Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 5,

Issue 5

Experimental Study on the Behavior of Bounded Square Footing on Sandy Soil

Mohammed Y. Fattah; Kais T. Shlash; Husham A. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 1083-1105

Structural skirts are walls fixed to the edges of shallow foundations to improve their bearing capacities. Sometimes, the shallow foundation is bounded by a close obstruction like a wall. The presence of this wall has an effect on the bearing capacity of footing, whose behavior in this case can be similar to a skirted foundation in which a structural skirt is located at one side of the footing. The present study investigates the behavior of model footings bounded by a wall of different depths and located at different distances from the footing, resting on sandy soil. In this study, different parameters are considered such as relative density of sand (33 and 56) %, distance from wall to the edge of footing to width of footing ratio (h/B) (zero, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2) and depth of wall to width of footing ratio (d/B) (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2).
Test results show that the presence of the wall affects remarkably the values of bearing capacity, leading to improvement in the values of bearing capacity with different percentages according to the distance from wall to the edge of footing to width of footing ratio (h/B) and depth of wall to width of footing ratio (d/B) due to the increase in soil confinement underneath the footing. In loose sand, the largest improvement in bearing capacity for square footing bounded by walls reaches (43) %, at (h/B = 0.5) and (d/B = 2). In medium sand, the largest improvement in bearing capacity for square footing bounded by walls reaches (56) %, at (h/B = 0.5) and (d/B=2). The bearing capacity increases with depth of the wall, the maximum effect of the wall on the bearing capacity is when the value of the depth of the wall (d/B) is between (1.5-2.0), for square footing on sand of different densities.

Effect of Concrete Compressive Strength and Compression Reinforcement in Compression Zone on the Ductility of Reinforced Concrete Beams

Sawsan Akram Hassan; Awadh Ewayed Ajeel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 1106-1116

Ductility is a mechanical property used to describe the extent to which materials can be deformed plastically without fracture giving warning of impending failure. In this paper the effect of increasing the strength in the compression zone of reinforced concrete beams on ductility was investigated. Seven reinforced concrete beams were tested for this purpose. The tested beams were divided into two groups depending on the manner at which the strength of the compression zone was increased. In the first group, the increase was done by increasing the amount of compression reinforcement. Four ratios of compression reinforcement were adopted. In the second group, the increase in the strength of the compression zone was done by increasing the concrete compressive strength in the upper third of the cross section which was subjected to compression stresses. Four compressive strengths were adopted .One beam was used as reference for the two groups. It was found that, the compression zone strengthening, by the two manners, increases both strength and ductility of the beams; but the increases due to increase the ratio of compressive reinforcement is higher and more safety than that attained due to increasing concrete compressive strength.

Coating of Carbon Fibers With Calcium Phosphate by Sol- Gel Method

Sewench N. Rafeeq; Wafaa A. Husaien; Russel Rushdi Ghanim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 1117-1128

Sol-gel technique has been used to coat carbon fibers with calcium phosphate to improve the esthetic of black carbon fibers as it's biocompatible. To improve bonding between carbon fibers and prepared calcium phosphate powders, the surface of carbon fibers has been treated with para-aminobenzoic acid. The structural tests include: (SEM, XRD, AFM and FTIR). The morphology of the coating layers has been examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The crystallized phase composition of coatings has been identified by x-ray diffractometry (XRD). The grain size of dried and heat treated calcium phosphate coat has been estimated by atomic force microscope (AFM) and fourier transform ــ infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis which support and verify the x-ray diffraction findings.

A Study on Stabilization of Base Course Material with Portland Cement

Jabar M. Rasul; Noori S. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 1129-1140

The base road material sources are distributed in many locations of Erbil Governorate. Generally most of them having sound engineering properties, so it dose not need to stabilized chemically. But recently in several constructed roads rutting phenomenon are appeared soon after construction and usage. For this reason in this study, materials in four quarries are taken and treated with Portland cement ( 0% to 7% contents). Engineering properties and unconfined compressive strength are studied. The results indicated that the unconfined compressive strength increased more than 10 times (from1069 kPa to 11238kP) for Kasnazan materials, about 3 times (from 1999 kPa to 5881 kPa) for crushed (Kalak) gravel, about 4 times (from 793 kPa to 3337 kPa) for Zurgazraw materials and more than 3 times (from 1744 kPa to 6640 kPa) for crushed (Darabezmara) stone. It was found that the optimum cement content to be equal to 2.9%, 0.6%, 4.8% and 0.6% of dry weight of Kasnazan, Kalak (crushed gravel), Zurgazraw, and Darabzmara (crushed stone) materials respectively.

Influence of Intervening Variables on Surface Roughness and Material Removal Rate During WEDM Process

Saad Kareem Shather; Diana Abdel Kareem Noori

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 1141-1148

Wire electrical discharge machining WEDM is one of the major non –traditional machining processes the application of WEDM has increased since 1970s', it has many application in the machining of conductive materials for production of aero space/ air craft, die/mold and medical parts ,this is due to high machining productivity, dimensional accuracy and surface quality ,in this study medium carbon steel 33 was machined by WEDM ,the experimental study determined the effect of pulse on time, pulse off time, servo feed rate on machined surface finish and material removal rate .the selected ranges of pulse on time ,pulse off time, servo feed rate were 8-11-14 sec,10-14-16 sec,2-3-5 mm/min respectively ,the results of present study determined that the most influential machining parameter on surface roughness was pulse on time, other parameters were less effective and the nearly only influential machining parameter on material removal rate was servo feed rate in the WEDM using brass wire of 0.25 mm.

Assessment of Evapotranspiration Estimation Models for Irrigation Projects in Karbala, Iraq

Karim K. AlJumaili; Mahmoud S. Al-Khafaji; Aysar T. Al-Awadi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 1149-1157

The variation in climatic conditions of the regions complicates the process of estimating evapotranspiration using one equation or one way because it needs so much data. The adoption of special method for each region based on the lowest climatic parameters and the historical record can be more useful. Five evapotranspiration (ET_0) models had been analyzed statistically by comparing Penman-FAO-24 (PF) model with: Penman Monteith -FAO-56 model (PM), Penman-Kimberly model (PK), Jensen-Haise model (JH) and Hargreaves model (H). The performances of the simpler models were evaluated using bias, root mean square error and Pearson Correlation Coefficient. Also, Regression analysis for predicting (ET_0) from minimum climatic data (Hargreaves model) has been developed. The results indicated that the models which depends on more climatic data are close from each other and that is very clear in (PF), (PM) and (PK). The differences between models are due to wind function used in each model. The developed linear regression model from minimum climatic data (H) model with slope of 1.254, an interception point of -1.801 and coefficients of determination R^2 of 0.988 matched very closely to (PF) model values.

Synthesis of B4C/YTZP Composite Powder and Studying Effect of its Addition on Mechanical Properties of B4C

Fadhil A. Chyad; Mohammed H. AL-Taie; Hussein AlaaJaber

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 1158-1170

In this research B4C powder have been coated with yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (YTZP) (ZrO2 – 6wt% Y2O3) by using sol-gel method in order to obtain on composite powder (B4C core/ YTZP shell, 1/1 wt%). Zirconium oxychloride (ZrOCl2.8H2O) and yttrium nitrate (Y(NO3)3.6H2O) were used as the precursors for synthesis of the YTZP compound. The coated B4C powder was then used as additive powder to B4C. It was mixed with different percentages for making ceramic–ceramic composite samples. The YTZP weight percentages added to the B4C were in the range (0–12.5) wt%. The samples sintered by using spark plasma sintering technique at 1800 and 1900°C for 5 min. Density and mechanical properties (Vickers microhardness, fracturetoughness and fracturestrength) for the sintered samples were measured. The results show that the best YTZP additions to the B4C that have good mechanical properties were ranged 5 – 7.5 wt%.

The Treatment of Grey Water by Aeration

Roa; a Mudhafar Younus

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 1171-1179

The present study included the use of the aeration system in the treatment of gray water. Samples were collected from three selected houses in Mosul city in 2010 for the months (March, June, September and December). Some properties of grey water have been measured including pH, EC, TSS, DO, COD, NO3 and PO4. The aeration process has been carried out for the gray water for a detention time of two days in order to find out the best time for the treatment.
The results indicated a large decrease in COD 55, 76 mg/l after 23 hrs of aeration in March and June, and 51 and 62 mg/l after 25 hrs of aeration in September and December respectively. The remaining properties were examined at the end of the aeration process (at 48 hrs) which were within the FAO recommendation range for using the treated gray water for agricultural purposes.

Modeling and Buckling Analysis of Polymeric Composite Columns

Jawad Kadhim Oleiwi; Emad Saadi Al- hassani; Alaa Abd Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 1180-1196

This research studied the buckling of composite columns made from glass fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester. The composite specimens were prepared by hand lay-up technique with different fiber volume fraction Vf, aspect ratio and angle of fibers when reinforced with coarse and fine woven fibers. Mathematical models were done by using statistical analysis which show the critical load of the composite column as a function of volume fraction, fiber angle and aspect ratio.
The results show that the maximum value of the critical load can be observed at volume fraction Vf =11%, aspect ratio L/T = (3.5) and fiber angle θ = (0º/90º) for fine fiber was (500.72 N). Also its found the maximum critical load for coarse fiber can be observed at Vf =8%, L/T= (3.5) and θ = (0º/90º) was (400.4 N).

Design and Analysis of Transmission Optical Filter with Multi- FPR Structure for Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) Communication System

Aseel Abdul Ameer Shakaty

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 1197-1215

In this paper, it is demonstrated by means of simulations, the practical feasibility of a transmission filter implemented from a stack of high and low index birefringent thin films. Simulations were carried out with a software toolbox package implemented as Matlab™ m-files.
The following materials were used ( ZnSe, GaAs, BaF2) as coating materials and KB7 glass as substrate material .In this paper it can be study the designing of transmission filter with two ,three or four Fabry- Perot resonators (FPRs) structure .The difference between each one of them show how the number of multi-stack layer belonging to each FPRs affect on the spectral properties of transmission filter and effect on the choosing of coating material on the properties of transmission filter .
Results show that transmission filter of multi- FPRs results in narrowing the transmittance band and making it somewhat flatter at its top from the single one. But if it has multi- FPRs structure with equal length , the band becomes flatter than that of transmission filter with single FPR structure but exhibits some ripples.
The difference between the values of refractive index of multi layer stack has great influence on the transmittance value, the spectral properties and number of peaks in the transmittance spectrum of the transmission filter as shown in the simulated figures.

Effect of Some Vegetables (Carrots, Onion, Parsley, and Red radish) on Corrosion Behavior of Amalgam Dental Filling in Artificial Saliva

Slafa Ismael Ibrahim; Nemir Ahmed Al-Azzawi; Shatha Mizhir Hasan; Hussein H. Karim; Ammar M. M. Al-Qaissi; Ahmed Chyad Kadhim; Mehdi Munshid Shellal; Sinan Majid Abdul Satar; Wahid S. Mohammad; Assad Oda Jassim; Khalid salem Shibib; Karema Assi Hamad; Haqui Ismael Qatta; Hayder Hadi Abbas; Kanaan A. Jalal; Hussain Kassim Ahmad; Makram A. Fakhri; Mohanned M.H. AL-Khafaji; Hussam Lefta Alwan; Baraa M.H. Albaghdadi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 1216-1226

This work involves study corrosion behavior of amalgam in presence of some vegetables including (Carrots, Onion, Parsley, and Red radish) which were chosen because they require mastication process by teeth and taking enough time that make them in a contact with amalgams filling in artificial saliva.
The corrosion parameters were interpreted in artificial saliva at pH (5.1) and (37±1oC) by adding (50 ml/l) of vegetable juice to artificial saliva, which involve corrosion potential (Ecorr), corrosion current density (icorr), Cathodic and anodic Tafel slopes (bc & ba ) and polarization resistance, the results of (Ecorr) and (icorr) indicate that the medium of saliva and (50 ml/l) onion is more corrosive than the other media. Cathodic and anodic tafel slopes were used to calculate the polarization resistance (Rp) to know which medium more effective on amalgam of dental filling, this study shows that the increasing in polarization resistance through the decreasing in corrosion rate values, the results of (Rp) take the sequence:
Rp:( saliva+ parsley) >( saliva+ red radish)> saliva>(saliva+ carrots) >(saliva+ onion).
While corrosion rates (CR ) take the sequence:
CR: (Saliva+Parsley) Keywords

Corrosion in saliva
Potentiostatic measurements

Detection of P2P Botnets Based on Support Vector Machine: Case Study

Nemir Ahmed Al-Azzawi; Shatha Mizhir Hasan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 1227-1239

Botnet is a general term referring to a group of automated software robots that run without human intervention (malware code). Nowadays, Botnets produces a major threat to the cyber security (Information Assurance) of computing assets. Therefore, you need to protect our huge confidential and personal information through the use of web interfaces such as online passwords, corporate secrets, online banking accounts, and social networking accounts like Facebook. Network traffic analysis is an important component in the management and security of current networks and in the design and planning on future networks. This study enables the researcher: (a) to study botnet topologies, behavior and lifecycle events and actions (b) to combine normal web traffic and normal P2P traffic for binary classification; (c) to produce simulated network flow data comparable to the activities of a botnet controller or "bots," and hosts under attack (testing samples); and (d) to detection and identifies P2P botnet framework using Support Vector Machine (SVM) based on statistical features.

Evaluation of Road Pavement and Subsurface Defects Mapping Using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)

Hussein H. Karim; Ammar M. M. Al-Qaissi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 1240-1250

GPR is frequently used for inspection road pavement (thickness estimation, damage detection and diagnosis), so this technique was selected for this purpose. Three types of antennas were used: 250, 500 and 800 MHz. In the field, the survey has been carried out on one lanes paved road about 1250 m long inside University of Technology Campus. The obtained radargrams raw data were analyzed using sophisticated softwares to determine asphalt and concrete layers thicknesses for base and subase. Several inspections have been carried out to study the effect of changing the operating setting parameters of GPR on the data accuracy and interpretation for paved roads damages and the pavement layers thicknesses. The interpretation results, using 250 MHz antenna, showed the possibility of identifying buried plastic pipe and the flexible pavement layer. While the rigid pavement layer is unresolved. With 500 MHz antenna, the plastic pipe, rigid pavement, steel reinforcement bars and joint sheet cork appeared clearly. It was found that the short type of the Max. Time Window using antenna 800 MHz is the most suitable for detecting some radar anomalies (plastic pipe, cork sheet and reinforcement bars and pavement thickness) which were more clearly defined. No change is noticed on radargrams when applying different point intervals. The suitable radar wave velocity for estimating the thicknesses of the surface, binder and rigid pavement layers were 80, 160 and 180 m/ns respectively. While, the surface cracks were undetectable with 800 MHz antenna but the cause of such crack was identified. Correlation GPR thickness data with the asphalt core data, states that the error of the thickness measurements from GPR resulted in average deviation (the percentage error) of about 4%.

Electrocardiogram (ECG) Signal Enhancement Using Genetic Soliton Neural Networks (GSNN)

Ahmed Chyad Kadhim; Mehdi Munshid Shellal; Sinan Majid Abdul Satar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 1251-1265

A soliton is a solitary wave whose amplitude, shape, and velocity are conserved after a collision with another soliton. Solitons, in general, manifest themselves in a large variety of wave/particle systems in nature: practically in any system that possesses both dispersion (in time or space) and nonlinearity. Solitons have been identified in optics, plasmas, fluids, condensed matter, particle physics, and astrophysics. Yet over the past decade, the forefront of soliton research has shifted to neuroscience. The Soliton model in neuroscience is a recently developed model that attempts to explain how signals are conducted within neurons. It proposes that the signals travel along the cell's membrane in the form of certain kinds of sound (or density) pulses known as solitons. The electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is generated by the rhythmic contractions of the heart. It represents the electrical activity of the heart muscles, and is usually measured by the electrodes placed on body surface. Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal has been widely used in cardiac pathology to detect heart disease. In this paper, Soliton Feed forward Neural Network (SFNN) is proposed for ECG signal enhancement. Computer simulation results demonstratedthat the proposed approach can successfully be used to model the ECG signal and remove high-frequency noise.

Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Propane/Butane and Propane/Isobutane Mixtures as an Alternative to R134a in a Domestic Refrigerator

Wahid S. Mohammad; Assad Oda Jassim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 1266-1286

In the present work, theoretical and experimental investigation have been carried out with two hydrocarbon refrigerant mixtures as a possible alternatives to R134a. Theoretical performance of an ideal vapor compression refrigeration cycle using R290/R600 and R290/R600a was studied and the results were compared with those of R134a. The performance of the hydrocarbon mixtures of R290/R600 and R290/R600a were experimentally investigated as a drop-in alternatives to replace R134a in 297 liter domestic refrigerator designed to work with R134a. The results showed a lower freezer air temperature, lower cabinet air temperature, lower discharge temperature, higher coefficient of performance, lower pressure ratio and lower electrical power by about 3.2°C, 2.3°C, 3.1°C, 4.9%, 7% and 9.4%, respectively, for R290/R600 (60/40) % with 60g mass charge and 50% longer capillary tube compared with those of R134a with 120g mass charge.

Utilization of MixedWaste in Fired Brick Manufacturing

Khalid salem Shibib; Karema Assi Hamad; Haqui Ismael Qatta

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 1287-1293

Recycling wastes are a practical solution to reduce its detrimental effects. Many problems have arisen recently due to the rapid expansion on the quantity of waste. In this work, a practical solution was presented. The waste was mixed with wet clay to form a mixture that molded under pressure to form a wet brick. The wet bricks were entered into big ovens and during the firing process, porosity was induced inside them. The induced porosity enhanced the thermal insulation, decreasing the density, producing good brick durability with acceptable mechanical properties of the fired brick, in addition to that, a preservation in natural resources could be achieved. Following ASTM standards the values of the specific heat, dry density, thermal conductivity, cold and boiling absorption coefficient and both wet and dry compressive strength were measured with good accuracy.

A proposed Algorithm for Interactive Geometric Shapes Recognition

Hayder Hadi Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 1294-1307

A geometric shapes recognition algorithm is proposed in this paper. This algorithm is interactive which means that if not all the desired shapes are recognized then the recognition process is repeated by the user to improve the capability of the process.
The user can change threshold value when converting the image from gray to binary many times during one program execution to get the required results.
The proposed algorithm can select the desired shape individually even if there are different shapes in the image (multi-shapes image).
This algorithm is software implemented using Matlab programming language and then implemented program is used to recognize any of the following shapes (the shapes must be distinct and not overlapped):
Seven types of triangle; pentagons, hexagons, squares, rectangles, circles, ellipse shapes, rhombus, and parallelogram.
The recognition capability of the implemented software is tested for different cases and from these cases many points are concluded.

Optimal Identification of Doubly Fed Induction Generator Parameters in Wind Power System using Particle Swarm Optimizationand Artificial Neural Network

Kanaan A. Jalal; Hussain Kassim Ahmad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 1308-1322

Wind energy became one of the techniques that attracted much attention worldwide. The induction generator is used in the exploitation of this energy and converts it into electrical energy because of the advantages that distinguish it from other types of generators. In this paper, an optimal identification of induction generator parameters is proposed. Particle Swarm Optimization technique (PSO) trained using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is used to identify the main parameters of the induction generator in cases of wind speed change, load change and fault cases.
The simulation results obtained indicate that the particle swarm optimization is suitable for neural networks training for controlling of the voltage, frequency and generated power. The simulation programming is implemented using MATLAB.

Effect of Substrate Temperature on Optical and Structural Properties of Indium Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Reactive PLD Method

Makram A. Fakhri

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 1323-1330

In the present Work, effect of substrate temperatures on the optical and morphological properties of In2O3 trioxide thin film has been carried out using Reactive Pulsed Laser as a Deposition technique (RPLD). 1.064µm, 7 nsec Q-switch Nd-YAG laser with 400 mJ/cm2 laser energy’s has been used to ablated pure Indium target and deposited on glass substrates . The resulted films show High transparency reached to about (85) % which found to decrease sharply with the substrate temperatures. The estimated optical band gap found to be about 3.6eV at optimum substrate temperatures (70 Co). The FTIR results insure the formation ofIn-O vibrational bond with different vibrational intensity depending on substrate temperatures.

Roughness Assessment for Machined Surfaces in Turning Operation Using Neural Network

Mohanned M.H. AL-Khafaji; Hussam Lefta Alwan; Baraa M.H. Albaghdadi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 1331-1344

Feed forward artificial neural network has been applied to predict the quality of turned surfaces for two types of coated carbide inserts. Four networks were proposed for each insert. The networks have been trained and tested using a former experimental data. The input data, represented by cutting parameter values, and output data, represented by surface roughness, were fed into the network model. Each network has three layers adopted for prediction. The first one is the input layer which involves cutting parameters: cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut; the second layer is hidden layer consisting of two hidden layers. The third layer of the network is the output layer which gives the surface roughness value. Levenberg - Marquardt algorithm is used in the back-propagation algorithm to train these networks. The best result was obtained for networks which have (12) neurons in the first hidden layer and (9) neurons in the second hidden layer. These networks had given R^2=0.9902 and mean square error = 0.0033 for the first insert, whereas, for the second insert, R^2=0.9892 and mean square error = 0.0023. These networks were used to predict the optimum cutting parameters which give minimum surface roughness.