Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 6,

Issue 6

Plasmonic Absorption of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles in Water

Noor R. Abdulhameed; Hyder A. Salih; Khaleel I. Hassoon; A. K. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1019-1029

Gold and silver nanoparticles were prepared as colloidal in water by pulsed laser ablation method. Nanoparticles are characterized by UV Vis, FTIR and Atomic absorption spectroscopy. Absorbance spectrum has been measured as a function of time and laser energy. Both types of colloidal nanoparticles showed plasmonic absorption in the visible spectrum at 525 nm and 400 nm for Au and Ag nanoparticles, respectively.

A Study on Structural and Optical Properties of Nanostructure MgxZn1-xO Thin Films Using Pulsed Laser Deposition

Ali A. Yousif; Marwa A. Abd-Majeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1030-1050

For this paper, films have been grown under various deposition conditions in order to understand the effect of processing on the film properties and to specify the optimum condition, namely substrate at temperatures of 400°C, oxygen pressure (2×10-1) mbar, laser fluence 400 mJ, and with different Mg doping (x=0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06), using double frequency Q-switching Nd:YAG laser beam (wavelength 532nm), repetition rate (1-6) Hz and the pulse duration of (10 ns), to deposit MgxZn1-xO films on glass substrates with thickness of about 200±10 nm for all MgxZn1-xO films at different deposition condition and the number of laser pulses was 100 pulses. The X-rays spectra revealed that the presence of diffraction peaks indicates that the polycrystalline of the films depended strongly on the Mg-content in the layers. All the grown films is (101) as predominant reflection. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images, the average grain size less than 50 nm. From the study of atomic force microscopy (AFM), we can determine the root mean square (RMS) surface roughness of Mg doped ZnO films. The optical properties were characterized by the transmittance and absorption spectroscopy at room temperature, measured in the range from (300 - 900) nm. For all the films, the average transmittance in the visible wavelength region λ = (400 - 800) nm is greater than (70%). The maximum value of the transmittance is greater than (95%) was obtained for these films. (Eg) values of MgxZn1-xO thin films are (3.37, 3.59, 3.82, and 4)eV corresponding to the Mg-content (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06) respectively. In other word, the optical band gap of MgxZn1-xO thin films become wider as Mg-content increases and can be precisely controlled between 3.37 and 4eV.

On g*s-Closed Functions in Topological Spaces

Salim dawood Mohisn

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1051-1058

Pushpalatha and K. Anitha [1] introduce a new concept of functions which is g*s-closed function in topological spaces. In this paper, we modify this concept and study the properties of some types of these functions.

Study of The Effect of laser Pulses on Synthesis of SnO2 Nanoparticles by Laser Ablation in Methanol

Uday M. Nayef; Ali J. Hadi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1059-1067

SnO2 nanoparticles were prepared by laser ablation of tin in methanol at room temperature. The particles were characterized by means of TEM, AFM, FTIR, UV-Visible absorption spectrum and electrical properties. AFM micrographs show that the obtained material is spherical nanoparticles, the size and size distribution of which depends on the experimental conditions.
From FTIR spectrum show the peak absorption of SnO2NPssuspension at 657 cm-1.
It is found that the band gap energy of SnO2NPs is higher than that of bulk SnO2 due to the decreases in the particle size according to the quantum confinement model.
From the J-V characteristics Al/SnO2 NPs/c-Si/Al hetrojunction the values of ideality factor for these devices is greater than unity which can be attributed to the recombination of electrons and holes in the depletion region as well as the tunneling effect depending on both sides of the heterojunction and on the presence of defect states.

Oxygen Effect on Structural and Optical Properties of WO3 Films by Pulsed Laser Deposition

Ruaa W.Gabbar; Adawiya J. Haider

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1068-1073

This work includes the deposition of WO3 as a thin film on glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition method. The influence of Oxygen pressure on the structural and optical properties of tungsten trioxide films was investigated. The X-ray diffraction results show that the structure of the films changes from amorphous to crystalline at an Oxygen pressure higher than 10-2 mbar. The color of WO3 films formed at Oxygen pressure of 10-2 mbar is translucent white and it changes to pale blue with increasing the Oxygen pressure. From UV-visible spectroscopy the distinct variations in the transmission spectra and optical energy gap of the thin films were also observed. The optical band gap of the prepared films determined at different Oxygen pressures and it is found to be 3-3.1-3.12 eV at Oxygen pressures of 10-2 -2×10-1 -5×10-1 mbar respectively.

2D Virtual Image Generation for Document Security Using Bezier Cubic Splines

Anmar Ali Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1074-1083

This paper presents suggested algorithm to draw or generate a 2D virtual secure image from Arabic text in any document to make it a secure document and avoid any fraud operations which can be done on that document. Bezier curves had been used to generate this image depending on some computed values which is defined and evaluated from the read text in the document. Those defined values have a great effect on secure image generation where those values represent the control points which they are used in Bezier cubic function. Bezier cubic had been used to implement the secure image. Many segments written had been taken as samples to test the suggested algorithm.

Estimation of Land Surface Temperature for Different Regions in Iraq Using Remote Sensing Technique (ETM+); Yaseen K. Al-Timimi yassen-atimimi; Ali M. Al-Salihi; Alaa M. Al-lami

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1084-1091

Temperatures are important factors that have an impact directly and indirectly on human, so the attention to this aspect certainly will be in the interest of human life.
In this research, the land surface temperature was estimated for different regions in Iraq, using the thermal Band of ETM+ sensor mounted in the Landsat 7 satellite. By using ERDAS 8.4 software, the thermal images are converted to thematic maps which represent land surface temperatures. The results showed that the estimated land surface temperatures are 29.7°C, 31.8°C, 17°C, 17.8°C, 17°C, 20.6°C and 30.2°C for Al-Mousl , Taleafer, Al-Ramadi, Heet, Kerbela, Al-Hai and Al-Basrah stations respectively. Also the results show that there is high correlation between the estimated and the observed data with a difference of 1-2°C.

Secret Sharing Scheme Based Technique for Authentication of Documents Images

Muna Ghazi; Hanaa M. A. Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1092-1105

Digital document image is a form of persevering important information, and, because of rapid technological development, it is easy to copy, counterfeit this digital document image and claim ownership. Therefore this paper presents a document image authentication scheme based on using secret sharing that can:

1.Authenticate document image.
2.Verify the owner of the document image.
3.Localize the alteration in the document image.
4.Detect the error in the document image, and
5.Correct the error in the document image.

According to comparison of different document image authentication methods, there is no distortion in stego image, the method has capability to locate the tampering, repair capability, reported authentication precision for each (2X3) block, distribution of authenticated image parts in the entire image and manipulating data embedding in LSB(least Signification Bit).

Structural,Morphology and PL Properties of ZnO Film Deposition on Porous Silicon

Uday Muhsin Nayef; Mohammed Waleed Muayad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1106-1110

ZnO thin film was deposited on glass and porous silicon by spray pyrolysis technology with fixed parameters consist (substrate temperature 400Co, deposition rate 100nm/min), and the measurements of structural (XRD), morphology (AFM) and photoluminesces (PL) refer to good growth of ZnO after using porous silicon more than using glass and that's come from sponge like structure of porous silicon and large spastic area of porous silicon (about 500m2/cm3).

Continuous and Uniform Continuous Mappings on a Standard Fuzzy Metric Spaces

Jehad R.Kider; Zeina A.Hussain

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1111-1119

In this paper we introduced the definition of standard fuzzy metric spaces then we discussed several properties of this space after some illustrative examples are given. Then we defined a continuous mapping from standard fuzzy metric space (X,M_X,*) into a standard fuzzy metric space (Y,M_Y,*) after that we proved some basic theorems of a continuous mappings. Finally we defined uniformly continuous mapping from a standard fuzzy metric space (X,M_X,*) into a standard fuzzy metric space (Y,M_Y,*) then we proved several properties of uniformly continuous mapping.

Discharge Characteristics on the Synthesis of Carbon Nanostructures through Arc-plasma in Water

Bahaa.T.Chaid; Mohammed.K.Khalaf; Hassan.Z.Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1120-1127

Simple arc discharge technique was used for formation of carbon nonmaterials without using any type of gases. The used arc discharge technique between the pure graphite electrodes with different diameters for anode submerged in water at room temperature. Arc plasma is produced using D.C power supply with current (30-90amp), and voltage (5-25volt).The discharge characteristics of the arc plasma generation in water and, with Ni catalyst and in NaCl solution were examined with the change in working parameters of electrode diameters and related arc current. The nanostructures obtained of these experiments were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM).

Study of the Thermal Properties for Polymer Matrix tudy of the Thermal Properties for Polymer Matrix

Harith .I.Jaffer; Ahmed Juadah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1128-1136

This work focuson study thermal conductivity for polymers and their nano-composites usingtoner carbonnano-particles(TCNP)with particles sizeof (89.77nm) asanano-particles, with different weight percentages(2, 4 and6) % to unsaturated polyester (UPE) and epoxy (EP) resins as a matrix to prepare nano-compsites. Molding method was used to prepare polymers and their nano-composites sheets.
The results show (UPE) has highest value than(EP). Adding nano-particle to (UPE) and (EP) will increase thermal conductivity for nano-composites. The values of thermal conductivity for two types of resins UPE and EP without any additions are (0.181W/m.oc and 0.154W/m.oc) respectively. At the weight fraction(2%) the value for (UPE/TCNP) samples is (0.355W/m.oc),while the value for EP/TCNP samples is (0.405W/m.oc), and the values of the thermal conductivity begin increasing with the increasing ofthe weight fraction which used in this research, were the highest value for (EP/TCNP) samples is (0.429W/m.oc)at weight fraction(6%).

Study of Structural , Optical and Electrical Properties for Cr -Doped Tio2 Sensor for NH3 Gas

SelmaM.H.Al-Jawad; Zahraa Yassar Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1137-1145

Titanium doxide (TiO2) thin films were deposited on quartz substrates by spray pyrolysis method using titanium tetrachloride as precursor solution. Thin films were deposited at temperature substrate 350 ◦C and annealed at 550 ◦C in air for 120 min. Polycrystalline thin films with anatas crystal structure, as evidenced from X-ray diffraction pattern. Optical study shows the optical band gap has been increased with increasing of dopant. Electrical properties have been studied by means of electrical resistivity and Hall measurement. The sensitivity of TiO2: 5% Cr to NH3 gas with concentration 5ppm at room temperature has been modified to (93) % as compared with a pure TiO2.

Solution of Problems in Calculus of Variations Using Parameterization Technique

Fatema Ahmed Sadeq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1146-1157

In this paper a direct method using parameterization technique is applied for solving some problems in calculus of variations. The parameterization technique based on Laguerre and Hermite polynomials is introduced to reduce a variational problem to quadratic programming problem. Examples are given to demonstrate the validity of method.

γ-Irradiation Effect on the Optical Constants, and the Electric Loss of PM-355

Nahida J.H Al-Mashhada

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1158-1168

The optical reflection, transmission, and UV/VIS- absorption spectra had been recorded in the wavelength(200-500nm) for PM-355 before and after irradiation with γ-ray irradiation by using 60Co-dose within range of(30-160Mrad) at normal conditions. The absorption spectra of irradiated samples showed radiation induced absorption changes by photodegradation. There was an increment in absorption proportional with irradiation dose. The optical constants (α,Kex,n,εi,εr,Eg,) were calculated for all samples. The effect of irradiation on the optical constants of the PM-355 before and after irradiation had been investigated.

Estmation of the Function of Surface Roughness and Stability (p) in Defrrent Air Conditions Over Baghdad City

Aqeel Ghazi Mutar; Nagham Abbas Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 31-38

In this work the function of surface roughness and stability (P) has been measured using horizontal wind velocity for different levels by radio sound over Baghdad city for Stable and unstable condition has been evaluated in every month., as well , in a neutral condition we found a relation between the function of surface roughness and stability (p) and the roughness length ,that lead to practical equation can be used under specific condition .The power law, which calculates the change in horizontal wind speed with height has been corrected for stable and unstable condition.

Study of Methyl Orange Effect on the Optical and Electrical Properties of Polystyrene (PS)

Karrar M. Ali; Nahida J.H

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 39-53

The present work was concerned with study of the methyl orange(MO) dye concentration effect on the optical properties ,and electrical properties of polystyrene(PS).
The samples were casted as films from the homopolymer(PS) stated above and the Dye/PS(MO/PS)composites at (3.44,6.7,and 12.5%) concentration. These prepared polymer systems were evaluated spectrophotometically. It was found increasing in absorption spectra with increasing of the dye concentration in Dye/PS composites above, which was attributed to the increasing in localized states. The results proved that the best absorption was of (12.5%MO/PS), and of the lowest energy gap was (3.15eV),The optical constant (α,k,n, εr, and εi)for the homopolymer (PS) , (Dye/PS) composites, and hybrid composites at different concentration were investigated at(λc,300nm). It was seen that there was nonlinear relationship between the optical constants and the concentration ratio, which was attributed to their incompatibility. These results were confirmed with optical micrographs. The (FTIR) spectra showed shifting, appearance ,and disappearance of new band, which was attributed to change in tacticity, geometry in the structure ,and overlapping of polymer composites band involved. The results proved that there was nonlinear relationship between the carrier concentration, mobility, fast increase in the (12.5%MO/PS, and became of order(10-6). The increase in the conductivity with dye concentration was attributed to increase of the localized states in the energy gap.

Hydrogel and Poly Vinyl Alcohol /Chitosamine Chloride Blends Preparation and Study of Their Properties for Medical Uses

Buthaina A .I; Nahida J.H; afr Hussain koaer

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 54-70

The study is aimed at preparing poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel by physical techniques using freeze/thaw method and by chemical method via the addition of cross linking agents, such as Glutaraldehyde (GLT) in different percentages of (1%) and (3%) and boric acide (BA) with percentage of (o.5%) . we prepared of poly vinyl alcohol and Chitosamine chloride (CsmCl) with different weight ratios . These specimens are prepared in the shape of films .
Studies are made on swelling behavior for all prepared samples in different media of PH (neutral , acidic and alkaline) , using Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) in order to investigate the linking between (PVA) and cross linking agents and the blends .
From the test result , it is found that swelling percentage depends on cross linking degree , whether it is physical or chemical ; all sample possess high swelling percentage during the first 5 hours then settle at discrete percentage , which are attributed to disentanglement of chains that are not involved in cross linking . The freeze/thaw process leads to physical cross linking of polymer chains.
Results have proved that samples containing (1%GLT) and (0.5% BA) undergo increase in their water absorption after freezing and thawing , while samples containing (3%GLT) have undergone decrease in percentage . As to swelling ration in alkaline medium increase , while the (PVA) sample retained their swelling percentage in the acidic media , as in distilled water for samples containing (GLT) . As for swelling behavior of blends , the swelling percentage is found to increase with increase of (PVA) percentage , which may be attributed to increase water absorbing (OH) in the blends .
The FTIR spectra for all samples before and after blending and treatment are found to appear and disappear besides band shift at different location; this is attributed to changes in conformation. The spectral intensity decreases with increasing (CsmCl) percentage explained in view of when two polymers or more are blended , changes occur in the characteristic spectra as a result of reflection in the blend that are prepared by physical mixing and chemical reaction

Effect of Impurity Particles on the Spectral Properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa Organic Dye used in Solar Cells Industry

Noor I. Naji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 71-79

In this work, the spectral properties of the Hibiscus sabdariffa organic dye solved in different solvents were studied by introducing the effect of dye concentration on its absorbance and transmission spectra within the range 400-800nm. As well, the effect of adding impurity particles of a semiconductor to the dye solution on these properties was introduced. Results showed that the spectral properties of the dye depend substantially on the type of the solvent, which has to be chosen carefully to achieve the optimum properties of this dye to be used as a sunlight sensing organic medium in dye-sensitized solar cells. Also, the results showed that the spectral properties of this dye are noticeably affected by the presence of impurity particles of a semiconductor when the suitable solvent is used. These particles act as scattering centers through the solution to the electromagnetic radiation in the visible region and hence the intensities of the absorbed and transmitted components of the radiation are decreased

Production of Biological De-Emulsification by Bacterial Isolates Isolated from Local Soils

Salah H. Kalaf; Eman H. Gata; Amil A. Halob; Saad H. Khudhair

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 80-85

The purpose of this research was to isolate local bacterial have the effectiveness of de-emulsification in liquid emulsion. Twenty local isolates of actinomycetes were isolated from soil contaminated with oil waste using mineral liquid medium at initial pH of 7 in the presence of oil waste (1%) as a source of carbon and incubated at 40 °C for 5 days .
The primary screening of isolates was tested to de-emulsifying ability.Results indicate that the isolates ST3 , ST8 and ST15 were selected for theirhigh ability to de-emulsification.
Secondary screening of selected isolates was estimated to deemulsification using the spore suspension . Results indicate that the ST8 isolate showed the highest de-emulsification activity, subsequently was identified and designated as Nocardia sp..
Studied the effects of both the spores number and period of exposure on the effectiveness of de-emulsification. The results showed that the 0.5 ml of spore suspension (107 spore/ml) gave the best effective way to de-emulsifying, while 30 min. the best period appropriate to de-emulsifying.