Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 32, Issue 2

Volume 32, Issue 2, January 2014, Page 1-385

The Opto-Electronic Characteristics of Multi-Porosity Silicon System

Alwan M.Alwan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 191-197

Photo-electrochemical etching with step- gradient illumination intensity was used to generate multi – porosity silicon quantum wire system (Q.W.Si) on n-type silicon wafer. A nano size photonic device of AL/Q.W.Si /si/AL was fabricated to investigate the electrical properties and the surface morphology with the aid of scanning electron microscopy. The J-V characteristics of (AL/Q.W.Si /AL) show a rectifying behavior with high ideality factor compared for single layer (Q.W.Si) devices with (AL/Q.W.Si /AL). The high value of ideality factor was explained based on the high density of the dangling bonds are found on the internal surface of the multi porosity layer, leading to poor electrical properties

Laser Pulses Effect on the Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Nano particles Prepared by Laser Ablation in Water

Evan T. Salim; Halah H. Rashed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 198-207

In this work ZnO Nps were fabricated by liquid phase pulse laser ablation (LP-PLA) technique. The experiments were carried out by using the radiation of the pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at the 1060 nm wavelength, 9 ns pulse duration and 1 Hz repetition rate of Zn plate immersed in DIW water, the effect of laser pulses on the amount of ablated materials, structural, optical and morphology of ZnO Nps has been studied. The atomic absorption result shows that the amount of the ablated material is directly proportional to the number of laser pulses and the atomic force microscope show that the grain size of the obtained NPs are decrease with the number of laser pulses.
The UV-Visible show a blue shift was recognized with a larger number of laser pulses while the photoluminescence result gives a blue shift with the decrease in number of laser pulses

Effect of Silver Nan particles on Microbial Activity of Teucrium Polium Extracts

Wasnaa Hatif Mohammed; Suhad A. Ahmed; Rana Shamil Noori; Nadia Imad Abdulwahhab

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 208-216

In this research we study the effect of different extracts of Teucrium polium (cold water, hot water and alcohol extraction), effect of silver nanoparticles and the combination effect of Teucrium polium extracts with silver nanoparticles against different pathogenic microorganisms Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus volgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus and Candida albicans. The results showed that the effect of cold water extract on microbial activity only inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa. In case of hot water extract there is no effect on any type of microorganisms used in this study unlike the ethanolic extract it is affect on the growth of all microorganisms used except P. volgaris and E. coli. In the using of silver nanoparticles it inhibits the growth of all the microorganisms used in this research but in different ratios. In case of combination the effect will increase with assistant of silver nanoparticles except in P. aeruginosa and K. pneumonia the effect of silver nanoparticles alone is higher

Structural and Elemental Analysis of Plasma Nitrided Commercially Bure Titanium and Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy

Thair Latif Al-zubaydi; Entisar Hatoo; Shahlaa Jomaa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 217-224

Titanium and Ti – 6Al – 7Nb alloy biomaterials have become relatively popular for surgical implants. Plasma nitriding are commonly used for orthopaedic devices which are subjected to articulation and wear, to increase the surface hardness, and reduce the generation of wear debris. This paper aims to demonstrate the structural and elemental analysis of plasma nitrided titanium and titanium alloy. A Commercially pure titanium Cp Ti and Ti – 6Al – 7Nb alloy were surface modified using plasma nitriding in order to study its microstructural changes. DC glow discharge plasma nitriding was performed for different period of time (namely 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 hours). The glow discharge was occurred by applying 650 V between the two parallel electrodes under 3 mbar nitrogen gas pressures. To characterize the nature of the modified layers produced and to correlate with the corrosion behavior of these medical materials, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) was employed on the modified surfaces. The effect of sputtering process that can occur during the nitriding process on the surface roughness was studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The results shows that as the nitriding time processed the N+ concentration increases comparing to the metal and alloy matrix elements. Also the SEM micrographs shows two effected zones of the nitriding in the modified surfaces and the thickness of each zone depend on the nitriding time. The AFM results show that the nitriding process leads to reduce the surface roughness.

Relationship between Lipid per oxidation, Lepton and Lipid Profile in Iraqi Women with Preeclampsia

Hasan F.Al-Azzawie; Dina H.Sahib

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 225-237

The present study was carried out on two groups of pregnant Iraqi women .Group one consisted of 45 preeclampsia 23 mild and 22 severe preeclampsia compared to second group consisted of 25 normotensive pregnant women .The two groups were with same age, body mass indices and gestational age. Serum lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid profile, leptin, total antioxidant capacity (TAO) and paraoxanse activity (PON) were measured. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure between preeclamptic and control group showed a marked difference (p<0.01) ranging from 154.67 ± 4.2 and 118.73 ± 3.7mmHg in severe preeclampsia, 135.3 ± 4.8 and 95.45 ± 4.2 mmHg in mild preeclampsia compared to 120.2 ± 1.88 and 70.50 ± 2.2 mmHg in control respectively . Serum MDA level was significantly higher in women with severe preeclampsia (3.51 ± 0.45 µmoles /dl) than mild preeclampsia (2.52 ± 0.14 µmoles /dl) compared with (0.92 ± 0.12 µmoles /dl) in control group, when adjusting to cholesterol, the peroxidation remained significantly increased MDA/Cholesterol ratio: 1.41 vs. 1.18 pmol/L.The serum triglycerides and cholesterol were higher in women with preeclampsia especially in the severe preeclampsia. Mean serum leptin level was significantly high (p<0.01) in all preeclamptic (76 ±5.3ng/ml), when compared with a control group (26 ± 3.3ng/ml and the value of serum leptin level was much higher in severe preeclamptics (76 ±5.3ng/ml) than in women with mild preeclampsia (42±4.1ng/ml). All the variables of the lipid profile of preeclamptic patients were found to be significantly elevated as compared to controls. The total lipid profile was also compared to the severity of preeclampsia and total cholesterol was found to be significantly raised (p <0.01) in severe preeclampsia when compared to mild. On correlating serum leptin with lipid profile again total cholesterol was found to be significantly high (p <0.05) in preeclamptic group compared to controls.
A significant reduce in TAC status and in paraoxanse activity (PON) was noticed in severe and mild preeclampsia than control group .We conclude that hypercholesterolemia leads to excessive lipid peroxidation. Coexistent diminution in antioxidant activity leads to an imbalance between prooxidants and antioxidants, resulting in oxidative stress. Oxidative stress and elevated atherogenic index may contribute to atherogenicity in preeclampsia.

Theoretical Study for the Preparation of Sub-Carbon Nano Tubes from the Cyclic Polymerization of Three Molecules from (Corannulene, Coronene and Circulene) Aromatic Compounds

Hasan R. Obayes; Ghadah H. Alwan; Abdulnasser M. AL-Gebori; Samah S. Adeeb; Rashed Taleb Rasheed; Nidal Al Derzi; Abbas A. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 238-250

Corannulene, coronene and circulene are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds were chosen to study the preparation of carbon tubes with diameters smaller fraction of nano-meter theoretically may achievable using the density function theory (DFT). The results showed that the stability of the molecules are; corannulene molecule is bowl-shaped, coronene molecule is planar, circulene molecule has a unique saddle-shaped structure. Upon to molecular polymerization a tube for three of the molecules selected results a sub-nanotubes formation. The results showed thermodynamic all preparations reactions are spontaneous and exothermic; the tubes prepared have high efficiency in the gap energy, making it potentially useful for solar cell applications

Path Planning Method for Single Mobile Robot in Dynamic Environment Based on Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm

Alia Karim Abdul Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 251-257

A proposed method of path planning for single mobile robot in2D envir on ment
Cluttered with moving obstacles. The propose dmethod supposes mobile robot and obsta clesare the same specifications interms of speed and movement and having the same goal. The robot moving fromone place to anothertoreachthegoal based artificial fish swarm algorithm. The simulation of the method show that the proposed method find the optimal (near optimal) path. The proposed method is complete becauseit find the path, ifany.

Raman Studies of Hg1-Xcuxba2ca2cu3o8 + ΔCompounds

Muna Moussa Abbass

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 258-263

Solid state reaction method by two steps was used to synthesize Hg1-xCuxBa2Ca2Cu3O8 + δ samples where x= 0.1and 0.5. Comparative Raman studies of Cu-doped Hg1-xCuxBa2Ca2Cu3O8 + δ were presented in an attempt to clarify the phononic modifications induced by Cu substitution. A number of phonon peaks showed up in the spectra assigned to different phases, usually small amounts of starting material that did not react or secondary products were unintentionally grown. On other hand foreign phases have much larger Raman signals and showed up strongly in the spectra.

Preparation and characterization of PLD deposited Indium Selenide thin film

Khaled Z. Yahea; Amar H. Jareeze; Heba Salam Tariq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 264-270

Indium Selenide films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with a Nd-YAG laser under vacuum condition. During the deposition, the substrates were kept at room temperature. The typical thicknesses of films were 200nm, 800 nm. The films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction for the crystallographic, the surface morphology of the film were investigated by AFM. It has been observed that grain growth depend on film thickness. The optical properties were characterized in the ultraviolet–visible region employing optical transmission, absorption, band gap. The direct optical band gap value for the films was found to be of the order of (2.2, 2.1) eV for thickness (200,800) nm respectively at room temperature.

On Arps – Closed Sets in Topological Spaces

Dunya M. Hammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 271-286

In this paper, we introduce a new class of closed sets which is called αrps –closed sets in topological spaces and we given the relationships of these sets with some other sets. Also, we study some of their properties. Further, will be introduce and study new type of spaces namely T_αrps -space and new type of continuous functions which are ( αrps-continuous functions , αrps- irresolute functions and strongly αrps-continuous functions ) , we introduce several properties of these functions are proved.

Mechanism of Hybrid Reinforcement and its Effect on some Properties of Binary Polymer Blend

Awham M. Hameed; Entihaa G. Daway

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 287-301

The aim of current study is carrying out some modifying in properties of resin material (Unsaturated polyester, UPE) by adding thermoplastic material (polystyrene, PS) with different weight ratios included (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) of (PS) to prepare binary polymer blend.
The optimum ratio was selected in terms of the homogeneity case between the two polymers and studying the nature of the surfaces of the prepared materials using the optical microscope. Some mechanical tests were performed to determine the values of impact strength (I.S), ultimate tensile strength (UTS) for all prepared specimens.
The ratio (80/20, weight/weight)% of (UPE/PS) blend was selected and reinforced with fibers volume fraction Фf = 10% using three types of fibers included
(glass fibers (G.F), Carbon fibers (C.F) and hybrid from the two types (5% G.F and 5% C.F). All the above tests were repeated after the reinforcement for comparing the results and studying the behavior of materials under work. The results exhibited that the values of (I.S) increase with increasing of the blending ratio of (PS) while the values of (UTS) decrease at blending ratios (10, 15) % of (PS) and return to increase at the ratio 20% . After the reinforcement, it was found that the composite reinforced with carbon fibers records the highest values of impact strength for un notch specimens while the hybrid composite has the highest value of the ultimate tensile strength comparing with E-glass and carbon fibers composites.

A Statistical Image Noise Removal Adaptive Filter Using Rejection Test with F- Distribution

Abdulameer A. Kareem; Abdul Monem S. Rahma; Hilal H. salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 302-312

The main characteristic of adaptive filters is that it alters its basic behavior as the image is processed, so it can remove noise from images regions as well as preserving edge and details information.
The objective of this work is to combine the statistical analysis methods and image processing techniques to increase image quality by removing the noise that corrupts it, so that the image will be ready for analysis and interpretation.
In this work a Statistical Image Noise Removal Adaptive Filter Using Rejection Test with F- Distribution is presented. The proposed filter removes noise from images corrupted by a variety type of noise effectively in such a manner it preserves image edges and details. Results shows that the proposed filter is much more accurate than many of the traditional and adaptive noise removal filters.

Deposited Nanostructure Cds Thin Film by Using Pulse Laser Deposition Technique for Fabrication of Heterojunction Solar Cell

Heba Salam Tareq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 313-320

In the present study, nanostructure Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films on Si P-type substrates heterojunction solar cell has been made by using a pulsed 532 nm Nd:YAG laser. Deposition of films is achieved at 200 °C substrate temperatures and oxygen pressure 10-1 Torr. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and UV-VIS transmittance analyses were employed to characterize thin films. XRD measurements approved that CdS film is a hexagonal Wurtzite structure. The morphology of deposited films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM), the grain size value (18) nm and rms roughness values are (12.6 nm) for thin films deposited at 200ºC. UV-VIS transmittance measurements have shown that our films are highly transparent in the visible wavelength region, with an average transmittance of ~90% . The direct optical band gap of the film has been found to be 2.2 eV.The photovoltaic characteristics included short circuit current (Jsc), open circuit voltage (Voc), where the maximum (Jsc) and (Voc)obtained at AM1 were 29.3 (mA cm-2) and 635(mV), respectively. The fill factor (FF) was (0.44). The fabricated cell exhibits good performance with 7.8 % conversion efficiency.

Solution of Fuzzy Initial Value Problem Using Variational Iteration Method

Marwa Mohamed Esmaeil

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 321-332

Variation iteration method is powerful analytical method for solving linear and nonlinear equations.
In this paper, the variational iteration method has been applied to solve fuzzy linear and nonlinear differential equations with fuzzy initial conditions,
We introduce two examples to solve the problem by using this method ,and applied in in MathCAD 7 computer software .

Proposed Approach for Key Generation Based on Elliptic Curve (EC) Algebra and Metaheuristic Algorithms

Hala Bahjat Abdul Wahab; Suhad Malallah Kadhem; Estabraq Abdul Redaa Kadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 333-346

The key management is an important area of research in internet applications, because protecting secret messages during transmission becomes an essential issue for the Internet. Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) has attracted the attention of researchers and product developers due to its robust mathematical structure and highest security compared to other existing algorithms. This paper produces a new cryptographic key generation approach that investigate from metaheuristic algorithms (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP) and Variable Neighborhood Search(VNS)) in order generate symmetric mask key that consist of more the one EC points with minimum correlation among points. The proposed approach aims to combine between the features of elliptic curve arithmetic, Discrete Logarithm and metaheuristic algorithms (GRASP and VNS) to produce robust symmetric cryptography key (mask key). The proposed approach tested and gives efficient results when compared with other previous approach in term of secrecy and privacy .

Some Probability Characteristics of the Solution of Stochastic Fredholm Integral Equation Contains a Joint Gamma Process

Mohammad W. Muflih; Shaymaa M. Shraida; Wafaa F. Mansoor

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 347-359

In this paper, some probability characteristics functions (probability density and spectral density) are derived depending upon the smallest variance of the stochastic solution of supposing stochastic linear Fredholm integral equation of the second kind containing a joint Gamma process found by Adomian decomposition method (A.D.M).

Counting Fuzzy Subgrops of Z2 by Lattice Subgroups

Afrah Mohammed Ibraheem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 360-369

In this paper, we compute the number of fuzzy subgroups of an abelian group Z2 when n=1, 2, 3 and 4 by using the subgroups lattice of it .Also we construct the diagram of subgroups lattice of Z2, n=1, 2, 3 and 4

Study the Toxicity of Treated Multi Walled Carbon Anotubes (Mwcnts) on Escherichia Coli Bacteria and their Characterization

Adawiya J. Haider; Ali A. Tahaa; Thorria R. Marzoog

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 370-378

In this study, we investigate the antimicrobial activity of treated Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNTs) by oil toward gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli(E.coli) and treated MWNTs is performed according to a chemical procedure introducing -COOH groups on their surface . Structural and morphological characterizations of samples have been carried out using SEM and FT-IR spectroscopy. In addition, the SEM images prove the antimicrobial activities of treated MWNTs to bacterial cells by adhesion activity of E.coli on MWNTs surface. Since the functionalization of Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT-COOH) can be used as effective antimicrobial materials and indicate that severe cell membrane damage by direct contact with MWNTs is the likely mechanism responsible for the toxicity to the model bacteria.

Text Summarization Based on Several Natural Language Techniques

Abeer Khalid Ahmad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 379-385

Because of the great amount of information that provided by internet technologies, the automatic text summarization have become more important. This paper describes a method for summarizing English text. It depends on extractive summarization. The method implies many techniques of statistics and linguistic approaches especially based on morphological rules. The linguistic approaches in this method also include synonym, word-frequencies, word position, and part of speech. It will be shown that merging many statistics and linguistic approaches in one system, gives high accurate results at low threshold values. The system is tested to find the best threshold value, and it was 60%.

Effect of some Physical Elicitors on some Secondary Metabolite Induction of Hypercom Triquetrifolium in Vitro

Baan M. Abdulrazzak; Saadia H.Mahmood; Kadhim M. Ibrahim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 1-7

This project aimed to increase the production of some secondary metabolites using physical and chemical elicitors in tissue cultures of Hypercom triquetrifolium L.. The quality and quantity of photochemical were estimated using methanolic extracts of dried leaves and callus were analyses using HPLC. Callus was initiated on leaf discs cultured on Murashig and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and Benzyl adenosine (BA) at concentrations of 0,0.1, 0.5, 2.0 or 5.0 mg/l for H. triquetrifolium callus. Results showed that the combination of 2,4-D at 0.1 mg/l with BA at 0.5 mg/l was the most effective for callus induction percentage reached 90%. The highest mean fresh weight reached 64.33 mg for H. triquetrfolium. The same combination was used for callus maintenance for plants. Results also showed an increase in the concentration of secondary metabolites in methanol extracts induced on leaves. Callus cultures induced on leaf discs were treated with some physical stimuli such as light, ultraviolet, the different exposure to photoperiod (dark for 24 hrs, 12 hrs light, 16 hrs light or 24 hrs light), the uv exposure time was 10 or 20 minutes. Result showed that there are significant differences between the various treatmeant, The best light exposure time caused an increase in the production of secondary metabolism was 12 hrs light for calli in both plants. Both exposure times (10 or 20 mint) induced the yield of secondary metabolites in callus cultures of H. triquetrifolium equally.