Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 33, Issue 3

Volume 33, Issue 3, April 2015, Page 37-761

Assessment of Heavy Metals Pollution in Soil Affected by Industrial Activities

Riyad Al-Anbari; Abdul Hameed M.J. Al Obaidy; Fatima H. Abd Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 3, Pages 526-534

Twenty soil samples were collected in the Al-Duraa Refinery Industrial District. The soil samples displayed high concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn than the calculated worldwide mean of unpolluted soils. The geoaccumulation index indicated that the soil samples were strongly polluted by Cd and moderately to strongly polluted byPb. The level of pollution by Ni was moderate, whereas Cr and Zn observed unpolluted to moderately pollution. Furthermore, the result of the calculated enrichment factor (4.11-227.49) indicated significant to extremely high enriched and suggesting an important role of anthropogenic pollution due to various industrial activities done by the refinery.

Prediction of Fatigue-Creep Interaction Life of Aluminum Alloy AA7349 Using Electromechanical Devices

Hussain J. Al-Alkawi; Fikrat Abdul Kareem; Asmaa Abdulqasim Mohammed Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 3, Pages 535-547

In this present work, the behavior of AA7349 aluminum alloy under constant and cumulative creep-fatigue interaction has been studied by using an electrical system designed and built in order to investigate creep-fatigue interaction at different stress levels and temperatures. An hour-glass shaped specimen of AA7349 aluminum alloy has been subjected to a constant and variable creep-fatigue tests performed under rotating bending loads and stress control at stress ratio R=-1.
The results of the creep –fatigue life have been studied byMiner rule and compared with the proposed and experimental methods. It was shown that theMinerrule and proposed modelgive reasonable results and they are in a good agreement with the experimental fatigue lifetimes.

Adaptive Antenna Capabilities In GSM Systems Performance Improvement

Adheed Hasan Sallomi; Hussein Ali Hussein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 3, Pages 548-559

In this work, the major impairment regarding the coverage and capacity of GSM system has been explained. This paper presents the adaptive antenna array systems as a promise technology that have the ability to overcome the mobile communication performance limitations.
The major contribution of this paper is to estimate the coverage, the blockage probability, and capacity improvement during the use of adaptive antennas in GSM base stations. MATLAB 6.5, has been used for simulation and performance improvement evaluation of capacity and coverage in the GSM system.
The results show that an adaptive antenna array of eight elements has a potential to reduce the outage probability, and improve coverage extension by about 280% and capacity by 40%.

Comparison between Wavelet and Radial Basis Function Neural Networks for GPS Prediction

Farag Mahel Mohammed; Sameir A. Aziez; Huda Naji Abdul-Rihda

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 3, Pages 560-572

Neural networks are complex nonlinear models;this characteristic enables them to be used in nonlinear system modeling and prediction applications.The estimation and prediction are importantroles in the communication system.The proposed approach based onthe Wavelet Neural Networks (WNNs)usesmorlet as an activation function in thehidden layer of the wavelet neural network,while the Radial Basis Function Neural Networks (RBFNNs)usebasis functionthat can be calculated as a Gaussian function. In this paper,a comparisonbetween the performance ofWavelet Neural Networksand Radial Basis Functionfor GPS prediction is presented.The comparison results(usingMATLAB programming)presentthat the Wavelet Neural Networks method has a great approximation ability, suitability and more stable in Global Positioning System (GPS)prediction than the Radial Basis Function Neural Networks,were highly effective predictions for accurate positioning and RMS errors are 0.05meter after using of Wavelet Neural Networks prediction.

Behavior of Reinforced Height Strengthened Concrete one Way Slabs Strengthened with CFRP Sheets

Mazen D. Abdulah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 3, Pages 573-589

The principal objective of this paper is the investigation of experimental and theoretical flexural behavior of reinforced high strength concrete one-way slabs strengthened or repaired with externally bonded carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets. The experimental work includes testing of nine reinforced concrete slab specimens with dimensions (1700mmx300mmx100mm), six of these slabs were strengthened, two slabs were repaired with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) strips and one specimen was tested without strengthening as reference (control) slab for comparing the performance of CFRP strengthened or repaired slabs. The experimental variables considered in the test program include the location, quantity, shape and dimensions of CFRP sheets. All the reinforced concrete slab specimens were designed of the same dimensions and reinforced identically to fail in flexure. All slabs were tested in simply supported conditions subjected to central concentrated load. The experimental results show that the ultimate loads are increased by about (8-64%) for the slabs strengthened with bonded CFRP sheets with respect to the unstrengthened reinforced concrete slab (control slab). Three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis has been used to conduct the numerical investigation of the general behavior of strengthened slabs. ANSYS (Version 13.0) computer program was used in this work. Eight-node brick elements (SOLID65) are used to represent the concrete and three dimensional shell elements (SHELL 41) are used to represent the CFRP strips in the finite element analysis model. Perfect bond between the concrete surface and the bonded CFRP sheets is assumed.

Effect of Vibration on the Heat Transfer Process in the Developing Region of Annulus with Rotating Inner Cylinder

Mauwafak A. Tawfik; Akeel A. Mohammed; Hayder Zuhair Zain

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 3, Pages 590-611

Experimental investigation has been carried out to study the effect of induced vibration on the heat transfer process in the simultaneously developing of hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layer region of a concentric vertical annulus with uniformly heated outer cylinder and rotating solid inner cylinder.The experimental setup consists of an annulus, which has a radius ratio of 0.365 and outer cylinder with a heated length 1.2 m subjected to the constant heat flux. The investigation covers Reynolds number (Re) range from 514 to 1991, Taylor number (Ta) values are 10.44×104& 82.23×104, heat flux varied from 468 W/m2 to 920 W/m2 and frequency (Fr) values are 32 & 77 Hz. Results showed for all frequency values that the local Nusselt number values increase as the heat flux increases when the value of frequency near the natural frequency and the value of the surface radiation decrease.Correlation equations have been deduced to calculate the rate of heat transfer, represented by the average Nusselt number (Num) as a function of (Ta), (Ra) and (Fr). A comparison has been made between the present work and the previous works for temperature and local Nusselt number variations and it has given a good agreement.

Study the Robustness of Automatic Voltage Regulator for Synchronous Generator Based on Neuro-Fuzzy Network

Abdulrahim Thiab Humod; Yasir Thaier Haider

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 3, Pages 612-627

Modern power systems are complex and non-li¬near and their operating conditions can vary over a wide range, and since neuro - fuzzy networkcan be used as intelligent controllers to control non-li¬near dynamic systems through learning, which can easily accommodate the non-linearity, time dependencies, model uncertainty and external disturbances.ANeuro-Fuzzy model system is proposed as an effective neural network controller model to achieve the desired robust Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) for Synchronous Generator (SG) to maintain constant terminal voltage. TheconcernedNeuro-fuzzy controller for AVRis examined on different models of SG andloads. The results show that the Neuro-Fuzzy -controllers have excellent responses for all SG models and loads in the view point of transientresponse and system stability compared with optimal PID controllers tuned by practical swarm optimization.They also show that the margins of robustness for Neuro-Fuzzy -controller aregreater thanPID controller.

Improving Displacement Efficiency of An Iraqi crude Oil by Surfactant

Raad Mohamed J- Alkhalssi; Essam Abdul Jalilsaeed; Mohamed Ghazi Khalid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 3, Pages 628-634

Surfactants have been considered for enhanced oil recovery by reducing oil-water interfacial tension. This research experimentally determines the influence of surfactant concentration and formation water Salinity on oil recovery. The commercial anionic Alkyl-benzene sulphonate surfactant was used with different salinity of formation water (134.7,168.5 and187.5 g/l) respectively, and with three different surfactant concentrations (10,30 and 50g/l) . Several sand pack flood experiments were conducted using medium crude oil. Experimental results showed that emulsification becomes better with increasing surfactant concentration and higher oil recovery. The ultimate oil recoveries at 1.1 pore volume(P.V.) are 72,76.2 and 85.1% of the original oil in place(OOIP), at surfactant aqueous concentrations of 10,30 and 50g/l respectively. The effect of salinity on surfactant performance is studied and the results showed that increasing of salinity reduced oil recoveries (76.2 ,60and 46%OOIP at salinity of134.7,168.5 and187.5g/l respectively).

Mechanical Properties for Polymer Hybrid Composites Reinforced by Fibers and Particles

Ruaa Haitham Abdel-Rahim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 3, Pages 635-643

The Mechanical properties of hybrid composites based on epoxy resin (ER) filled with metal powders (Al) and Glass fibers (GF) are studied. The specimens are prepared using hand lay-up techniques according to ASTM standard for different volume fractions of fiber, particles& matrix material. Glass fibers (GF) are one of the most useful filler materials in composites, its major use being the manufacture of components in the aerospace, automotive, and leisure industries. The epoxy was reinforced with GF:( metal powders)in the ratio 10%:40%, 20%:30%, 30%:20%, and 40%:10%. It was observed that in the ratio 40%:10% has the maximum(UTS), fracture strength, flexural strength, fracture toughness and hardness increase with the increase of volume fraction of fibers when compared to unfilled epoxy.

Management of Salinity Issues in Iraq's Agricultural Sector Using SWOT Analysis

Adnan Zowain; Alhassan H. Ismail

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 3, Pages 644-658

Iraq's agricultural sector suffers from the salinity problem of agricultural land which reflects negatively on the production of field crops and agricultural land investment, particularly in the governorates geographically located in the sedimentary plain. The management of salinity problems facing by the agricultural sector has become crucial priorities for the Iraqi government. In this study, SWOT analysis was applied to suggest proper strategies that might be followed to solve the problem of salinity. After the internal and external factors have been identified, 17 strategies planning was developed. Internal–External Matrix (IE matrix) was used to select the appropriate type of strategy. Based on the results of Internal–External Matrix, government should consider the conservative strategies. Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM) was also used in this study. By applying the QSPM, re-arrangement of the proposed strategies has been made by importance and priority. The first three suggested strategies in term of importance and priority were establishment of the National Center for Agricultural Policy, investing in improved irrigation systems such sprinkler and drip irrigation and innovative agricultural technologies to control salinity are urgent.

New Technique for Producing Vacuum Concrete

Haitham Hazim Saeed; Anas Amjed Ezzulddin

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 3, Pages 659-667

In this work a new technique is used to produce vacuum dewatered concrete. In this technique perforated PVC pipes encased in cotton cloth are used to dewater concrete from inside of concrete volume, rather than from the surface, as is the case in the conventional vacuum dewatering method. These pipes are laid in position inside concrete forms, and a vacuum pump is connected to the dewatering pipes, which is operated after casting of fresh concrete to remove the excessive water from internal portion. Properties of vacuum dewatered concrete using the new technique are investigated by a series of tests such as compressiveand flexural strength tests. Based on test results, the new technique improves concrete strength and other mechanical properties particularly at early ages. The new dewatering technique is a good alternative to the conventional vacuum dewatering technique and can have a wider range of practical applications than the conventional method.

Aircraft Pitch Control Using Type-2 Fuzzy Logic

Yamama A.shafeek

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 3, Pages 668-681

Modern aircrafts design is tending to employ automatic control in their every part.In this paper, an autopilot is designed to control the pitch of an aircraft using both PD-like type-1 and type-2 fuzzy logic controllers. The flight system is exposed to atmospheric effects like wind speed, rain, temperature… etc, and noise from the system,which affects the response. To test the effectiveness of the two controllers, three different cases are simulated; system without disturbance and system with slow and fast varying disturbances.

Comparison of FFT-Based and DCT-Based Channel Estimation and ECC for OFDM System

Awatif Ali Jafaar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 3, Pages 682-693

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) has become a popular modulation method for high data rate wireless communications. In this paper, two schemes are proposed. In the first scheme the Bit Error Rate (BER) and the Packet Error Rate(PER) performancesof Fast Fourier Transform-FFT based OFDM are compared with Discrete Cosine Transform DCT -based OFDM using (QPSK) and (16 QAM)as modulation techniques over Additive White Gaussian Noise environment (AWGN) and Multipath Rayleigh Fading environment.
To improve the performance of the uncoded OFDM schemes,the second coded scheme is investigated .Convolution coding is used to enhance the BER for the previous systems. The proposed systems have been tested and evaluated using MATLAB 7 package.

Experimental and FEM Study of Coated Inserts on Cutting Forces in Orthogonal Cutting

Maan A. Tawfiq; Basim S. Sahib

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 3, Pages 694-702

In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate and simulate the influence of coated layers, on the cutting force components in orthogonal turning process using AISI 1010 steel.A series of experimental and numerical tests have been done with four types of inserts including uncoated, coated tool with (TiN), (TiN /TiCN) and (TiN /Al2O3/ TiCN) using the special FEA code (DEFORM-2D). The turning tests were conducted at five different cutting speeds (45, 65, 97, 145, and 206 m/min.), while feed rate and depth of cut were kept constant at (0.2 mm/rev.) and (1.2 mm) respectively.
The results show that the minimum force is achieved when using TiN/TiCN insert compared with other inserts in all cutting conditions. The cutting force components (tangential and feed force) are decreasedby (22% and 69% respectively) when the cutting speedincreases from (45 to 206) m/min. The maximum relative difference between simulated and measured values is less than (17%).

Detection of Buried Utilities Using Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) Technique

Hussein H. Karim; Karim H. Ibrahim; Mohammad A. H. Al-Rubaye

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 3, Pages 703-719

The main objective ofthis paper is to show the ability of resistivity technique for investigating the buried utilities (their location and depth) for characterizing the surrounding subsurfacesoils. This study deals with implementation of 2-D electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) to detect the location of buried utilities existing in the Al-Dhubat Interchange in Kut city, Wassit Governorate south of Baghdad. Interpretation results of the subsurface investigation of this site have been compared with those obtained from conventional methods.Generally, the site is characterized by its gradual decreases in resistivity with depth with range of resistivity values (<1-140 ohm.m) which is mostly consisting of silty clay to clayey silt with lenses or pockets of medium, stiff and very stiff silty clay with sand or gravel.
Several utility pipes with different diameters of φ1200, φ1100, φ600 and φ 400 mm with low resistivity values (<1 ohm.m) have been identified in the 2-D resistivity sections.The results of 1-D VES agree with that of 2-D ERI as their resistivity values decrease with depth. Besides, IP values for this site agree with the resistivity data as it is an indicator of clay content and their uniform sections reflecting the high moisture content and the effect of salts in the subsurface soil and water.

Detection of Fibers Content in UHPC Slabs

Hussein Al-Quraishi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 3, Pages 720-728

Ultra high performance concrete (UHPC) is a cementationsmaterial with steel fiber, which is becoming more and morewidely employed in building construction. The advanced mechanical behavior of the UHPC structural elements significantly depends on the steel fiber content and steelfiber orientation.
In this study, the test result of UHPC slab under punching shear was previously tested by the Author is used herein to check the fiber amount and orientation at the failure plane.A method presented by John Long is presented to do this goal.
It was found, that the fiber content in the failure plane differs from the fiber volume fraction used in constructed the specimen.

Effect Of Eigenfaces Level On The Face Recognition Rate Using Principal Component Analysis

Eyad. I. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 3, Pages 729-737

This paper presents an approach to study the effect of the different eigenfaces levels on the faces recognition rate using principal component analysis. The increase in the strength of the variables and the lighting in the facial geometry to represent the human face , has been using the principal component analysis (PCA) on the image of the whole face . The principal component analysis is a statistical measurement method , which works in the field of linear and can be used to reduce the dimensions of the image and thus serve to reduce the calculations significantly to the image database . It is a method gives better accuracy and a higher rate of recognition . The experiment was conducted on 50 images from the database of faces (ORL), using 40 images for the training set and 15 images for the test group ( five images in common with the training set and the remaining 10 images are different in expression and corner ) . The results proved that the proposed method is effective and successful in obtaining recognition rate up to 100% in the third level when using ten eigenfaces.

Parametric Study of Continous Composite Steel-Concrete Beam with External Prestressing

Amer M. Ibrahim; Wissam D. Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 3, Pages 738-752

In the present study, three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analyses were conducted to investigate the effect of several important parameters on the behavior of the external prestressed continuous composite steel-concrete beam. These parameters included the effects of concrete compressive strength, ratio of effective prestressing to ultimate stress (fpe/fpu), external prestressing technique, ratio of thickness to width of concrete slab (T/B), transfer load point to mid span section, type of loading, full and partial interaction, tendon profile, and number of stiffeners. It had been found that, at increasing the concrete compressive strength from (20 to 60MPa) and the ratio of prestress to ultimate stress from (0.264 to 0.79), the ultimate load was increased by about (19.64%) and (9.05), respectively. The ultimate load of a continuous composite beam with external prestressing was increased by about (26.63%) than the same continuous beam without prestressing. The increase in the ultimate load of the continuous beam subjected to three point loads on each span was (25.93%) larger than that of the continuous beam with a single load on each span. It was noted that the ultimate capacity was increased by (7.32%) when draped tendon profile was used. Also it was noted that the ultimate load of beam with full interaction is (3.25%) greater than the same beam with partial interaction. Increasing the thickness to width of concrete slab ratio, from (0.1 to 0.25) with constant area of concrete, led to an increase in the ultimate load by about (6.60%). It was noted that the ultimate capacity increased by about (8.25%) when number of stiffeners were increased from three to seven.

Investigation of Wear Behavior of 1060 and 1095 Steels using Regression Analysis

Jamal Nasir Hussain Al Katib

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 3, Pages 753-761

The dry adhesive wear behavior of 1 060 and 1095 steels using pin on wheel wear test rig at room temperature under different wear conditions has been studied. The prepared specimens are normalized to make sure that all specimens are in the same conditions.
'The objective of this research is to study the effect of operating parameters such as rotating speed , normal load and sliding time and their interaction on the wear behavior using regression analysis. Detailed data obtained were used to develop equations to describe the wear rate of steels. The wear losses of the specimens were expressed in terms of simultaneous contribution from the effects of rotating speed , normal load , sliding time and their interaction.
By applying the parameters such as rotating speed , normal load , and sliding time,it is observed that certain effects on the wear behavior of two types steel , the 1060 steel , sliding time is the main factor, followed by normal load and rotating speed . However ,for the 1095 steel , rotating speed i s the main factor, followed by normal load and sliding time.
From results, it was concluded that the wear behavior of these steels and the effects of these parameters on the wear depend on the physical and mechanical properties of these types of steels.

Digital Map of The Distribution of Metals In Iraq Using Geographic Information System Techniques

Alaa Dawood Salman; Yousif Husian Khalf; Nagham Amer Abedlateef

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 3, Pages 37-46

The ability of geographic information systems in preparing of geo data base and its represented as digital maps is verified through data processing of mineral materials. This research aims to product digital maps for mineral materials in Iraq by transferring paper map(geological map) with scale (1:1000000) into digital map using scanning process and adjusting of coordinates system for this map using dereferencing process. Then layers are extracted from this map using digitizing process, these layers represented , also the ratio of these materials are represented on these layers as circle sector. The purpose of geo database is to make the features in geographic information system datasets and define a relationship among features that were displayed on maps as layers, each layer represents particular type of features which have been used for spatial analysis.