Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 6,

Issue 6

Mechanical Characteristics of Prepared Functionally Graded Cylinder by Centrifugal Casting

Marwan A. Madhloom; Alaa A. Atiyah; Ali H. Ataiw

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1344-1368

It is hoped in this paper to use the concept of centrifuging to prepare thick hollow functionally graded cylinder of (Al-TiO2) alloy. In order to achieve this objective, a vertical centrifugal casting machine was designed and manufactured. The FG cylinders prepared have shown a reasonable linear and the graded hardness value across the thicknesses. FG cylinders exhibit a heterogeneous microstructure in which a high volume fraction of (TiO2) hard particles is clustered on the surface according to the value of pouring temperature and motor force that represented by the mold number of rotations per minutes. It was found that using of pouring temperature of (850˚C) and rotation speed of (2100 r.p.m) would make a better graded hardness value across the thickness especially when (TiO2 weight%) is (10%). It is also found that the clustering of (TiO2) will weaken the tensile strength of prepared materials but increasing the wear resistance. Results of X-ray diffraction analysis for cylinders prepared with pouring temperature conditions (850˚C) and rotation speed of (2100 r.p.m)shows the development of (TiAl) crystalline phase in all prepared FG cylinders and maximum noticeable intensity was foundin (7.5weight% of TiO2) FG cylinders.

Optimum Charge and Performance for R432A under Window Type Air-Conditioner Systems

Haider ali hussen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1369-1379

The study presents optimized R432A charge by the index of power consumption of compressor and COP without changing the compressor. Test results showed that the best charge is 750 g for R432A which gave the highest coefficient of performance and less energy consumption. When charging the system with 750 grams, the amount of charge rate down to 42.3% compared with the original gas. The percentage increase in coefficient of performance are 9.85%, 8.39%, and 8.93% and the proportion of low energy consuming are 7.53%, 7.31%, and 7.34% at ambient temperatures of 30 ᵒC,34 ᵒC and 38 ᵒC respectively for R432A compared to R22. Increasing ambient temperature lead to increase in the power consumed and decrease coefficient of performance.

Effect of (50%Isopropanol – 30%Methanol – 17%Xylene) Mixture on Corrosion Behavior of Pure Al and its Alloys in Simulated Fuel

Rana A. Majed; Majid H. Abdulmajeed; Slafa I. Ibrahem; Saja A. Abdul Maged; Zahra; a S. Al-Saffar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1380-1389

This work involves studying the effect of adding (50%Isopropanol – 30%Methanol – 17%Xylene) mixture on corrosion behavior of pure Al and its alloys in simulated fuel at room temperature. The results of electrochemical measurements indicate that the addition of this mixture lead to decreasing in corrosion rate values for pure Al and its alloys.
Electrochemical measurements were carried out by potentiostat at weep rate of 3 mV/sec to estimate the corrosion parameters using Tafel extrapolation method, in addition to cyclic polarization test to know the pitting susceptibility of materials in tested medium.
Generally, the cathodic Tafel slope (bc) were increased after adding mixture. But the anodic Tafel slopes (ba) were decreased except for Al-Cu alloy. The small anodic slope indicates the presence of a film on the surface of the tested material, which is less permeable and can even obstruct the metal dissolution reaction but still permits an electrochemical reaction to occur. This behavior can be achieved by the electronic density on oxygen atoms in alcohols.

Assessment of Trace Metal Distribution and Contamination In Surface Soils of Al-Waziriya, Baghdad

Muna Aziz Rahi; Mahmood .R.M. Al-Qaysi; Abdul Hameed M.J. al Obaidy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1390-1398

A total of 100 samples from the top soil were collected from four different zones (tow industrial locations, tow residential locations) located in Al-Waziriya, Baghdad. Soil samples were analyzed for their content of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. A profile for average content of these selected metals has been determined by taking average values for different zones. The average concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the whole area were 11.45, 143.3, 3291.38 and 195.2 mg/kg, respectively. Highest concentrations for selected heavy metals were observed in the industrial area. Enrichment factor calculations indicated that Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn are highly enriched. Battery factories, fossil fuel combustion from traffic emissions, wear of brake lining materials, and several industrial processes are considered as major sources of the studied heavy metals.

Speaker Sound Coding Using Vector Quantization Technique (Vq)

Oday Kamil Hamid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1399-1410

The key objective of this research is to compress the speech sound or in another meaning coding speaker sound with a small matrix called code book represent the speaker sound information this is done by using Vector Quantization method (VQ).The sound features here represented with both types Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) and autocorrelation coefficients that represent the data base of this research.
The algorithm is tested upon a database consist of matrix with dimensions (54*13) which represent speaker sound information with normalized autocorrelation coefficients and compress it to a codebook (CB) contain 8 codeword (8 CW) with autocorrelation coefficients and the other CB with LPC coefficients of order p=12. From this project we can notes how much the sound information can be compressed which represented at first with a matrix of dimensions (54*13) and transfer it to a matrix with dimensions (8*12) or (8*13) with same feature sound of speaker.
In this project there is no focus on LPC method and how it work but used it in extracting Sound features in another program which represent data base for this project and inter it to VQ algorithm
The algorithm was examined through computer simulation using Matlab version 6 programming language and under Microsoft Windows XP operating system.

Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis for Punching Shear Resistance of Steel Fibers High Strength Reinforced Concrete Slabs

Eyad K. Sayhood; Samer P. Yaakoub; Hussien Fadhil Hussien

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1411-1432

This study is devoted to investigate the punching shear resistance of high strength reinforced concrete slabs with steel fibers by using the well-known (P3DNFEA), a non-linear finite element program for three-dimensional analysis of reinforced concrete structure.
Nine high strength reinforced concrete slabs with steel fibers and one without steel fibers, have been analyzed in the present study. The finite element solutions are compared with the available experimental data. In general, accepted agreement between the numerical results and the experimental results has been obtained.
Parametric studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of concrete compressive strength, steel fiber content, amount of steel rebars, slab depth and column dimensions on the behavior and ultimate strength of reinforced
concrete slabs.
The numerical analysis indicated that the increase in the concrete compressive strength (f'c) from 40 to 80 MPa has led to an increase in the strength by 69% and 84% for slabs without and with 0.5% steel fibers respectively. The numerical analysis indicated that by using 2.0% steel fibers, the ultimate capacity is increased by 81.7%, compared to a slab without fibers.
Also, the finite element solution revealed that increasing the longitudinal reinforcement ratio in the slab from 1% to 2% led to an increase in the ultimate shear strength of about 57%.

Study the Effect of Electrode Wear Weight (EWW) in Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM)

Shukry H. Aghdeab; Wathik I. Mahdi AL-Tameemi; Afiaa F.Jawad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1433-1441

Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is one of the earliest non-conventional manufacturing processes based on thermo-electric energy which removing material from a part by electrical discharges between the tools called electrode and the part being machined in the dielectric fluid called work piece. One of the most important performance measures in electrical discharge machining (EDM) process are the electrode wear weight(EWW).
In the present work an experiments has been done to evaluate the rapidity of wear weight electrode of different material (Copper, Brass and Steel) under the same machining condition to analyze the effect of electrode material and the current on electrode wear weight.

Study and Analysis of Failure Mechanism of Bolt Adapter in Prosthetic SACH Foot

Muhsin J. Jweeg; Kadhim K. Resan; Ali Abdulameer Najm

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1442-1457

This paper presents is the study and analysis of failure mechanism of non-articular prosthetic foot (SACH) in the region (Bolt Adapter). The tests of mechanical properties and fatigue behavior were carried for material of which the bolt manufacture from it is a region where the failure occurs out and inserted of these properties to the program of engineering analysis (Ansys) to calculate the safety factor of fatigue and stress equivalent (Von-Mises).The results that both, showed the maximum equivalent stress and the minimum safety factor of fatigue are located in bolt at interface region between the adapter and the foot at notch, however, in static case, the effect was on the ground reaction force at toe off phase more than heel strike phase.

Detection of Buried Pipes and Soil Classification Using Remote Sensing

Abdul-Razzak T. Ziboon; Mohamed M. Mahmood; Haifaa N. Hussein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1458-1471

The research aims to employ microwave remote sensing techniques to classify soil with the traditional classification method and to detect buried pipes in soil and compare the results. The three- band IKONOS image and the one band QUICK BIRD image for the study area were used in this study; in addition a topographic map for Baghdad city was used also in this study. followed by field investigations including activities such as survey operations in the area using the GPS device and collecting soil samples from certain positions. Then the properties of soil are determined, this includes determination the physical properties of soil to be used according to the (USCS), Microwave experimental setup has been operated to work with x band for studying the reflection coefficient of these waves from the moisture content and the texture change of soil. Also an experiment has been done to detect the pipes in soil by using (iron, plastic) pipes material with different diameters to determine and study the changes in reflection coefficient The main results of the study that the spatial merge between the three- bands image (IKONOS) and the one band image (QUICK BIRD) produces a new color image with high resolution for the study area which is considered the best in giving explanation to visual sensing of the kind of soil and it has been found that the soil of the study area is predominated by silt and clay.

Wear Resistance of a New Glass Ceramic Coating

Jabbar H. mohmmed; Ibtihal A. Mahmood; Ali H. Ataiwi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1472-1484

A new wear resistance glass-ceramic coating system iron (low alloyed low carbon steel) based substrate was developed. The effects of heat treatment conditions and mill additions on wear resistance of developed coatings resistance were studied. The coating materials showed excellent properties for protection the iron substrate from wear. Also, in this work mathematical modeling is implemented and regression equations are obtained by using ( SPSS ) software to predict the experimental data for wear rate. Comparing the predicted and measured values gives high prediction accuracy.

Determination of the Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution Probability for Different Gas Mixtures

Ibrahim Kaittan Fayyadh; Harith Abd-Al razak Hassan; Muhammad Asmail Eleiwi; Farhan Lafta Rashid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1485-1496

From the Maxwell speed distribution can be calculated several characteristic molecular speeds, namely, the most probable speed νp , the mean speed , and the root-mean-square speed νrms , furthermore satisfy the condition of speed for percentage different gaseous mixtures at 3000K.
The obtained results have been drawn as functions for its variables and appeared in good agreement with the literature.

Proposed Correlation for Gas solubility at and below Bubble Point Pressure

Mohammed M. Daway

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1497-1505

A study has been done to get an accurate correlation for solution gas-oil ratio (gas solubility). Two hundred and nine measured values from an Iraqi oil field have been used in this study.
Many formulas are tested to get the best correlation for gas solubility. Every formula predicts the value of gas-oil ratio at any given pressure, temperature, oil density and gas specific gravity. Based on the nonlinear regression analysis, the constants of these formulas are determined.
The formula with the minimum average absolute error among the assumed (reported an absolute average error of 4.97 % and a standard deviation of 453) is selected to be the proposed correlation for this study.
The accuracy of the proposed correlation is assessed through a statistical test and compared with those achieved for some published correlations. This test shows that the proposed correlation has the best fitting with the experimental data. Cross plot technique is also applied to check the performance of the correlation which gave the same index of the statistical criterion method.
Another method has been used to ensure the accuracy of the proposed correlation, in which a sample of external data (which is not used to develop the correlation) is tested. The results show the same index of the other methods

Low Complexity Spectrum Sensing System for GFDM Cognitive Radio Signals

Hussain K. Chaiel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1506-1518

Cognitive radio is a promising technology that aims to use the transmission spectrum efficiently. Each cognitive transmission process consists typically of two phases. During the first phase, which is called sensing phase, cognitive system attempts to detect an available spectrum hole. While in the second phase, data transmission phase, the secondary user data is transmitted to the destination via detected hole. The throughput of the cognitive radio system is mainly depending on the ratio of the transmission time to the sensing time. To reduce the sensing time, this paper suggests a design of simple spectrum sensing system capable for detecting Generalized Frequency Division Multiplexing (GFDM) signals. The reduction in sensing time is based on using XilinixVirtix-6 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) as a target device for implementation the proposed design, which operates at 600 MHz clock frequency. This work includes a discussion of more than one approach to reduce the arithmetic operations needed to implement a sensing system with 250 subcarriers. The simulation results show that the power consumption represents the main challenge of such implementation.

Effect of Using Windows Waste Glass as Coarse Aggregate on Some Properties of Concrete

Abdelmaseeh Bakos Keryou; Gailan Jibrael Ibrahim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1519-1529

In this experimental study, local waste glass (WG) gathered from Turkey-made windows glass has been used as a partial replacement of coarse aggregates with 0, 20, 25, and 30% percentages of replacement by weight. Some mechanical and other properties of the concrete, produced this way have been studied at both fresh and hardened stages.
The experimental results obtained from testing the specimens prepared from concrete mixes with water/cement ratio equal to 0.5, showed that using WG resulted in decreasing the slump and fresh density due to angular grain shape, whereas the compressive, splitting, and flexural strengths noticeably enhanced. Tests revealed that with increasing the WG percentage the strengths gradually increase up to a given limit beyond which they decrease. The maximum effect was reached at 25% percentage of replacement. At this percentage the increases in the compressive, splitting tensile and flexural strengths at 28-day age were 30, 38 and 31 %, respectively. The results of this study indicate a considerable economical effect from using the optimum percentage of WG (25%) as partial replacement of coarse aggregate.

Modeling of The Corrosion Behavior of Enamel Coatings in Different Aggressive Media

Ibtihal A. Mahmood; Jabbar H. mohmmed; a A. Khalaf; Bayda

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1530-1543

In this study an attempt has been made to formulate materials for glass ceramic enamel coating that can be applied directly onto cast iron substrate for corrosion control. Different 'proportions(4.95) %wt. to form four batches. The batches were mixed with water to form slips which were used to coat already prepared cast iron surfaces and were allowed to dry in the oven. The coated cast iron plates were fired at temperatures of 850˚C to mature and factually heat treated at 680˚C.
The coatings were observed and also chemical tests were conducted to determine the corrosion properties of the resultant coatings. The chemical tests were evaluated using a suitable standard methods and special attention was paid to the type of aggressive solution, and temperature.
The results show that the coatings matured and adhered very well to the sub strateand showed good corrosion resistance in H2SO4,HCl,C6H8O7, H3PO4, and NaOH solutions. The results indicated that the corrosion rate in both acid and alkali media was increased strongly with the increasing temperature.The coatings prepared with the zircon showed better results in terms of acidcorrosion resistance than those prepared with the other crystalline agents. However, the corrosion rate of the zircon containing coating in sulfuric acid was higher than that in hydrochloric acid. Also, it is found that there is absolutely no weight loss for any of the four types of the coating in neither citric nor phosphoric acids. At the same time, the results for alkali corrosion resistance indicate that the act of the four series is very similar to each other, for the four coatings there is no high corrosion rate until the temperature exceed 100˚C after that the rate increases in a very quick manner. From the results it is found that the enamel with lithium oxide was not affected by the alkali solution at all, this behavior is associated with the presence of crystalline β-Spodumene, and β-Eucryptite, which have an extremely high corrosion resistance especially for alkali medium. Mathematical modeling is implemented and regression equations are obtained by using (SPSS) software to predict the experimental data for acid and alkali corrosion rate. Comparing the predicted and measured values gives high prediction accuracy.

Removal of Methyl Violet Dye From Synthetic Wastewater Using a Hybrid Detoxification Process

Mohammad F. Abid; Amir A; Abdul-Rahman; Noor H. Hamza

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1544-1561

The aim of the present study was to design a solar reactor and analyze its performance for removal of methyl violet dye (MV) from water with titanium dioxide as the photocatalyst. The solar reactor was made up of a flat-plate colorless glass of dimensions 1000 x 750 x 4 mm. The base of the reactor was made of aluminum. Various operating parameters were studied to investigate the behavior of the designed reactor like initial dye concentration (CMV=10-50 mg/L), loading of catalyst (CTiO2=200-800 mg/L), suspension flow rate (QL=0.3-2 L/min), pH of suspension (5-10), and H2O2 concentration (CH2O2=200-1000 mg/L). The operating parameters were optimized to give higher efficiency to the reactor performance. The designed reactor when operating at optimum conditions offered a degradation of MV up to 95.27% within one hours of operation time, while a conversion of 99.95% was obtained in three hours. The effluent from the photocatalytic reactor was fed to a LPRO separation system which produced a permeat of turbidity value of 0.09NTU. The product water was analyized using UV-spectrophotometer and FTIR. The analysis results confirmed that the water from the Hybrid-system could be safely recycled and reuse. It was found that the kinetics of dye degradation was first order with respect to dye concentration and could be well described by Langmuir-Hinshelwood model.

Stress Analysis Around Tunnels During Construction Stages Using Finite Elements Method

Kais T. Shlash; Nahla M. Salim; Zainab H. Shaker

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1562-1579

In this study, the stresses around a tunnel during construction stages are discussed. For this purpose, the finite element method (FEM) was adopted as an effective approach to analyze the problem using (SIGMA/W) program.
The research includes the study of the behavior of soil due to excavation of tunnel by calculating the displacements and stresses in three positions of tunnel (crown, wall, and invert) during the various stages of construction.
The finite element analyses were carried out using (Elastic- plastic) and (linear elastic) models for the soil and the concrete liner respectively. From the results, it can be noticed that increasing the number of excavation stages (using six stages) decreases the displacement comparing with excavation using one stage.

Enhancement of Wind Turbine Performance Using Air- Blowing Technique by Modified Strong Implicit Procedure (MSIP) Optimization Solver Method

Abdulhadi Mohammed Jawad; Muhannad Zedan Khelifa; Mustafa Sami Abdullateef; Yasser Ahmed Mahmood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1580-1601

A powerful intensifier of friction in air flows affects the lift and drag coefficients, the flow separation plays a vital part in aerodynamic characteristics for technical applications. The porous air blowing is also one of a powerful technique that determines and improves of these characteristics. In present work the influence of this technique on power coefficient in separated laminar flow over wind turbine blade is investigated in numerical and optimization methods. The influence of some parameters associated with using air blowing, such as the speed air blowing ratio (U_j/U) strength on the performance of the NACA 4415 two dimensional airfoil at different angle of attack(5^o، 〖10〗^o، 〖15〗^o) have been studied. The result shows that the air blowing is effective in controlling the separation in all cases but the power coefficient is greater in α=5 than the other angles and at tip speed ratio equal 2.5. The influence of air blowing technique on the power coefficient is clear and greater than without blowing cases.

Sustainable Urban Development -The Role of Waters' Canals in the Morphological Urban Development - City of Basrah as a Case Study

Sana Sati Abbas; Asaad Ghalib; Saba M. Abdul Wahid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 165-185

Where ever the life is found it's very likely to find a river or water in any form, people connected more and more with rivers, streams and canals and working hard to rehabilitate these waters' sources .
The research problem is "there is a knowledgeable gap about the role of waters' canals in the morphological urban development of the cities ".While the aim of the research is to Diagnosis the waters' canals which embody the greatest importance in the morphological urban development of the city.
The main research hypothesis is " canals vary in their importance or role in the morphological development of the cities ".
The area of study is represented by city of Basrah because it has a network of waters' canals consolidated with the main streets' network in which every canal is parallel to one of city streets. The research studied the spatial organization of Basra city using the Arc View GIS 3.3 to see the canals that deserves rehabilitation within the city. and Studied lands' uses which align the important waters' canals by field survey. Also built a questionnaire about the character of urban development and its mechanism.
The research reached in its practical study to diagnose the main waters' canals in the city which have the more importance in the morphological development of Basrah city , where its result come from the integration and the access to those canals by using major ways of transportation .
The results of the program are about twelve canals which gained high values, those canals are " Sarraji River , Al Khora River , Alashar River , Alkhandag River , Rebat River , Jubailah River , Shatt al-Turk river , the vertical canal on the Shatt al-Turk river , Baghdad's streets' Canals beside Aljameyaaat district , the canals which paralleled Baghdad's street beside Alsma'i and Alaaleya districts ,alsheeaba's drainage canal and the vertical canal between Al-Sarraji and Al-Khora River) ,the research diagnoses and concentrates on the main lands' uses on the Both bankes of those Canals and they are (governmental , commercial and residential and mixed) . Research recommended that the focus should be on those important canals in the new developments.

Studying the Dry Sliding Wear for Composite Material of Base (Al-4%Cu) Reinforcement by Silicon Carbide Particles

Ahmad Ali Akbar Akbar; Hijran Zinalabiden; Waleed T. Rashid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 186-195

This work is concerned with a study of dry sliding wear of Aluminum bace alloy of (Al-4%Cu) reinforcement by silicon carbide particles with different percentage (3, 6,9,12 wt %SiC). Composite materials prepared by stir casting method using vortex technique. The base alloy and composite materials samples were tested to investigate wear behavior, using Pin -on-Disc technique, by examining some variables of wear such as applied load, sliding speed, and sliding time. The results showed that wear rate increases with applied load and sliding time, while increasing the sliding speed and the percentage of SiC decreases the wear rate, as well as the alloy containing (12wt% SiC) showed better wear resistance compared with other alloys .