM allows for numeric keyboard inputs such that each input results in the orientation of a specific joint by a margin equivalent to the input. The relationship between the keyboard inputs and joint motion of the arm is not feasible to the users. The proposed D-H scheme as presented herein has successfully reproduced the end-effecter position of the Lab_volt R5150 Robot arm with marginal differences for different experimental trials. The simulation of robot arm forward kinematics is performed through MATLAB. The adopted modeling is validated in the physical behaviors in determine position of robot arm.

Modeling the Abrasive Flow Machining Process (AFM) On Aluminum Alloy

Abbas F. Ibrahim; Saad K.Shather; Wissam K. Hamdan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 3, Pages 629-642

Abrasive flow machining (AFM) is gaining wide spread application finishing process on difficult to reach surfaces in aviation, automobiles, and tooling industry. A multiple regression model is proposed by using SPSS to simulate and predict the surface roughness, and material removal for different machining conditions in (AFM) on aluminum alloys. Based upon the experimental data of the effects of AFM process parameters, e.g., length of stroke, extrusion pressure, number of cycles, percentage of abrasive concentration, and abrasive grain size. The mathematical models for Ra, and material removal are established to investigate the influence of AFM parameters. Conformation test results verify the effectiveness of these models and optimal parametric combination within the considered range. The statistical model could predict about 96.1%, and 99.38% accuracy.

Modeling of Arc Metal Welding Process of Low Carbon Steel (304)

Majid Hameed Abdul Majeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 3, Pages 643-652

This work includes an investigation of the effect and optimization of welding parameters on the tensile strength in the arc metal welding process. The experimental studies were conducted under varying welding currents, wire diameters, and heat input. The settings of welding parameters were determined by using the Taguchi experimental design method. The level of importance of the welding parameters on the tensile strength is determined by using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The optimum welding parameter combination was obtained by using the analysis of signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. The tensile strength model was formulated based on Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using Minitab® statistical package. The experimental results confirmed the validity of the used Taguchi method for enhancing the welding performance and optimizing the welding parameters in the arc metal welding process.

Experimental Investigation and Mathematical Modeling of Tensile Properties of Unsaturated Polyester Reinforced by Woven Glass Fibers

Jawad Kadhim Oleiwi; Emad Saadi Al- Hassani; Alaa Abd Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 3, Pages 653-666

This research studied the tensile properties of glass fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester with different fiber volume fraction Vf, and angle of fibers for coarse and fine woven fibers reinforcement. The composite specimens were prepared by hand lay-up technique and cutting according to (ASTM D – 638) for tensile test to obtain modulus of elasticity, ultimate tensile strength and elongation percentage of the composite specimens. Mathematical models were done by using statistical analysis which shows the tensile properties of the composite specimens as a function of volume fraction and fiber angle.
The results show that the maximum value of the modulus of elasticity was (11.5 GPA) and the maximum value of ultimate tensile strength was (240 MPa) which happed at (11% VF) for fine woven fibers and for (0º/90º) fibers angle, and vice versa for percentage elongation was (2.5%).

Robust PI-PD Controller Design for Magnetic Levitation System

Hazem I. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 3, Pages 667-680

This paper presents a design of robust PI-PD position controller for Magnetic Levitation Ball system. The Magnetic Levitation system considered in this work is taken as a ferromagnetic ball suspended in a voltage controlled magnetic field. The Magnetic Levitation system is unstable, because electromagnetic force is very sensitive and there is a noise that creates acceleration forces on the steel ball resulting the instability due to existence of positive poles causing the steel ball to move into the unbalanced region. The robust controller is aimed to keep a steel ball suspended in the air in the desired position by maintaining the balance between the magnetic force and ball's weight. The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method is used to tune the gains of the PI-PD controller. The simulation and experimental results show the effectiveness of the designed controller.

A modeling comparison studies for thermo-mechanical and other Properties of RHDPE and RLDPE Wastes

Falak O. Abas; Raghad U.Abass; Mohammed O.Abass

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 3, Pages 681-701

A recycled waste plastic (recycled high density poly ethylene RHDPE and recycled low density poly ethylene RLDPE) are exposed to environmental conditions during the usage for many years ago. Also the chemical contaminants in the internal composition had effects on the thermo-mechanical and other properties for these wastes.
Then weathering effect data are examine for both locally and international wastes on their thermo-mechanical and chemical properties such as (Tensile strength, modulus, elongation, impact and permeability) respectively.
Afterward different mathematical software models are applied to analysis these weathering – properties data in order to estimate the more effective properties that changed by these weathering conditions such as (concentration of contaminant, time, temperature, thickness of specimen, length of spectra, basic property).
The results shows that a multi-polynomial model has a best fit for most or several of properties to active weathering variables, also gave a vary residual and deviation than experimental analyzed data for both sources of wastes local and international RHDPE and RLDPE. Also results of thermo-mechanical and chemical properties prove that both tensile strength and modulus of elasticity thermo-mechanical properties and permeability / length of spectra chemical property were given a high quality of correction and fitting factor from 93-99 %, with less deviation and residual function was produced. And analyzed weathering properties of RHDPE gave a best fit than RLDPE; all of them fitted the mathematical software model below:


a, b, c …J = coefficient of the best fit model.
x1 = concentration of contaminants.
x2 = time of aging.

Strengthening of Ferrocement Beams in Torsion by CFRP Strips

Aseel Sami Al-Obaidy; Kaiss F.Sarsam; Alaa K. Abdul Karim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 3, Pages 702-719

Torsion is resisted well by closed form reinforcement, due to the circulatory nature of the torsion inducing shear flow stresses in a beam. Therefore, it will be more efficient to have strengthening schemes, which are wrapped in closed form around the cross section. An experimental work was carried out and used superplasticizer with mix 1:1.5 to improve the mechanical properties of mortar. 12 rectangular beams (50x120)mm and 1m length are cast, strengthened and tested under pure torsion. The Variables considered in the test program include: effect number of wire mesh layers ( unit ), this unit consists of two layers of wire mesh with skeletal steel, (2, 3, 4) units and effect spacing of CFRP strips, (100,160,200) mm c/c. Test results are discussed based on torque – rotation behavior and influence of parameters on ultimate torque and failure modes. Generally, using optimum dosage of super plasticizer (1.4 % of weight of cement) gave compressive strength 65.65 MPa. Increasing the number of units from 2 to 4(reinforcement near the surface of beam section) led to increased ultimate torque by (13.44 %) and from 2 to 3(uniformly distributed reinforcement) led to increases the ultimate torque by only (3.24 %). When the beams are strengthened with CFRP strips, the lowest and highest increase in torque is at 112 % (4-units,@200 spacing) and 312 % (4-units,@100 spacing), respectively. The ultimate torque of beams with CFRP strips @ 100 mm and 160 mm spacing is greater than beams with CFRP strips @ 200 mm spacing by ( 94.34,45.28) %, respectively for the group having 4-units.

Use of Membrane Bioreactor for Medical Wastewater Treatment

Mohammed Ali I. Al-Hashimi; Talib R. Abbas; Yaser I. Jasem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 3, Pages 720-730

In this study, a lab scale modified Ludzack-Ettinger (MLE) type submerged membrane bioreactor (MLE-type MBR) system is studied to treat a hospital wastewater to remove organic matter as well as nitrogen. During the operation period, the BOD5 and COD removal efficiency is higher than 98 and 90%, respectively regardless of the fluctuation in influent quality. In addition, the results show excellent removal of nitrogen, pathogen and TSS with average of 96, 98.33 and 99.5%, respectively. The MLE-MBR system produces high quality effluent which can achieve the Iraqi limits for irrigation purpose for all measured parameters.

New Method to Increase the Ability of the Water for Dissolving Total Salts in Soil by Using the Magnetism

Maysam Th. Al-Hadidi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 3, Pages 731-747

The magnetism applications are increasing day by day. In this research the concepts of magnetism is the base of proposing a new method to find the total dissolved salts in soil. The aim of this proposed magnetism method is to accelerate the required time to determine the total dissolved salts which is expressed by the sample (TDS) ,where the standard test takes 3 to 4 day; this will cause some delay especially if there is no enough time to find the results of test by the standard method. For this, the important of this research is appeared where the proposed procedure takes 1 hr only to prepare the sample before put the sample in the oven for drying. The results of experimental tests for a large number of soil samples shows that approve the efficiency of the proposed method, which confirms the ability of magnet to dismantle salt molecules and release hydrogen ion in water. The proposed procedure needs magnets of capacity equal to 3750 (gauss) to give the desired results.

Load Distribution Factors for Horizontally Curved Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Eyad K. Sayhood; Raid I. Khalel; Hashim M. Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 3, Pages 748-762

In this study, a 3-D finite element model was used for the analysis of the horizontally curved bridge slab built monolithically with box girders. A parametric study was carried out to calculate the load distribution factors for horizontally curved reinforced concrete box girder bridges based on (AASHTO 1996) live loads by using F.E.M by SAP 2000 (Structural Analysis Program). The parameters considered in this study were: span-to-radius curvature ratio, span length, number of longitudinal girders, girder spacing and number of lanes. The analysis of the bridge was done for the case of full live loads and partial live loads.

Behavior of Single Pile in Unsaturated Clayey Soils

Mohammed Y. Fattah; Nahla M. Salim; a Mohammed Mohsin; Isra

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 3, Pages 763-787

The mechanical behavior of partially saturated soils can be different from that of fully saturated soils. It has been found that for such soils, changes in suction do not have the same effect as changes in the applied stresses, and consequently the effective stress principles is not applicable.
A finite element analysis was carried out on a single pile with a diameter (0.6 m) and (12) m length embedded in fully and partially saturated clayey Iraqi soils within Baghdad city. The partially saturated parameters were calculated using laboratory methods; the filter paper method was utilized to estimate the soil water characteristic curve (SWCC) from which the H-Modulus function was obtained. The program (SoilVision) was used to make a fit of the SWCC. The finite element programs SIGMA/W and SEEP/W are then used in the analysis. A parametric study is carried out and different parameters are changed to study their effects on the behavior of partially saturated clay. These parameters include the degree of saturation, depth of water table and shear strength of clay. The study reveals that when the soil becomes partially saturated by dropping water table at different depths with different degrees of saturation, the pile capacity increases. It is concluded that the change in the water table level and the degree of saturation has a great effect on the behavior of partially saturated clay. In this work, it is found that due to dropping of water table and contribution of matric suction (i.e. negative pore water pressure), the pile capacity in partially saturated soil is approximately (3-5) times higher than the capacity of piles in the same soil under saturated conditions

Assessment of the Accuracy of Road Flexible and Rigid Pavement Layers Using GPR

Hussein H. Karim; Ammar M. M. Al-Qaissi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 3, Pages 788-799

Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is frequently used in pavement engineering for road pavement inspection. The main objective of this work is to validate nondestructive, quick and powerful measurements using GPR for assessment of flexible and rigid pavement thicknesses and detection of rebars and joints within the rigid pavement. To achieve this work, in-situ simulation model (1.2 m 1.2 m in dimension), consists of three layers (sub-base, flexible and rigid pavement), was made and surveyed by GPR using three antennas (250, 500 and 800 MHz). The interpretation results of 250 MHz antenna identify and assign the flexible pavement as one layer without identifying the rigid pavement layer. With the 500 MHz antenna, the flexible pavement appeared as one layer with identifying the rigid pavement boundaries. While using 800 MHz antenna, both flexible pavement and rigid pavement layers were clearly identified as in the in-situ simulation model. Therefore, the 250 and 500 MHz antennas have much more penetration, but much lower resolution. Besides, rebars and joints were clearly appeared in both 500 and 800 MHz antenna. By correlating in-situ model with radar GPR data, the results show thickness deviations (percentage error) on the order of 1% for surface layer and about 2% for both binder and rigid layers. Applying 500 and 800 MHz antennas perpendicular to steel reinforcement within rigid pavement, the rebars (with dielectric constant equal to 13.6 with velocity equal to 8.1 cm/ns) and joints (with width 0.025 m) appeared in the radargram. From the precise calculation of thickness, it can be concluded that an excellent correlation between field model and radar data.

The Effect of The Finishing Materials on The Perception of The Commercial Townscape

Hamzah Jalal Jawad; Abdullah Saadoun Maamouri; Adel Saeed al-Obeidi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 3, Pages 62-96

The finishing matirials are considered to be among the most important
components of the commercial townscape as they have various effects on it .the
townscape is affected by the formal characteristics of the finshings materials (colour,
touch,and size) and the relation ships between these materials and their components .
The variety of the finishing matirals and of their relation ships with the facades have,
in some way or another affected both the physical and moral aspects of the
townscape. in the light of this variety, one can clearly notice the problems from which
the townscape of the centers of the Iraqi cities, especially the commercial ones, has
suffered . these centers suffer from chaos, inconsistency , and the domye to some
buildings that is caused by neglect . The general of the clarity of the effect of the
formal characteristics of the finishing materials and which of them is the more
effective on the perceiver). Research problem is identified through studying the effect
of the use of various finishing materials on the physical and moral aspects of the
townscape .The specific research problem is concerned with the following: (The lack
of the clarity of the effect of the variety of the finishing material townscape. &the
The main research hypothesis is as follows: The variety of the finishing materials
and of the relation ships the connect them has agreat effect on the perceiver and his
interaction with commercial townscape.
The seconery hypotheses :( The formal inconsistency of the finishing materials is
the type of the inconsistent relation ships that has the greatest effect on the perceiver.
&the formal variety of the finishing materials is the type of the variety relation ships
that has the greatest effect on the perceiver. &the relation ship between ladjacent
finishing materials is the type of the connecting relation ships that has the greatest
effect on the perceiver.
The research depends on the descriptive and analytical approach and the use of
the questionnaire forms to accomplish the procedres related to the practical
The most important results of the research are as follows: The modern finishing
materials have a great, positive effect on the collective, mental image of the
inhabitants of the region in a way that makes them familiar and satisfied with these materials in contrast to the perceivers, the architects are affected ncgatively by the
finishing materials. The greatest effect of the finishing materials is on the aesthetical
and visual aspects of the townscape. The research proves that the inconsisteney and
the variety of the adjacent finishing materials form have the greatest effect of the
perceiver. Thus, the practical results of the research prove its hypothesis.

The Role of Art's Movements in Creating Urban Form

Khansaa Ghazi Rasheed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 3, Pages 97-117

ART as painting, sculpture, design or architecture is a part of people's culture
and their daily activity, because it's an important bond between human being and
the environment he lives in, that’s why any society considers architecture as an
essential part of Art Theory of any Era.
It's most confused how many contemporary architects think that sources of
creating art are imposed in their own characters which are so different from the
past that they're indescribable with words but Art is what really capable to improve
from its source. The research finds a necessity for discovering techniques that
make benefit of the development of art's works to have agenda that helps architects
and urban designers to create changeable products in creating urban forms. That's
shows the Research's problem: There is a need to clarify the knowledge topics
around the relationships between Art's movements and Architecture by ideology or
practicing new techniques to create compositions of urban forms, because of the
vast artistic resources that these products depend on. The research took an
analyzing methodology of some roles of art starting from revival romanticism and
abstract classicism to modernism, postmodernism, deconstruction and
contemporary architecture of late 20th century to today.

Safety and Security as an Urban Challenge in Residential Environment*Al- Saadoon as case study

Sana Sati Abbas; Alhan Faris Ibrahim Darzy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 3, Pages 118-138

Architects and urban designers face many dilemmas when they designed any
residential complex or a suitable residential environment, and these dilemmas or
problems were represented with a batch of urban challenges that are associated with
the rapid development of the cities and may become obstacle in front of them when
designing and implementing their projects. Some international organizations
including the United Nations, has raised some of these problems and put solutions to
them, while others are still marginal or without radical solutions. Research has
submited the most important challenges in residential environment and categorised
them into three main types, namely, (urban challenges associated with human need,
urban challenges associated with residential environment, and urban challenges at the
urban level). One of the most important challenges that must be taken into
consideration when designing is the chellenge of providing safety and security in
residential environment, where the need of security and safety represents one of the
most basic human needs that provides human tranquility and a sense of stability when
The research problem was that there was no clear vision about the role of spacial
organization to achieve safety and security in residential environment. The research
aims to identify the elements of spacial organization in raising the level of safety and
security in the residential environment, and it based in achieving this goal to
hypothesis, which is spacial organization had role in raising the level of safety and
security in the residential environment through its local and globale characterstics.
The research had identified the impact of special organization charachterstics on
raising the level of safety and security in the residential environment, also it came out
with new items which were not mentioned previously, those are (Visibility), (Visual
Depth) and (Visual Integration) and the impact of those items on the availability of
residential safety and security.
The research had identified the most important variables affecting the human
sense of security and safety, it also concluded that achieving security (which is
psychological) comes through the availability of security (which is materialistic)
resulting from the design and its vocabularies, one of it is the vocabularies of spacial
organization and the synthetic properties of urban structure.

Ballasted Clarification in Conventional Municipal Wastewater Treatment in Iraq

Khairi Resan Kalash; Mohammed A. Abdul-Majeed; Raad A. Ali; Inmar N.Ghazi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 3, Pages 139-147

In this work a practical comparison has been done between the conventional
coagulation and flocculation method and Ballast flocculation as a primary settling
procedure that was used to treat sewage water in Al-Zaafraniya apartment complex.
The results show that the conventional method using alum as coagulant 75 mg/L,
gives removal efficiencies of Total suspended solid TSS 50-60%, BOD 30-40%
and total phosphorus TP 40% at total time of 60 minutes. While the Ballast
flocculation method using alum 75 mg/L , polyelectrolyte 1.5 mg/L and sand 10
mg/l (70μm) gives removal efficiencies of TSS 50-70%, BOD 30-40% and TP
68% at total time less than 22 minutes.
From the above, a conclusion can be noticed that the Ballast flocculation
method means reduction in equipment size and footprint area more over efficiency
in total phosphorus removal.