Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 32, Issue 8

Volume 32, Issue 8, August 2014, Page 222-2105

Determination of Effective Thermal Properties of Open Cell Ceramic Foam

Abdulhassan A. Karamallah; Ali Mohammed Hussein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 8, Pages 1887-1902

This work presents an experimental investigation for effective thermal properties of open cell ceramic foam (80.13 Al2O3, 17.79 SiO2, 1.57 MgO, and 0.51 Na2O. % weight),which were measured using the Transient Plane Source (TPS) technique, and the parameters, which influenced them, and the influence of foam structure. Three types of pore per inch (ppi) were tested (10, 30 and 50). Three sensors were used, K5599 (of 60 mmdiameter), K4922 (of 30 mmdiameter) and K5501 (of 13 mmdiameter).The percentage difference between the highest and lowest results for each sensor and ppi are: for K5501 sensor were 34% in 10 ppi, 15% in 30 ppi and 18% in 50 ppi, for sensor K4922 were 19%, 11% and 13%, respectively, and for K5599 were 17%, 14% and 16%, respectively. The results show that the sensor K4922 is the more suitable sensor to test such material especially which has high ppi.

Data Transfer of Total Station Traverses

Ruba Yousif Hussain

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 8, Pages 1903-1915

The major objective of this paper is to transfer field data stored in the total station memory to a computer . Number of stations is established in the study area . The positions of control points are measured by Global Positioning System ( GPS ) . Electronic Total Station is used to perform horizontal and vertical traversing . The field data are stored in a three dimensional coordinate file. Several serial transportation parameters are tested until the data are downloaded to the computer using T-COM program through an RS-232 interface cable . The total station and the computer operating system must have similar communication parameters . The data must be sent and received simultaneously . Compass rule is used for data balancing . Data are converted into digital plans using Geographic Information System ( GIS ) and Computer Aided Design ( CAD ) programs .

Application of Taguchi Approache to Study the Effect of Filler Type on Tribological Behavior of Polymer Composite Under Dry Conditions

Drai Ahmed Smait; Farag Mahel Mohammed; Hussam Lefta Alwan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 8, Pages 1916-1930

The tribological behaviour of a G-P ( glass-polyester ) composite system and G-P composite systems interfaced with graded fillers were tested. The composite materials of G-P and G-P reinforced with SiC and Graphite particles as secondary fillers were experimentally investigated under varying loads, sliding velocities with dry surfaces by using a Pin-on-Disc test machine. A plan of experiments, based on the techniques of Taguchi, were performed to acquire data in a controlled way. An L9 Orthogonal array was selected for analysis of the data. Investigations to find the influence of additives, applied load, sliding speed on wear rate, wear resistance as well as the coefficient of friction during wearing process were carried out using ANOVA analysis and regression equation for each response. The model was chosen as "smaller is better" characteristics to analyse the dry sliding wear and friction while "larger is better" for sliding wear resistance. Results show that the additives have the highest influence followed by load and sliding speed. Finally, confirmation tests were performed to verify the experimental results foreseen from the mentioned correlations

Support Vector Machines for Predicting Electrical Faults

Tarik Rashid; Salar J. Abdulhameed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 8, Pages 1931-1941

Support vector machines (SVMs) are a non-probabilistic binary linear classifier in machine learning techniques and are supervised learning algorithms that classify, predict, recognise and analyse patterns. This technique was developed in early 1990s.Training algorithms of support vector machines help build a model that assigns new examples into one class or the other when a set of training examples is recycled in the training process. This feature in SVM has attracted many of researchers to develop SVM methods and their applications. In this paper work support vector machines are used to tackle electrical faults in single phase circuits. Support vectors machines are evaluated against Simple Linear Regression techniques. Support vector machines outperformed Simple Linear Regression techniques.

Influence of some Relevant Process Parameters on The Surface Roughness of Surfaces Produced by ISMF Proce

Wisam K. Hamdan; Jamal H. Mohamed; Nareen Hafudh Obaeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 8, Pages 1942-1957

Incremental Sheet Metal Forming (ISMF) is a novel sheet metal forming technology where the deformation of the thin sheet metal blank occurs locally and progressively by using the CNC milling machine which control the movement of a simple forming tool. The surface quality is of vital importance in any manufacturing process. Therefore, the present study is focused on the surface quality of parts formed by single point incremental forming (SPIF) process. Consequently, the objective of this study is to investigate the effect of five forming parameters (number of forming stages, feed rate type, tool overlapping, rotational speed, and state of initial blank) on the dimensional accuracy and surface roughness of parts. Each control factor is studied based on two levels (low level and high level). To study the effects of these control factors, a D-optimal Design of Experiment is used to develop the experimental plan and analyze data. The ANOVA results show that the tool overlapping and the number of forming stages are the most important factors affecting the surface roughness. These two factors are proportional to the surface roughness. The maximum and minimum surface roughness, which is achieved from all the 16 experiments is (Ra = 4.06 & Ra = 2.04 µm) respectively. The qualitative assessment reveals that the surface roughness decreases radialy as the tool moves towards the center of the blank.

Superplastic Behavior of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy Processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP)

Ziad Tariq Madhloom; Azal R. Ismail

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 8, Pages 1958-1970

AZ31B magnesium alloy with initial grain size of 11.2 µm was grain refined using Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) the alloy was ECAP-processed up to 5-times at 473 K. As a result, the grains are refined to 2.1 µm after three ECAP passes, the elongation was increased to 84 % at 473 K and strain rate of 1×10-4 s-1 after ECAP up to 5-passes,. Large fracture elongations of 261% are obtained at 623 K and strain rate 2.45×10-4 s-1 for specimen made from 3 ECAR passes compared to 183% for the as received material. Also the superplastic properties of the ECAP-processed specimens were investigated at 623 K and the strain rate ranges from 2.45×10-4 s-1 to 1.2×10-3 s-1. The strain rate sensitivity were determined to be 0.33

Predicating the Crop Coefficient of Eggplant from Crop Evapotranspiration and Atmometer (ETgage)

Ehab Fahkree Hikamat; Sabah Anwer Almasraf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 8, Pages 1971-1981

The objectives of the study are to predicate crop coefficient (Kc) for eggplant using watermarks gypsum blocks and atmometer (or ETgage) devices during the growing season and to compare the predicating values of the crop coefficient with FAO recommended Kc and with local study values. The study was conducted in the field within Al-Yusufiya Township, 30km south of Baghdad under semi- arid weather conditions. The watermarks and atmometer were used to measure crop evapotranspiration (consumptive use) and reference evapotranspiration respectively. Watermarks wereinserted in the root zones of eggplant staring from the time of planting till harvest time, with the same time the atmometer was installed in the same field after evaluation and comparison was done with the FAO-56 modified Penman – Monteith equation. Comparison between the predicating crop coefficient that obtained from crop evapotranspiration and reference evapotranspiration and the recommended FAO for Kc values showed thatthe relative error was29.61%, and with mean absolute error was0.2. Moreover, root mean square difference was 0.25. Additionallythe comparison between the predicating crop coefficient with the local study for Kc values showed a relative error of 36.91% and with mean absolute errorwas 0.26.Moreover, the root mean square differencewas 0.31.

Effect of Distance between Two Optical Single Mode Fibers on Minimum Splice Losses by Using Arc Fusion Splicer

Salah Aldeen Adnan Taha

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 8, Pages 1982-1991

Old Researches were worked to find the splice losses between two single mode fibers (SMF-28/SMF-28) by using different arc fusion splicer without taking the effect of distance between them. We have conducted numerous experiments on this fiber where the fiber is cut and weld many times in order to find the fusion splice loss when the arc fusion power is fixed at (20 step) for different fusion times ( 1s , 3s , 6s , 9s ), the fusion time and fusion power were used with changing of the distance to (10um,20um,30um). another splice losses were achieved by using another arc fusion power ( 30 step,40 step,50 step ) by using the same arc fusion time and the distance between fibers as shown in fig's below , the minimum splice losses have been extracted from the different figures as below , these minimum splice losses compared with different arc fusion power and distance by using three-dimensional program ,Obviously when the distance between two fibers is increased(25-30)um, the minimum splice loss is decreased and vice versa when the distance is (10)um.

Study on Corrosion Inhibition of Brass in Water Using Horse Tail Herb as Green Inhibitor

Sami Abualnoun Ajee; Ali Yashar Zain Al-Abdein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 8, Pages 1992-2008

Brass used in heat exchanger is corroded in industrial water. The used inhibitor is extracted from horse tail herb added in different concentrations and temperature to industrial water in which heat exchanger if exposed to these conditions. Brass is studied under the above conditions using potentiodynamic polarization, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction. Potentiodynamic polarization technique was used to evaluate the corrosion rate data. Inhibition efficiency of 92.1 % at 298 k was achieved with the addition of 1350 ppm of horse tail herb from potentiodynamic polarization measurements. Potentiodynamic curves show that the presence of extracted horse tail herb in industrial water affects both the anodic and cathodic processes, decreases the corrosion current density and shifts the corrosion potential towards more noble values; the inhibitors are mixed type inhibitors.

Effect of Blank Holder Force on Strains and Thickness Distribution in Deep Drawing Process

Ali Abbar Khleif; Karem Muhsin Younis; Ali Tuaimah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 8, Pages 2009-2019

This work aims to study the effect of the blank holder force on strains and thickness distribution along cup wall of drawn part in deep drawing process. 2-D model of cylindrical cup of (40mm) outer diameter, and (0.5mm) thickness made from low carbon steel (1008–AISI), has been developed. A commercially available finite element package (ANSYS14.0) was used to perform the numerical simulation of deep drawing process. The experimental work carried out using digital image processing technique. Five values of blank holder force =5, 7.5, 10, 12, 15 KN) were adopted. The numerical results of this model were compared with experimental results and the results show that, the value of the thickness and hoop strain at cup rim decrease with increasing blank holder force, while radial strain increases with increasing blank holder force. The best thickness distribution over all zones in produced cup obtained when using blank holder force with value =10 KN).

Updating Urban Cadastral Map and Database Designing by GIS Using Aerial Photos

Abbas Z. Khalfa; Imzahim Abdul Kareem Alwan; Noor Hashim Hamed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 8, Pages 2020-2029

For the time being most of the countries around the world trying to update their Urban Cadastral Map with the unified well known system this is the WGS84 UTM system. The coordinates systems in Iraq are divided into two systems: the first system was known as the "Third system" and the reference point located in AL-NAHRWAN south-east of Baghdad city and CLARK1880 was used, the second system was established terrestical topocentric coordinate system by "Pole Service Company "during 1979-1974,the reference point located in KARBALA ,and CLARK1880 UTM was used.
In our case study the Amana Baghdad Base Map having several coordinates systems which are not known specifically. In this research has been used an approach for the updating of the maps with WGS84 system regardless their original coordinates system to produce a photomap ; which would be considered as a base map and consisted of all characteristic of base map then use this base map as a reference map to update the Amana Baghdad base maps and produce an Urban Cadastral Map.
The study area was chosen in Baghdad city, Hay Al-Wahda, Mahala 906 including University of Technology Area. Database design will be done through using ArcGIS programme. A precision assessment of the updating approach for Urban Large Scale Cadastral Maps used in this research were done and founded the root mean square error is equal to ∓ 0.115 m ; which is complied within ASPRS standards.

Properties of High Performance Self Compacting Concrete Continuously Exposed in Oil Products

Shaker.A.Al-Mashhadany; Wasan Ismail Khalil; Ali Adel Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 8, Pages 2030-2055

Self compacted concrete (SCC) is a new generation of concrete. Its behavior after exposure to oil products is still unknown. This investigation includes producing SCC and investigate its properties after different exposure periods (28,60,90,120,150 and 180 days) to water or different oil products (crude oil, gas oil , motor oil and fuel oil ). The mechanical properties (compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, modulus of rupture and static modulus of elasticity) and dynamic properties (Ultrasonic pulse velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity), length change, total absorption and density of SCC were studied. The results show that compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, modulus of rupture and static modulus of elasticity, ultrasonic pulse velocity, dynamic modulus of elasticity and density for SCC specimens continuously exposed to water are increase as the exposure period increased. Generally the results indicate a reduction in all these properties as the exposure period to oil products increased.

Vibration Based - Crack Detection in Simplified Wind Turbine Blades Using Artificial Neural Networks

Mauwafak A. Tawfik; Mohammed I. Abu-Tabikh; Farouk O. Hamdoon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 8, Pages 2056-2069

Wind turbine blades are complicated components for inspection by non-destructive techniques because they are multi-layered, have variable thickness and are made of anisotropic materials. This paper proposes the use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) for the detection of crack location and crack depth in wind turbine blades. Wind turbine blade is approximated by a laminated composite, cantilever tapered beam with a transverse open surface crack. The natural frequencies which are influenced by crack specifications are obtained by a Finite Element Method (FEM) via ANSYS software. Experimental setup has been developed to validate the results obtained from the finite element software ANSYS. The numerical data obtained from (FEM) are then used to train a feed-forward back propagation neural network using Matlab environment. The input parameters to the neural network are the first three relative natural frequencies, while the output parameters are the relative crack depth and relative crack location. Simulations are carried out to test the performance and the accuracy of the trained network by comparing the results for the crack depth and crack location obtained from (ANN) with those obtained from (FEM). The simulation results show that the proposed Artificial Neural Network can precisely detect the crack location and crack depth.

Generation Output Routing and Shares in the Iraqi 400kV Power Gird

Qais Matti Alias; Sermed Safaa Mahmood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 8, Pages 2070-2078

With the power systems deregulation and the introduction of competition in the electricity supply industry, it has become important to answer many questions such questions are; How much power of a certain generator is received by a particular load? What pattern of flow these powers are following and how they are traversing the transmission network? How to charge the system loads for the system losses? Is it required to charge the generation for the system losses too? This work describes a method to answer such questions. It starts by conventional load flow solution at a particular generation and load profiles. Then, the generated active powers are traced from generators to loads via the transmission system in directions and values using the proportionality principles. A matlab programs are developed for calculating the power generation shares in loads and links flows. The programs are verified using a literature documented IEEE 30-bus test system. The programs are then applied on the Iraqi 400kV power grid and results appeared of relevance to planning and economic studies.

Modeling and Force-Position Controller Design of Rehabilitation Robot for Human Arm Movements

Mohammed Y. Hassan; Zeyad A. Karam

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 8, Pages 2079-2095

Physical disabilities such as full or partial loss of function in the shoulder, elbow or wrist is a common impairment in the elderly, and can also be a secondary effect due to strokes, trauma, sports injuries, and occupational injuries. Rehabilitation programs are the main method to promote functional recovery in these subjects.
This work focuses on designing and nonlinear modeling of 3DOF non-wearable rehabilitation robot for rehabilitee the upper limbs in human body. The structure of this robot will eliminate singularity problem by depending on articulated configuration through adding shoulder offset to the robot base. The nonlinear modeling of a rehabilitation robot including kinematic and dynamic models is done for three degrees of freedom, with the effect of friction term in robot actuator.
Three Intelligent Force-Position controllers, PD-like Fuzzy logic controllers are designed for position control and P controllers for force control, for moving the shoulder and elbow joints of the rehabilitation robot at desired trajectories. These controllers were tuned in order to make the robot end effecter tracking the desired medical trajectories in a specific time with minimum overshoot, minimum settling time and minimum steady state error. Each controller is tested by applying different trajectories with the application of external disturbances on the robot body.
A comparison between the proposed intelligent controllers and conventional PD Force-Position controllers shows superior of the intelligent type of controller to make the end effecter follow the desired trajectory compared with the use of conventional controllers.

Removal of a Single-Component NAPL under Nonequilibrium Condition: a Zero Mass Flux Moving Boundary

Talib R. Abbas; Mohammed A. Abdul-Majeed; Inmar N.Ghazi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 8, Pages 2096-2105

A new zero flux moving boundary conditions to solve the non-equilibrium single-component dispersion-advection transport problem containing NAPL have been introduced. The resultant model can overcome many approximations in the model which is done by previous study and give more precise analytical solution to the aqueous (or gas) phase concentration profile, NAPL saturation and the moving front speed. From the results, it is clear that the number of pore volumes (P), which are required for removing all NAPL under equilibrium conditions, plays a role in the differences between the two models' predictions. The NAPL saturation profile predicted by the two models is the same. At very low P the predicted value of the front speed by the present model is half of the value predicted by Brouwers and Augustijn model and increases gradually with P. It reaches 0.99 when P is 100.

Thinking Patterns &Cognitive strategies Appropriate for the study of Curriculum in Architectural Departments

Suha Hassan AL-Dahwi; Nawfal Joseph Rizco

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 8, Pages 222-256

Due to the inclusion of the study topics in the departments of architecture on the fields of humanities and natural sciences so the study of curriculum for courses in different stages has varied ,and as a result the patterns of thinking required to deliver and to clarify these tuition of curriculum to students due to different topics of each subject, and this has formed the research problem which was that " there is a lack of a clear vision that linking kinds of thinking which appropriate to study vocabulary in this school stage in the departments of architecture in Iraq. Hence the research has sought to clarify the relationship between the type of thinking required to deliver and explain the different types of the study vocabulary approved in the departments of architecture in Iraq and for all academic levels. The research methodology rely to clarify what is meant by thinking, types and characteristics associated with each type, and then clarifying the type of problem solving that requires to be resolved in those courses at this stage in order to reach to combine between types of solutions to problems for the academic vocabulary and types of thinking required to solve them. And Due to the connection between Thinking Patterns and Cognitive strategies , so they have been assigned and compromised with each type of the thinking Patterns as they are recommended to Activate each kind of thinking Patterns that are belong to each of the curriculum to each subject of the curriculum.It was between the results of the research that has been carrying out the link between types of vocabulary study at that stage of study and type and characteristics of thought patterns required to solve the knowledge or educational problems of those vocabulary, and also clarifying the linkage between thinking Patterns and the Cognitive Strategies, in order to focus on when making those vocabulary by lecturers in order to accomplish the goals of cognitive or educational for those curriculum in a faster, easier and simpler way for the lecturer and student.

Effect of Information and Communication Technology In The Local Engineering Project Management

Safaa Aldeen Husain Ali; Nabil M.Salih M.Kadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 8, Pages 257-274

Although many of the proposals and studies that dealt with software and planning of engineering projects, varied from each other in the nature of subject discussion, but they have lacked the integrated theoretical frameworks about the subject. Therefore, the research problem is "lack of studies that determine the computer software and information and communication technology which help in raising the efficiency of performance in engineering project management in the design and executive stages." The research aims to identify the software and the level of information and communications technology which is used in the engineering consulting organizations. The theoretical framework has been determined in order to achieve the research objective, it includes the planning stages and its characteristics and elements of the project plan and identify the software and information technology used in professional practice, and conduct a practical study through a questionnaire for local engineering consulting organizations, then analyzing the practical study, discussed the results and give conclusions.

Using Geoimformation Indicators To Maintain The Iraqi City From Increasing Urban Growth Study of an Urban Area

Oday Zakariya Jasim; Najeel Kamal Abdul Razzaq; Mahdi Mohsin Ismail Al-Alalak

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 8, Pages 275-291

The planning processes are, need information and spatial data are based to achieve the goals of planner. This information and can be summarized in the information regarding studies Urban including how the spatial distribution of land uses as well as the information of other social and economic ..This information enables the planner to achieve specific targets, including identify the problems of land use and knowledge of the needs of the land necessary to meet the needs of population growth. This research are aims to use the techniques of spatial analysis as in the software of geographic information systems depending on the tool of Spatial analysis Extension in locating areas with most suitable to accommodate expansions who arise due to increased population growth in the Iraqi cities. Fallujah was taken as a case study in this subject adopted the methodology of this research. on the composition of a number of layers of spatial retinal default (Rasters), based on the concept of the area adjacent Buffer and by layer virtual each layer (Vector) of Substrates For a map of roads and green areas and built-up areas and bodies of water, wells, and the type of soil and the city center and then the modeling processes are develop a set of relations, mathematical and logical, which result in them after the implementation of this model (Model) and within the program Arc GIS has been obtained for the class that represents the candidate regions to accommodate population growth (Suitability Map For Urban Growth) and by priority polygon format radiography (Vector Polygon) which can be provided to outline a new approach to take maximum advantage of geographic information systems (GIS) software for better planning of the so-called required maps of the Master plan.

Study The Effect of Al-Sugar Factory’s Waste on The Engineering Properties of Gypseous Soil

K.N. Al-safaar; Anas. F.K; A.M. Ialkiki

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 8, Pages 292-303

This study investigates the possibility of using the industrial waste material of Al-sugar factory to improve the engineering properties of Gypseous Soil which taken from Baiji area. This soil can be classified as a silty soil with low plasticity and high gypsum content (35% gypsum). The investigated soil was treated with industrial waste (most of its composition is hydrated lime) using (1,3, 5 and 7 %) by dry weight of the soil. The results indicated that the engineering properties improved considerably.
The soil become non-plastic if (5%) of waste is used. The industrial waste increases the unconfined compressive strength and the effective shear strength parameters (angle of internal friction ( ) and cohesion (c`)).
The results of consolidation test showed that the compression Index (cc) and coefficient of consolidation (cv) decreased when the soil was treated with industrial waste. It also has this waste to reduce the effect of leaching process on the compressibility and permeability of the soil.
Accordingly, the industrial wastes may be considered as an advantageous in effect to the engineering characteristics of gypseous soil.