Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 33, Issue 1

Volume 33, Issue 1, January 2015, Page 1-284


Experimental Study of Reactive Powder Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with CFRP for Critical Shear Zones

Alaa M. Al-Habbobi; Shakir .A. Al-Mishhadani; Kaiss F. Sarsam

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 1-11

The behavior and shear strength characteristics of eight SFRHSC beams strengthened with CFRP strips subjected to combined bending and shear are studied in the present research (in addition to a 9th control beam without CFRP strengthening). The studied variables were shear span to effective depth ratio (a/d) and the deep beam effect, the effect of end anchorage of the CFRP strips with the beams, and effect of the amount of wrapping (width and spacing of the CFRP strips).Tests show that the presence of end anchorage for the strips increases the shear capacity of the beams by 12%for beams with the same properties regardless to the compressive strength.

Fuzzy logic Control of Chemical Processes

Duraid Fadhil Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 12-29

The objective of this study was to investigate the closed-loop control strategies for a batch reactor and batch distillation column by using two different control methods. In this paper, Fuzzy logic control is developed and compared with conventional proportional-/integral-derivative controller. In the design of fuzzy controller, the knowledge obtained from the process reaction curve procedure is employed to determine proper membership functions. Fine tuning is obtained alteration the output scaling factor. The forty nine rules are employed to regulate the manipulating variables to a variety of operating conditions and acquire a more flexible learning ability. The robustness of this control structure is studied in the case of set point changes and the fitness function for fuzzy controller is chosen as the integral of the absolute value of the error (IAE). The experimental results suggest that such fuzzy controllers can provide excellent set point-tracking and disturbance rejection. The results show that the fuzzy logic controller has a higher performance, in terms of robustness, response speed and the offset has a smaller average value than that of the conventional controller. According to experimental results, the fuzzy controller was considered more suitable and reliable for the batch reactor and distillation processes control with respect to the conventional controller.

Behavior of Hybrid Deep Beams Containing Ultra High Performance and Conventional Concretes

Hassan Falah Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 30-50

This paper presents an experimental investigation consisting of casting and testing twelve rectangular simply supported reinforced concrete deep beams. Three of the tested beams are made with conventional concrete (CC), three with ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) and six as hybrid beams of the two concrete (UHPC &CC). UHPC is used in compression in the hybrid beams. The effect of these parameters on the behavior of the test beams included deflection, failure mode, and ultimate loads is investigated. Experimental results generally show that stiffer load-deflection behavior is obtained with the increase of UHPC layer thickness (hR/h) and steel fibers volumetric ratio (Vf) for hybrid beams with UHPC in compression.

Study the Physical Properties and Thermal Conductivity of Light Weight Refractories Bricks Produced by Adding porcelanite to Kaolinite

Mohammed H. Al-Taie; Alaa H. Ali; Abeer F.Al-Attar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 51-60

This research was carried out to manufacture porous refractories bricks from locally raw materials (Porcelanite to Dwaikhla Kaolinite clays). The raw materials were tested by Chemical analysis and XRD to find their suitability to produce light weight ceramic refractories. Different percentages of kaolinite were added as binder to Porcelanite (raw materials). The specimens were pressed to dimensions (30×30) mm according to DIN51053 standards using semi-dry method at pressure of (24.5) MPa. After shaped process all specimens left to dry in air for (24hr) then dried at 110°C using electric oven and the specimens were fired at (1200, 1300 and 1400) °C. The fired specimens were tested to determine their physical and thermal properties including bulk density, porosity, water absorption ,specific gravity and thermal conductivity. It also, was observed that the results were within international standards, and local porcelanite and kaolinite could be used as source raw materials for manufacture light weight refractories.

Proposed Model for Uniaxial Tensile Behavior of Ultra High Performance Concrete

Hisham M. Al-Hassani; Wasan I. Khalil; Lubna S. Danha

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 61-77

This paper investigates experimentally the complete uniaxial tensile stress-strain relationships of Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) and equations for expressing such relationships are obtained. The effects of two variable parameters on the uniaxial tensile behavior are carefully studied which are the silica fume content SF (0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30%) as a partial replacement by weight of cement, steel fibers volume fraction Vf (0%, 1%, 2% and 3%). The experimental results showed that the two variables of the present investigation have no significant effect on the shape of the ascending part of the stress-strain curve, while the descending part of the curve is found to be considerably affected by the volume fraction Vf of the steel fibers used. Increasing fibers volume fraction Vf from 0% to 3% not only increases the area under the uniaxial tensile stress–strain curve, but also increases
both the maximum uniaxial tensile strength by 238.5% and its corresponding strain by about 4044%. Two nonlinear equations are suggested in this research to model the ascending and descending part of the uniaxial tensile stress-strain relationship which are found suitable to represent the uniaxial tensile behavior of the UHPC mixes.

Hardness Removal from Drinking Water Using Electrochemical Cell

Khairi Resan Kalash; Inmar N.Ghazi; Mohammed A. Abdul-Majeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 78-89

In this work, the removal of hardness was studied from tap water taken from Aljadriya municipal water network-Baghdad. A parallel plate electrochemical cell was constructed using two graphite electrodes as anode, and three aluminum electrodes as cathodes. The electrodes were connected to a power supply that provides direct electrical current to the cell. Results showed that a removal efficiency of 85% can be obtained at pH of 7.5and electrical voltage of 28.5 volt with retention time of 60 minutes. The high efficiency for hardness removal suggested that the electrochemical technique might be used as an alternative technique for hardness removal.

Strengthening Of R.C. Beams by External Steel Plate Using Bonded and Unbonded Connectors

Ashraf A. Alfeehan; Rana H. Alkerwei

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 90-100

Structural rehabilitation represents an important aspect of the construction industry and its significance is increasing. Strengthening is the process of increasing of the existing capacity of a non-damaged structure or a structural component to a specified level. The main aim of this work is to compare the strengthening techniques by bonded and unbounded mechanical connection as well as studying of replacing internal tension bars by external steel plate with the traditional method of bonding by glues on ultimate strength of RC beams. The traditional method use the epoxy glues for interfaces bonding while the idea of these techniques is a connection of external steel plate with RC beams by shear connectors mechanically. The experimental work involves flexural testing of six concrete beams of 100 150 1500mm. The test variable includes the percentage of replacing the internal reinforcement with external steel plate. Comparison of methods of bonded and unbounded beam is implemented with the method of strengthening by glue. Results show that beams reinforced with external steel plate behave as a composite action right up to ultimate load and the mode of failure occurs by yielding of external plate, pullout or yielding the shear connectors not by separation of plate. Using of external steel plate restrains central deflection in the beam with increasing of load capacity by increasing thickness of plates.

The Optimum Conditions for Arc Fusion to Splice Photonic Crystal Fiber and Single Mode Optical Fiber

Mohammed S. Mehde; Salah Aldeen Adnan Taha; Ammar Anwer Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 101-113

This search deals with the empirically obtained conditions for the fusion splicing with photonic crystal fibers (ESM-12) and (SMF-28) by controlling the arc-power and the arc-time of conventional electric-arc fusion splicer (FSM-60S). The development of microstructure fiber has been limited by the fact that these fibers are generally difficult, and in some cases even impossible, to fusion splice using conventional technologies. For this reason, fusion splicing microstructure fiber is an important area of research that is likely to impact the future direction of optical fiber technology . there are many kinds of fusion splicing techniques, enabling connection between two optical fibers, such as an electric arc and a CO2 laser .It is likely that electric arc fusion splicing technique has been widely applied and even better established than the others, especially on the standard single mode fibers (SMFs).

Design of Intelligent Controller for Solar Tracking System Based on FPGA

Hanan A. R. Akkar; Yaser M. Abid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 114-128

The needs for increasing the power generation make the use of solar cells plays an important role in the daily life. For this reason, it is important to use solar tracking system to increase or getting almost optimum amount from solar cells. In this paper, proposed intelligent controllers were designed and used to make solar cells facing the sun over the year. The proposed controller was trained by two ways; the first was trained by supervised feed forward neural network and the second by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) the results obtained for both designs are then compared. The controller was trained using MATLAB and then converted to SIMULINK model in order to test it, and convert it to a Very high speed integrated circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL) language using MATLAB tool box in order to download it on Spartan 3A Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) card. This makes the implementation of the intelligent controller more efficient and easy to use because of its reprogram-ability and the high speed performance. The controller was designed to a fully controlled DC motor driver which is used to rotate two DC motors in X-axis and Y-axis directions respectively.
The experimental results show that tracking sun increases the efficiency of the system to produce energy from solar cell about 44.3778 % more energy than the solar cell without tracking system.

Behavior of R.C. T-Beams Strengthened with Glued Steel Plate

Faidhi Abdul-Rahman Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 129-153

The paper discusses the experimental research carried out at Sheffield University [1] by the author. The main aim of this paper is to study the structural behaviors of T-beams strengthened by glued steel plates anchored at the ends with L-shaped plates to prevent the premature debonding failure. Further, the relative performance of external plates is compared with equivalent internal reinforcement designed to achieve the same ultimate strength. Results are presented for 24 T-beams; the variables studied are concrete strength (20-50MPa), plate thickness (1.6-6mm) and double or single plate layers.
The results is discussed and demonstrated a reduction in bar strains, central deflections and crack widths was between "30% and 53%" at service load. The theoretical ultimate load of the composite section was achieved for beams with single and double plated and the maximum increase in strength is 41%. Tests results on beams with 25% to 72% of their main reinforcement replaced by steel plates show that at service load a reduction in bar strains, central deflections and crack widths are between "54% and 66%".

Synthesis and Studying Dielectric Properties of Mixed Nanoferrites

Zainab I. Dhary; Mohammed S. Hamza; Fadhil A. Chyad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 154-164

Based on a low temperature route (sol-gel autocombustion) a nano-ferrite CoFe2O4and Li0.5Fe2.5O4 and different percentages of cobalt-ferrite are synthesized. The crystalline structure by XRD and dielectric properties with TEM micrographs are presented. The XRD (crystallite size and lattice parameter) are determined which affected by cobalt content. TEM micrographs show a nano-particles in the range of (8-20) nm which correlate with crystallite size. Dielectric properties (dielectric constant, loss tangent and dielectric loss factor) are decreased with frequency and cobalt content.

Design and Implementation Adaptive Antenna System in WiMAX (IEEE 802.16d)

Izz kadhum Abboud

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 165-174

We live in a communication technology continuing to evolve, we generate and process information at a rate never before recorded in the history of mankind. Currently computing platforms are run on Gigahertz multi-core processors churning out Gigabits streams of data that need to be transmitted as quickly as possible. This has led to an ever increasing need to develop wireless access technologies that support high throughput regardless of the transmission environment. In order to develop WiMAX (IEEE 802.16d) PHY layer performance the Adaptive Antenna System has been considered. An Adaptive Antenna System has been deployed at the receiver module to reduce the fading effects caused by proposed channel model. Adaptive Antenna Systems (AAS) uses various beam forming techniques to focus the wireless beam between the base station and the subscriber station. In this work, the transmitter (SS) and receiver (BS) are fixed and AAS installed at the receiver is used to direct the main beam towards the desired LOS signal and nulls to the multipath signals. FFT beam former based on Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm is used. It has been proved through MATLAB simulations that the performance of the system significantly improved by AAS, where is beam forming implemented in the direction of the desired user. The performance of the system more increased by increasing the number of antennas at receiver.

Effect of Nature Materials Powders on Mechanical and Physical Properties of Glass Fiber / Epoxy Composite

Aseel Basim Abdul-Hussein; Emad Saadi AL-Hassani; Reem Alaa Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 175-197

In the present study composites were prepared by Hand lay-up molding. The composites constituents were epoxy resin as the matrix, 6% volume fractions of Glass Fibers (G.F) as reinforcement and 3%, 6% of nature material (Rice Husk Ash, Carrot Powder, and Sawdust) as filler. Density, water absorption, hardness test, flexural strength, shear stress measurements and tests were conducted to reveal their values for each type of composite. True density results had shown an incremental increase with volume fraction increasing and water absorption, hardness, flexural strength and shear stress results had shown an incremental increase with volume fraction increasing with smaller particle size.

Optimal Wavelet Filter for De-noising Surface Electromyographic Signal Captured From Biceps Brachii Muscle

Eyad I. Abbas; Khaleda Sh. Rijab; Anas Fuad Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 198-207

This paper presents a study on finding an optimal wavelet filter for denoTsing surface electromyography signal, the surface electromyography signal was captured from the biceps brachii muscle of the human arm, This signal was stored in a one-dimensional matrix and conducted a series of procedures to reduce the noise. The performance has been tested based upon the nearest five wavelet filters in terms of the shape of the form of the original signal, after subjected to three noisy Gaussian environments at different signal to noise ratio. A tremendous amount of results was obtained, These results show that the fourth order Daubechies wavelet filter at the fourth decomposition level is optimized to reduce the noise of the surface electromyography signal that captured from biceps brachii muscle, where the results of the tests in a very noisy environment show that the value of the mean square error is 0.0159 and the output signal-to-noise ratio is 11.4424.

A Cognitive PID Neural Controller Design for Mobile Robot Based on Slice Genetic Algorithm

Ahmed Sabah Al-Araji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 208-222

The main core of this paper is to design a trajectory tracking control algorithm for mobile robot using a cognitive PID neural controller based slice genetic optimization in order to follow a pre-defined a continuous path. Slice Genetic Optimization Algorithm (SGOA) is used to tune the cognitive PID neural controller's parameters in order to find best velocities control actions of the right wheel and left wheel for the mobile robot. Pollywog wavelet activation function is used in the structure of the cognitive PID neural controller. Simulation results and experimental work show the effectiveness of the proposed cognitive PID neural tuning control algorithm; This is demonstrated by the minimized tracking error and the smoothness of the velocity control signal obtained, especially with regards to the external disturbance attenuation problem.

Analysis of Information Flow for Job-Shop Production System

Zainab Taha Jabur; Lamyaa M.Dawood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 223-236

Controlling the flow of (information /materials) inside job-shop involves several decisions such as the acceptance or rejection orders, the orders due date definition, releasing and dispatching of job. In this research the actual production system control in Heavy Engineering Equipment State Company (H.E.E.S.Co.) is followed and monitored throughout one year. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) tanks detailed processing and assembly investigated as a case study. The deviation of tanks assembly processes is about 53% from the schedule time. . Therefore, questionnaire sheet is performed including stuff of (164). Overall information flow in the company for most respondents is fair to bad (80%). communication matrices revealed that information exchange is random and inflexible through the whole production control. Gaps in communication and lack in (Computer – Computer) information exchange leading to bad communication throw the whole shop floor activities. Also results declare shop floor control in (H.E.E.S.Co.) company is offline (paper–based) and no documentation orders , that are employed by direct communications.

Structural Performance of Short Square Self Compacting Concrete Columns in Fire

Mohammed Mansour Kadhum Alkafaji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 237-256

This paper represents an experimental program on the behavior of SCC columns under fire. The research includes testing reinforced SCC columns subjected to various loading levels and heating rates. Nine columns were tested under concentric and eccentric loading and two burning rates (400 and 700oC) for 1.5 hour period of exposure at 60 days age. The paper represents the main results including the residual ultimate load carrying capacity, maximum crack width, axial deformation, crack pattern, the measured concrete and steel temperatures and axial displacements. It was found that the predicted load carrying capacity of SCC columns by the three codes which are (ACI-318/08, BS-8110/97 and Canadian/84), was unstable after burning except for the BS Code equation which was able to predict load capacity after exposing to high fire temperature levels. Valuable conclusions on the effect of loads and heating on concrete explosive spalling are shown in the paper.

Improving the Lift Characteristics of Supersonic Double 257 Wedge Airfoil at Low Speed Using Passive-Active Flow Controlling Methods

Mohammed I.Abutabikh; AbdulKareem Al-Musawi; Mohammed K. Khashan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 257-272

The supersonic double wedge airfoil performs quite excellent in the supersonic speed regime but would lead to poor performance at subsonic speed regime due to sharp edges stall. For this purpose a theoretical and experimental study was undertaken to improve performance characteristics of the supersonic double wedge airfoil at low speed by using passive-active flow controlling methods. The proposed passive method was a shape modification through changing the sharp leading edge and mid- section upper and lower surface apex to smooth curved control segment actived during subsonic flight regime; and the blowing technique was used as an active method. ANSYS FLUENT CFD package was used to simulate the flow around the standard and modified airfoils. Low speed wind tunnel tests were also conducted in order to measure pressures and velocities chordal-wise the model airfoils fabricated to accomplish these wind tunnel tests. The results had proven that the proposed flow controlling methods had improved the performance of the double wedge airfoil at low speed. The maximum lift coefficient C_(l,max) was increased by about (38%) and the stall angle for C_(l,max) was jumped from (12°) for the standard airfoil to (18°) for the modified airfoil with blowing. The experimental results coincide well with the theoretical results.

Spectral and Third Non-Linear Properties for Mixture Solutions of (R6G,RB, and RC) Dyes

Ali H. AL-Hamdani; Alaa H. Ali; Mariam H. Mohamed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 273-284

In this research, the spectral characteristics and the nonlinear optical properties for the mixing of Rhodamine dyes (Rh6G, RC, and RB) were determined at different concentrations ( 1×10-5,2×10-5,5×10-5,7×10-5, and 1×10-4 mole/L) at room temperature. The spectral characteristics were studied by recording their absorption and fluorescence spectra. The intensity of absorption increased and fluorescence decreased when increasing concentration which in agreement with Beer – Lambert Law. It was observed that this mixing had a wide spectral range. The quantum efficiency decreased while the radiative life time and the fluorescence life time increased when increasing the concentration. Nonlinear optical properties were measured by using Z-Scan technique, using (CW) continuous Nd: YAG laser with frequency doubled wavelength (532nm) with output power (100 mW). The obtained nonlinear properties results of the mixture (R6G, RC, and RB) showed a negative nonlinear refractive index for concentrations (7×10-5, and 1×10-4 mole/L ) while the concentrations (1×10-5,2×10-5, and 5×10-5 mole/L ) showed a positive nonlinear refractive index, also this mixing showed two photon absorption behavior for all concentrations. The origin of optical nonlinearity in the dye may be attributed to laser-heating induced nonlinear effect.

The Visual Image Quality for The Future City

Sanaa Sati Abbas; Khawla Kareem Kawther

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 1-36

The visual image and its orders and patterns required continuous investigations because the city visual image is not fixed. City identity and meaning are still the factors that connect the places to their habitants. A review for the visual image concept in urban and architectural literature is carried out throughout this study which is found in different forms and patterns. On other hand there are a lot of theories about future cities, but there are no studies that link these two concepts together. So the research problem was represented by the decreased knowledge in the visual image quality for the future city. This research was based in achieving its goal on a hypothesis says (The visual image quality for the future cities, achieved through establishment of certain features as: Spatial Enclosure, the pattern of positive urban space, faced design and Small architectures design).
This research defines the visual image as all the visual percept for the region or what has percept from it, that produced of mixing and weaving all the other elements of the physical environment and the total visual scenes, that may be in several images according to the range and the scope of the vision, (panorama, vista, view, appearance, scene, perspective), Remarkable for a particular area, or taken into consideration, while the vision scope refer to All of the points of the physical environment that can be perceived by a stable eye (fixed)at a given moment.
Future city is the sustainable city with a sustainable approach and a viable place to life and work (mixed use). Also Its visual images with a sustainable approach contain elements as green network, green sectors (live), and sustainable roads (green roads), urban rooms or nodes (intimate square and urban spaces): pedestrian pockets, transport nodes, marketing nodes, commercial nodes, edges and green walls and small urban and architectures.
For the purpose of verification of the research hypothesis, survey is carried out for a selected proposed future cities by special questionnaires dispended for a random sample of architects, this questionnaire includes vocabularies about the quality of the visual image. This research concluded that quality of the visual image, should be achieved in future cities through achieving of the following properties: Spatial Enclosure, the positive urban space pattern, faced design, and Small architectures.