Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 32, Issue 1

Volume 32, Issue 1, January 2014, Page 1-190

The Use of Microwave as Physical Method for Plant Growth Stimulation


Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 1-6

Different chemical additives are used for rising productivity of plants. Their application causes the contamination of raw materials of food production with toxins that is dangerous for consumer’s health. On-farm safety for fresh production needs developing and implementing new methods for quality assurance. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of microwave radiation on germination and growth rate in seeds. In the present paper, the bioeffects of 2.45GHZ with 900W output power have been used. Chickpea seeds experimented for different exposure time (10, 20, 30,60seconds). Average length of plant recorded and compared with control seeds. Average length increase with exposure time increase up to 30sec. compared with control seeds.

Effect of Different Oxidation Temperature on Nano and Micro TCO’s Thin Film

Mohammed S. Mohammed; Rana Osamah Mahdi; Evan Tareq Salim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 7-14

In the present work, electrical structural and surface morphology of tin oxide thin films prepared using simple conventional method known as (CTO) was carried out. The obtained result insures the formation of Nano crystalline SnO2 films as a tetragonal structure. The atomic force microscope results show that film roughness depended on oxidation temperature. Minimum electrical resistivity found to be about (5.35 x 10-5 .cm) at (300°C) oxidation temperature.

Microstructure Characteristics in the Interface Zone of Gray Cast Iron Solid State Bonds

Awfa Abdul-Rassol Abdullah; Rasha Rahman Rawhdan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 15-22

In the present study, gray cast iron was diffusion bonded under air atmosphere and in inert environment (argon). In air it was carried out at the temperatures of 700, 750, 800, 850, and 900 °C under UN pressing load of 1 and 2 ton for 15, 30 and 60min. After diffusion bonding, experimental studies were adopted. As a result, Vickers micro hardness testing was carried out to measure hardness distribution in gray cast iron joint. The results observed from Vickers micro hardness test show that the hardness increases with increasing bonding temperature due to formation of hard phased iron carbides (Fe3C)the maximum value were observed at 850°C for 60 min holding time under 2 ton is 310 HV. The microstructure results show the formation of carbide and the carbide precipitation increases with increasing the bonding temperature and time.

Properties of Nano Thin Film Composed of Nan Crystalline Zro2 Prepared by (SOL - GEL) Method

Kassim Mohammed Sahan; Aqel Mashot Jafar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 23-32

Nano-crystalline ZrO2 was prepared by sol-gel method and deposited on glass substrate by dip-coating technique method in the room temperature. ZrOCl2 was dissolved in a solvent mixture composed of H2O2 and ammonia. The dissolving reaction produced a colorless, transparent peroxozirconium complex solution. The mean nanocrystalline size was about 7.55 nm. The zirconium film thus obtained was transparent 90% with 5.03 eV band gap. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction and (UV-Vis) used to determine the properties of the thin film. The as-deposited thin film was of high purity of ZrO2 and good adhesion to the substrate. The annealing was caused crystallization of tetragonal and monoclinic phase present in the zirconia at 550°C in air. The film showed very flat surfaces consisting of nanoparticles with particle size of ranging (2-10 nm).

Responsivity, Rise Time for Bi2O3 /Si Photo Detector

Evan Tariq Al Waisy; Marwa S. Al Wazny

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 33-38

In the present work, three different active layer thicknesses of Bi2O3 filmswas employ for fabricated n-Bi2O3/p-Si heterojunction detector, using reactive pulse laser deposition technique as preparation method, detector parameter was carried out,responsivity, detectivity quantum efficiency and rise time in order to investigated the performance of the fabricated devise

Lead Content in Two Vegetable Species Collected from Several Local Markets

S.A.K. Al-Hiyaly; J.A. Al-Tamimi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 39-46

This study was designed to assess lead content in soil and two vegetable species collected from several sites in Baghdad. The results showed that Swiss chard had lead content varied from 0.930 ± 0.23 µg/g to 1.988 ± 0.42 µg/g and these data were higher than those found in celery which ranged from 0.216 ± 0.08 µg/g to 0.935 ± 0.22 µg/g.
In case of celery plants cultivated in both Al- Autyfia and Al- Qanat sites, lead content has been found to be affected significantly ( P≥ 0.5) by the distance from motor road where higher content was found in plants closed to motor verge than those 15 meter away. For soil lead content, the results showed that lead content was almost two times greater than those of vegetable plant and again lead concentration was affected by the distance from the motorway verge in both sites where lead content varied from 1.512 ± 0.42 µg/g to 2.279 ± 1.04 µg/g and from 2.102 ± 0.82 µg/g to 2.656 ± 0.62 µg/g in Al- Autyfia and Al- Qanat samples respectively. However, these data in celery plants ranged from 1.389 ± 0.36 µg/g to 1.607 ± 0.88 for Al- Autyfia and from 1.359 ± 0.68 µg/g to 1.582 ± 0.92 µg/g for Al- Qanat cultivated yard.

To Study the Effect of Fillers on the Glass Fiber Reinforced Composites

Rafah A.Nasif

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 47-53

This study was carried out to investigated the effect of ceramic fillers (aluminum oxide Al2O3 and titania TiO2 ) and industrial wastes (red mud and copper slag) with weight fraction (10% wt)on the mechanical properties of composite material consist of epoxy reinforced with glass fiber with weight fraction (40/50)%wt .Some tests are carried out like: impact strength, tensile strength and harness and results have been compared with composite material reinforced only with glass fiber (50/50)%wt . The results show that the composite reinforced with TiO2 had higher value of impact strength and lowest value of tensile strength compared with other composites, while composite material reinforced only with glass fiber had higher value of tensile strength. Also, it can be seen that all hybrid composites have hardness values higher than that of composite material reinforced only with glass fiber and the highest hardness value was for the composites material reinforced with Al2O3.

Effect of Nano particles on Antibacterial Activity of AloeVera

Entessar H. Ali; Khawla S. khashan; Iman I. Jabber

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 54-60

In this work, synthesis of CdS nanoparticles with Aloe vera (L.) extract and its activity on bacterial pathogens was investigated. CdS nanoparticles were synthesized by using chemical methods. Physical properties like: X- ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-VIS transmission spectroscopy were employed to characterize the crystalline structure, size and transmission spectra of nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the formation of cubical and hexagonal structures of CdS nanoparticle. The AFM show the formation of aggregate of nanoparticle with particle size ranging 7 – 20 (nm). The antibacterial activity of Aloe vera-conjugated CdS nanoparticles showed effective inhibitory activity against the pathogens.

Preparation of Carbon Nanotube by Pulse Laser Ablation of Graphite Target in Demonized Water

Khawla S. khashan; Mayyadah H. Mohsin

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 61-71

In the present work, carbon nanotube was synthesis by pulse laser ablation of graphite target in deionize-water. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Visible Spectrophotometer and Transmission electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to study chemical bonding, optical absorption, particle size, structure and morphology of the carbon nanotube. The FTIR absorption peaksat 2092.6
cm-1, 2150 and 1641.3 cm-1is due to the C ≡ C and C = C stretching vibration bondrepresents, which suggest the formation of carbon nanoparticles suspend in this suspension, UV absorption peaks coincide with the electronic transitions corresponding to linear hydrogen – capped polyyne (Cn+1H2), polyynes are important precursor molecular components in the formation of carbon nanotubes. The TEM show the aggregation of the carbon nanoparticles with size ranges from (9.4 – 70.5 nm), the structure and morphology of thenanotube can be observed with diameters (12.5 -25) nm andlength(500 -708.3) nm.

To Study the Silver Concentration Effect on the Optical and Electrical Properties of the Ag/PMMA Composites

Nahida G.Hamed; Maraw Rahem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 72-85

The present work was carried out to investigate the silver concentration Effect (Ag %)othe optical and the electrical properties of the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). The samples were casted as films from the photopolymer (PMMA) stated above and the reason. The optical constant (α,k,n, εr, and εi)for the photopolymer (PMMA),and Ag/PMMA composites at different concentration were investigated. It was seen that there was nonlinear relationship between the optical constants and the concentration ratio, which was attributed to their incompatibility. These results were confirmed with optical micrographs. It was found that there was increasing of carrier concentration with Ag ratio which Ag/PMMA composites at different concentration. These prepared polymer systems were analyzes spectrophotometically. It was found that an increasing in the absorption spectra with increasing of the silver concentration in Ag/PMMA composites, which was attributed to the increasing in localized states. The results proved that its energy gap was for 13%Ag/PMMA (4.85eV), which was the lowest of all polymer system involved due to previous was caused decreasing in the mobility. The results showed that the best conductivity was at 9%Ag ratio, and the lowest receptivity.

Optical Properties of Cuo Thin Films with Different Concentration by Spray Pyrolysis Method

Khawla S. Khashan; Jehan A. Saimon; Azhar I. Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 86-93

In this work, CuO thin films were prepared by spray pyrolysis method using different concentration of CuCl2 .2H2O. X- ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-VIS transmission spectroscopy were employed to characterize the structure and optical properties of prepared films.XRD patterns show that the films are polycrystalline and monoclinic with (-111) and (111) crystalline orientations. The optical band gaps (2.05 to2.42eV) ,with high absorption coefficient change from (3*105 - 1*105) cm-1 at 0.3M concentration , and excitation coefficient change from (0.85 – 0.7). These constants are found to be oscillatory in nature, which are attributed to the particular structure of films and their concentration.

Proposal of New Keys Generator for DES Algorithms Depending on Multi Techniques

Alaa Kadhim; Mohammed Salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 94-106

The requirements of an ordinary PRNG are also satisfied by a cryptographically secure PRNG, but the reverse is not true. CSPRNG requirements fall into two groups: first, that they pass statistical randomness tests; and secondly, that they hold up well under serious attack, even when part of their initial or running state becomes available to an attacker. in this paper, design and implementation new keys generator depend on multi of techniques as (logic circuit XOR, NOT and AND) in one proposal also in another proposal used the coding, permutations and reorder bit by search method in artificial intelligent also depend of polynomial equations to expand the original key, the generator product random runs of bits after check by statistical test.

Effect of Honey on Mice in Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

Wasnaa Hatif Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 107-113

Traditionally, honey is frequently consumed by the local population as a nutrient, as well as for the enhancement of fertility and vitality. This study concerning the effects of honey on sperms motility, abnormality, dead sperm, and in vitro fertilization, after 35 days of honey administration orally. 18 adult male mice were divided into one control and two treated groups containing 6 mice in each group. Treated groups received honey in two different doses i.e 1.2 and 1.8 g/kg body weight, the results showed significant (P<0.05) increase in oocyte maturation, fertilization by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and cleavage of oocyte by IVF between the three groups. Also there is significant increase in sperms motility. Decreased percentage of dead sperms between control and the treated groups and significant decrease in abnormalities of sperms in mice between the three groups.

Proposed Algorithm for Digital Image Watermarking Survival against JPEG Compression

Nidaa F. Hassan; Ruaa Kadhim Jaber

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 114-126

In this paper, a new algorithm is proposed to embed a watermark in digital image such that, it can survive against lossy JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) compression. Analyzing operations are performed on the cover image before and after compression to determine strong locations survival against JPEG compression; these locations are used as host for the watermark. A map is used to embed these strong locations indices; used by the receiver to extract these indices. Fidelity Criteria evaluates errors between the original and cover images, good tests are achieved without perceptual degradation of the transparency of the cover image.

An Improved Key Agreement Protocol Based on Fractal Theory

Nadia M. G. Al-Saidi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 127-137

A key agreement protocol is a key establishment technique which enables two or more communicating parities to agree on a key or exchange information over an open communication channel. Due to the complicated mathematical structure and deterministic nature of the fractal functions that meet the cryptographic requirements, and taking the security threats and privacy issues into consideration, a new key agreement protocol based on Iterated Function Systems (IFS) is proposed to provide techniques and tools that may be useful for developing cryptographic protocols. The proposed protocol is a generalization of the Diffie Hellman (DH) protocol. It is designed to overcome some of the drawbacks of several previously proposed key agreement protocols. The experimental results and security analysis shows that the proposed scheme provides an essential security requirement, where their efficiency makes it easier to be applied alone or hybrid with other security methods.

Preparation of Silver and Gold Nano particles by Using Nd - YAG Pulse Laser Ablation

Abdul Qader D. Faisal; Zainab N. Jameel; Ahmed A. Moosa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 138-144

Silver and gold nanoparticles were prepared by using nanosecond pulsed laser ablation. Ablation of pure metal targets (Ag and Au) for nanoparticle colloidal production was studied in de-ionized water. The optical properties were studied with Ultraviolet- Visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer. The spectra reveal sharp peaks due to surface plasmon absorption peaks at 405 nm and 523 nm for Ag and Au respectively. The size and shape of nanoparticles was investigated by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Spherical shapes with average diameters of 10 nm and 6 nm for silver and gold nanoparticles were found respectively.

Numerical Solution of Optimal Control Problems Using New Third Kind Chebyshev Wavelets Operational Matrix of Integration

Asmaa Abdullah Abdurrahman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 145-156

In this paper, we first construct third kind Chebyshev wavelets on the interval [0,1). Then, a 2^k M×2^k M matrix P, named as almost third kind Chebyshev wavelets operational matrix of integration is constracted and used to reduce the optimal control problem to a system of algebric equation with the aid of spectral method, which can be solved easily. The uniform convergence of third kind Chebyshev wavelets is also discussed in this paper. The method is then tested on numerical example.

Proposed Parallel Association Rules Algorithm

Emad kadhiem Jabbar; Waheed Abd Al-Kadhiem Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 157-168

Data mining is an advanced technique for extracting knowledge from a large amount of data for classification, prediction, estimation, clustering or association rules or any activities, which need decision. Mining for associations rules between items in large transactional distributed databases is a central problem in the field of knowledge discovery. When distributed databases are merged at single machine to mining knowledge it will require a large capacity of storage, long execution time in addition to transferring a huge volume of data over network might take extremely long time and also require an unbearable financial cost. In this paper an algorithm is presented toward saving communication cost over the network, central storage cost requirements, and accelerating required execution time. In this paper a new algorithm is proposed, called Proposed Parallel Association Rules Algorithm (PPARA) which aims to extract association rules from one record only for each site from distributed association rules in parallel instead of extracting association rules from huge quantity of distributed data at several sites in parallel, and that is through collecting the one record of local association rules from each site and storing it, these Local Association Rules turn in to produce global association rules over distributed systems in parallel.

To Modify the Partial Audio Cryptography for Haar Wavelet Transform by Using AES Algorithm

Abdul Moneem S. Rahma; Maisaa Abid Ali k

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 169-182

The rapid developments that have occurred in data security and confidentiality of information transmitted via the Internet has created the need to preserve the audio information transmitted over the network from intruders who spy on networks and Internet penetration. That led to the proposal of a new encryption algorithm for the transfer of audio data in a rapid, strong, encrypted and confidential way.
The audio data compression algorithm is integrated at the third level to transfer the wave of bilateral and advanced encryption algorithm (AES) and fed so as to obtain strong encryption algorithm.
The results obtained from proposed the algorithms are positive results. Any malicious intruder cannot penetrate the network and open the encryption and see the audio file. It is possible to return the original data of the audio file without losing any information by the recipient.

An Investigation of Multi-Porous Silicon Gas Sensor

Alwan M.Alwan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 183-190

Efficient porous silicon organic vapors sensors werefabricated byemploying a multi-porous silicon layer (mPSi) within (Au/mPSi/n-Si/Au) sandwich structures. Based on the morphological nature and the resistivity of resulting (mPSi), the mechanism of current flow in the sensor was analyzed. The SEM images of (mPSi) layer reflect the formation of complex porous and mud-like structures. The mud-like structure consists of connected and non-connected trenches whilethe pore-like structure consists of different pore sizes formed inside this structure. The current response is governed by the silicon channel between the adjacent mud’srather than the silicon nanowires between the adjacent pores.