Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 5,

Issue 5

Relativistic Self-Focusing of Intense Laser Beam in Magnetized Plasma

Hyder A. Salih; Noor Yassoob A; Sabah N.Mazhir

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 849-861

The relativistic self focusing of an intense laser beam, propagating in plasma with longitudinal static magnetic field, has been studied. The laser with Gaussian intensity distribution propagates in plasma. The extent of self focusing increases with increasing of magnetic field. Both the minimum beam width parameter and the self focusing length decrease with increase the magnetic field. The relativistic self focusing of laser beam is increased with the increase of plasma density and laser intensity, also the laser beam gets self-focused at minimum values and then diverges due to the natural diffraction by the plasma medium, self-focusing in a plasma can balance the natural diffraction and laser beam.

Hormonal and Histological Study on the Effect of Honey on Mice Male

Wasnaa Hatif Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 862-868

Honey is traditionally consumed as a nutrient, as well as for the enhancement of fertility. In this study, the effects of honey on reproductive hormones and histology of mice testis after 35 days of honey administrated orally. 18 adult male mice were divided into three groups: one control and two treated groups containing 6 mice in each group. Treated groups received honey in two different doses i.e 1.2 and 1.8 g/kg body weight, the results showed significant (P<0.05) increased in Testosterone, FSH and LH hormones between the three groups. Also there is significant increase in diameters of seminiferous tubules between control and the treated groups, while the results showed significant increased in primary spermatocytes and spermatids between 1.2 g/kg body weight treated group with other groups.

Spectral Study of Silver Nanoparticles Prepared by Chemical Method

Mukhlis M. Ismail; Salah M. Abd Ulaziz

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 869-876

Silver nanoparticles were prepared by the reduction of silver salt (silver nitrate AgNO3) solution using three different methods. The main differences between these methods is by belong to the reducing agent. It is found that the prepared silver nanoparticle was pure and stable for long time. UV-VIS spectrometry indicated formation of spherical silver nano particles. The surface plasmon resonance peaks in absorption spectra for silver colloidal solution showed that the absorption maximum range was at 380- 420 nm. The structures are confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the crystallite size was determined from X-ray line broadening using the Scherrer's equation and it was about 32 nm.AFM measurements show that silver nano particles have the average diameter of 69.39 nm and 81.91 nm.

Synthesis, Antibacterial Activity of Tio2 Nanoparticles Suspension Induced by Laser Ablation in Liquid

khawlah S. Khashan; Ghassan M. Sulaima; Farah A. Abdul Ameer; Thorria R. Marzoog

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 877-884

Colloidal solutions of Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were synthesized by laser ablation of Titanium plate in deionized water. Studies of synthesized nanoparticles suspensions were characterized by UV-VIS absorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). FTIR characterization confirms the formation of Titanium dioxide nanoparticles. TEM shows that the nanoparticles with sizes from (3 - 30) nm. The antimicrobial activity was carried out against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The Titanium dioxide nanoparticles showed inhibitory activity in bacteria.

Impact of Laser Induced Forward Transfering on Transfer of Escherichia Coli Bacteria

Adawiya J. Haider; Amer T. Tawfeeq; Amar H. Jareeze

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 885-891

Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) is a technique uses to print different materials with high spatial resolution for microarray preparation. In this work, the mechanism in which LIFT process effect E.coli bacteria used to produce microarray droplets from a liquid solution thin film coated a glass slide previously coated with gold of 65nm thick which was used as a laser absorbing layer. The transferred bacteria was achieved at laser fluence of 10 J/cm2 and 100 µm distance between donor and receptor substrates.
The purpose of using such a technique was to assess the impact of laser on the viability of the transferred bacteria. Scanning electron microscope observation indicated that E.coli bacterial cells integrity was maintained during the process. The bacteria was viable as tested using MacConkey agar culture media.

Morphological and Optical Properties of Cuo/Sapphire Thin Films Prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition

Afnan k. Yousif; Ban A. Bader; Rana O. Mahd

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 892-898

This paper addresses the structure, morphological and optical properties of copper oxide (CuO) thin film deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method on Sapphire substrate of 150nm thickness. The film deposited at substrate temperature (400ºC). The atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-VIS transmission spectroscopy were employed to characterize the size, morphology, crystalline structure and optical properties of the prepared thin film. The surface properties were characterized using (AFM), indicate that the average grain size less than 100nm, the surface roughness (2.69nm) and the root mean square is (3.58nm). The FTIR spectra shown strong band at about 418 cm-1and 530 cm-1 related to CuO. From the UV-VIS transmission the energy band gap (1.7eV).

Artificial Bee Colony based Approach for Web Information Retrieval

Hasanen S. Abdullah; Mustafa J. Hadi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 899-909

With the tremendous growth of information in the web, the classic query processing approaches are unable to respond to queries in real time. The aim of this paper is to develop an innovative tool using swarm intelligence to address information retrieval in the context of response time and solution quality through cope with the complexity induced by that huge volume of information. In this paper, we will show that our proposed approach that use of Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm called MABC can be another alternative to palliate the complexity issue in terms of response time while it produces a solution quality is relatively convergent or even better. Experimental tests have been conducted on two well-known CACM and NPL collections. Both are different in size, CACM is small while NPL is relatively large. Numerical results exhibit the superiority and the benefit gained from using the MABC approach instead of the classic approaches.

Some Theoretical and Practical Results for Edge Dominating Set

Nuha A. Rajab

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 910-920

One of the most brilliant branches of modern mathematics and computer applications is graph theory. Graph domination problem has become an extremely important research branch of graph theory in recent times. For instance, determining whether a graph has an induced matching that dominates its edges is a known problem of edges dominating set. Such problems are considered as NP-hard problems. There is, therefore, a growing interest towards finding new algorithms to produce better and more efficient results. In this paper, a new polynomial time algorithm is proposed to determine the set of edge domination. The generalized relations between graph properties (vertices, edges, regularity, and dominating edges) are deduced and abstracted in some important theoretical results, lemmas, propositions, and theorems. One field of applications for this type of domination is a secret sharing scheme. It is implemented to demonstrate its applicability and efficiency.

Durability Characteristics of Concrete and Reinforcing Bars Exposed to Harsh Environments

Sanaa Abdul Hadi Hafad; Farah Hamed Rashed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 921-937

Saline pollution attack is an important factor that leads to the deterioration of the concrete, especially in industrial plants. In spite of research address the sustainability of concrete and particularly steel rebar submeserged in it steel rebar is the most important causal factors the deterioration in the reinforced concrete the main aim of this research is study the effect of additives added to reduce superior degree water and two types of mineral additives that include silica fumes and steel fiber, as well as the combined effect of these additives on the properties of concrete. The experimental work of this measure include concrete specimens have been partially submerged in a solution of chlorides and sulfates in concentrations similar to those found in aggressive conditions. The properties of concrete specimens were evaluated through the properties investigated included ultrasonic plus velocity, compressive strength electrochemical potential for various types of mixes. Concrete mixed with 10% of silica shown development all properties of concrete, while these properties deceases values of mix reference coated with natural rubber (RFCNR) and steel fiber coated with natural rubber (STFCNR). The result coated specimens has shown resistance to corrosion greater than specimens without coated when immersion in salt solution. Thus group (RFCNR )shown more develops in all properties as compared with all other mixture immersed in salt solution for 180 days at odds with group ( SF-SP) which had development in all properties as compared with the reference mixture at 180 days of immersion in salt solution .

Optical and Morphological Property of Ag Nanoparticles by Laser Ablation in Double Distilled and Deionized Water

Amenah Ali Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 938-942

Noble metal silver NPs was synthesized by pulsed (Q-switched, 1064 nm Nd : YAG) laser ablation of silver metal plates immersed in double distilled and deionized water DDDW.
The formation efficiency of PLAL process was quantified in term of the surface Plasmon extinction SPE peaks. The SPE spectra show a sharp and single peak around 400 nm, indicating the production of pure and spherical Ag.
UV-Visible absorption results confirmed formation of silver particles prepared and atomic force microscope (AFM) indicates the size in nanometer (nm) range.

Bayesian Estimation of the Parameter of the Exponential Distribution with Different Priors under Symmetric and Asymmetric Loss Functions

Tasnim H.K. AlBaldawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 943-956

The objective of this study is to compare the performance of some Bayesian estimators for the shape parameter of the exponential distribution. We considered three priors: the extension of Jeffreys as non- informative prior information, as well as the inverted gamma conjugate prior and the inverted chi square prior as informative prior information's. Bayes estimators have been obtained under symmetric and asymmetric loss functions: the quadratic loss function QLF and the general entropy loss function GELF, which is a modified version of the linear exponential loss function loss function LINEX. The comparison of Bayes estimators was made through a Monte Carlo simulation study on the performance of these estimators with respect to the mean square error MSE as a measure of performance.
The results of comparison showed that Bayes estimators of the shape parameter under the GELF with proper choice of γ, is a suitable alternative to the QLF when the loss is asymmetric in nature. Comparison also show that the informative priors performed better than the non-informative prior. Accordingly; if adequate information is available about the parameters it is preferable to use conjugate informative priors, otherwise the extension of Jeffreys prior gives quite reasonable results.

Physical Properties of Nanostructure Sno2 Thin Films Growth on Al2O3 Substrate by Pulsed Laser Deposition

Kasem Salman Kasem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 957-965

In this paper, the synthesis of nanostructure tin oxide SnO2 thin films on (0001) sapphire substrates using a pulsed 532 nm Nd: YAG laser is presented. Deposition of films is achieved at three different substrate temperatures 300,400,500ºC. The influence of substrate temperature on the structural and optical properties of tin oxide films are discussed and analyzed. We have shown the results of x-ray diffraction that all films prepared with the installation of multi crystalline (tetragonal) and directional prevalent (101) for all modds before and after annealing. These films are highly transparent (63–79%) in visible region, and transmittance of the films depends on substrate temperature. The band gap of the films varies from 3.45 eV to 3.61 eV for various temperatures. The morphology of deposited films was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM), with increasing substrate temperature, both the grain size and surface roughness increase.
We have also investigated the photoluminescence (PL) emission of the simples produced by PLD. The absorption of very intense PL emission for the films at temperature T= 500 ºC. The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of the SnO2 exhibits visible light emission with a peak at 602 nm.

Construction of a Uniform Access Structure Using Minimum Independent Dominating Vertices

KadhimA. Kadhim; Nadia M.G.Al-Saidi; Nuha A. Rajab

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 966-979

The most important technologies in modern society are the information security; it is founded to provide a protection to the transmitted data. Secret sharing scheme is one of the methods designated to protect the secret data. It is a method that allows a secret to be shared among a set of participants in such a way that only qualified subsets of them can recover the secret by pooling their share together, but no less sets can do that. Many mathematical structures are used to create a secret sharing scheme; the one that based on graph access structure is the most widely used structure. In this paper, a new horizon for the construction of the perfect secret sharing schemes of rank 2 and 3 is opened by proposing of a new algorithm to construct a uniform access structure in a connected, simple, undirected, r-regular graph G.This has been done by introducing for the first time the minimum independent dominating set of vertices in a graph. The efficiency of this method is deduced to prove that the proposed method has an improvement over other previous methods.

Synthesis and Characterization of Magnesium Ferrite Materials

Sabah Mohammed Ali Ridha; Ghead Khalaf Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 980-989

NiZnMg-Ferrite Nano ceramics were prepared by using sol-gel auto combustion method, these ferrites then pelletized and sintered at different temperatures (1000, 1100 and 1200 0C). Ferrite samples showed spinel structure and inherent ‎properties of high electrical resistivity, low electrical losses and high theoretical ‎densities. Therefore, these ferrites have a potential candidate for high frequency applications. The electrical and structural ‎properties of Ni0.7-yZn0.3MgyFe2O4 (where; y= 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) were studied and that shows an effect of chemical composition ‎on the electrical, structural, and physical properties depending on Mg content in the Ferrite. Chemical phase analysis carried out by x-ray diffraction spectrum ‎confirms the formation of ferrite Nanopowders with size (22.6 nm), and found that the lattice parameters and particle sizes increase, while theoretical density and porosity ‎decreases with increasing of Mg content in the NiZnMg Ferrites. Resistivity of all samples has been measured at temperatures in the range of ‎‎ (300-540 K), which decreases with increasing of temperatures like ‎a semiconductor behavior.

Theoretical Study of Reactions with Electrophones Substitutions: by B3lyp-Dft Density Function Calculation

Rashed Taleb Rasheed; Hadeel Salah Mansoor; Aseel Salah Mansoor; Emad A. Yousif

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 990-997

Density functional theory (DFT), using the B3LYP functional was utilized to study the molecular properties (benzene molecule was a reference) of 1,3,5-Trihydroxybenzene (THB) compound in order to determine the relationship between molecular structure and electrophiles substitutions (nitration) efficiencies to get 2-nitro 1,3,5-Trihydroxybenzene (NTHB), 2,4-Dinitro 1,3,5-Trihydroxybenzene (DNTHB) and 2,4,6-Trinitro 1,3,5-Trihydroxybenzene (TNTHB) respectively. The best geometry for all molecules was investigated at (6-31G) basis sets. The total energies, ionization potentials, electron affinities, energy gaps, hardness and softness were calculated for the studied molecules. The electronic properties for all molecules were investigated by Gaussian (03) program.

Effect of the Laser Shock Processing onWear Resistance of Brass Alloy

Saeed M.Faydh; Abdulhadi Kadhim Al-Ogaili; Evan T.Salim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 998-1008

Laser shock processing (LSP) is becoming an important surface treatment to induce a compressive residual stress field, which improves micro-hardness, fatigue and fracture properties of components. In this work, we examine the effect of laser shock processing on the surface micro-hardness and wear resistance of brass alloy. After LSP treatment, micro-hardness values increased by 97% at the metal surface and decreases gradually with distance below the surface. It is observed that LSP impact can improve the wear resistance of brass, where the wear rate is reduced by 79% compared with the untreated LSP specimens due to work hardening and compressive residual stress of LSP impact. From SEM micrograph analysis of worn surface, the grooves and compacted debris of LSP treated sample are smaller and less than these untreated LSP samples

Nanostructure Cadmium Oxide Thin Film Prepared by Vacuum Evaporation Thermal Technique

Wafaa K.Khale

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 1009-1018

Cadmium Oxide films have been prepared by vacuum evaporation technique on a glass substrate at room temperature. Structural optical and morphological properties of the films are studied at different oxidation temperatures (573 To 773) K, for the thickness (300) nm at 30 mint. XRD pattern confirm the films shows the polycrystalline nature of the film with preferential orientation along (111) plane. The film deposited with higher oxidation temperatures shows higher transmittance compared to others. Direct energy band gap of CdO thin film increases with increases of oxidation temperature. From AFM measurement, the average grain size is in the range of nanometer and it shows the faceted columnar microstructure of the film is perpendicular to the surface.

The Effects of Zinc Phosphide and Brodifacoum on Mitotic Index and Chromosomal Aberrations in Germ Cells of Wild type and Laboratory Mice (Mus Musculus)

Abbas Abdullah Mohammed; Smail K.Subber

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 8-16

The genotoxic effects of two wildy used rodenticides in Iraq (Zinc phosphide and Brodifacoum) were studied in wildtype and Balbc mice,by using mitotic index(MI) and chromosomal aberration (CA).
The results showed that both rodenticides inhibited the mitotic index of germs cells in both types of mice, but wildtype mice were more sensitive then Balbc mice.In addition both rodenticides were able increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations.

Test of Soybean Extract to Eliminat the Harmfull Effects of MMC using Head Sperm Abnormalities Test in Albino Mice (Mus musculus)

Abbas A.Mohammad; Abdulnasser M. AL-Gebori; Mohammed K. Amin

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 17-23

The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of methanolic extract of soybean to eliminat the harmfull effects of mitomycin C. By using sperm abnormalities test of male mice (Mus musculus).Seventyfive mice were used and divided into five groups by 15 mice for each group and each group was divided in turn into five groups: group 1 used as negative control , group 2 as positive control, were treated with mitomycin C (MMC) at 2mg/kg b.wt. intraperitonealy (i.p.) , while tested the remaining three groups with alcohol extract in concentrations ranged (2, 4, 8) mgheadday within periods (1, 3, 5) week. The results don’t show presence of abnormal change in the form of the heads of sperm in the stages of spermatids ,spermatocytes and spermatogonia in sperm cells and. So we cann’t conclude that doses of soybean extract may permanently sterilize mice, and so cann’t ability to recovering the effects of MMC.

Study of some Properties of Polyester Resin Reinforced by Natural Wool

Areej Riyadh Saeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 24-30

In this study polymer matrix composite was prepared by hand lay –up molding method. Unsaturated polyester resin was used as a matrix to the composite material and natural wool fibers were used as reinforced filler with different percentage as (3%, 4% and 5%).
In this study some properties were studied at room temperature (Impact resistance, Modulus of elasticity).Also Dielectric constant was measured. The results showed that the value of the Impact resistance of the composite increases with the increase of the fiber percentage, while the Modulus of elasticity decreases. Dielectric constant increases with increasing the wool fiber percentage.