Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 33, Issue 1

Volume 33, Issue 1, January 2015, Page 1-171


Inhibition Effect of Noble Metals Nanoparticles on Acid Phosphate Activity in Sera of Healthy Subject

Eaman A.S.AL-Rubaee; Abdulrahman K Ali; Amenah Ali Salman; Zainab A.Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 1-11

Noble metals nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in water. The structural and optical properties of the Ag and Au nanoparticles investigated using (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer and TEM. The produced nanoparticles show small and sharp plasmon peaks around 400nm and 500 nm for silver and gold respectively. The nanoparticles have spherical shape with average size of about 30 nm. The effect of gold and silver NPs was studied on the activity of acid phosphatase (ACP) in blood sera of healthy subjects. The result correlated with the observation that gold and silver nanoparticles had inhibition effect on serum acid phosphatase activity, and this effect increased with increasing the concentration of the nanoparticles.

Proposal New S-box for AES Algorithm Depend on A.I Bee Colony

Alaa Kadhim; Sura Khalaf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 12-24

The AES algorithm, also called the Rijndael algorithm, is a symmetric block cipher, where the data are encrypted/ decrypted in blocks of 128 bits. Each data block is modified by several rounds of processing, where each round involves four steps. Three different key sizes are allowed: 128 bits, 192 bits, or 256 bits, and the corresponding number of rounds for each is 10 rounds, 12 rounds, or 14 rounds, respectively. From the original key, a different “round key” is computed for each of these rounds. The single nonlinear step is the Sub Bytes step, where each byte of the input is replaced by the result of applying the “S-box” function to that byte. This nonlinear function involves finding the inverse of the 8-bit number, considered as an element of the Galois field GF (216). The Galois inverse is not a simple calculation, and so many current implementations use a table of the S-box function output. This table look-up method is fast and easy to implement. S-box is influenced by linear and differential cryptanalysis and also interpolation attacks. In this paper intended a new approach for the design of s-box based on the bee colony algorithm to increase the power of s-box and enhanced resistance against attacks through the use of artificial intelligence algorithms.

The Future for Adaptive Software Development in Cloud Computing Environment Using Multi Agent System

Abeer Tariq AL; Obaidy; Doori; Mayada M.Shihab Al

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 25-36

Cloud computing system provides large-scale infrastructure for high performance computing. The convergence of interests between multi-agent systems that need reliable infrastructures and cloud computing systems that need intelligent software with dynamic, flexible and autonomous behavior can result in new systems and applications.
This paper presents a proposed system using the intelligent multi-agent system in cloud computing .When it comes to developing the way of thought in a given environment, it is essential to think on a critical level in order to reach a state of understanding and operating on a level that best suits the needs of the said environment through evaluating the status of a situation and working to reach a decision or take an action.
The work presented aims to reach this state of smart decision-making that is essential to software developers when they are laying the foundations of the software internalization. The proposed system pioneers led the use of a multi-agent system in cloud computing, as there was no such initiative before in the development of software. The system proposed introduces a means for the autonomous decision-taking and critical thinking that is necessary to develop and evaluate the social behavior, universality and adaptive roles that the XML rational agent which is responsible for the cloud reservoir is capable of.

Characteristics Study of ZnO Thin Films by Rapid Thermal Oxidation Treatment Technique

Uday Muhsin Nayef; Mohammed Jamal Jasim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 37-44

In this paper preparation of good quality transparent conductive ZnO thin films by post-oxidation of vacuum evaporated Zn, on glass and silicon (p-type) as substrates, the oxidation was achieved in a short time (90 sec) which is known as rapid thermal oxidation. One growth parameter has been considered to specify the optimum conditions the film thickness are (200,300,400 &500 nm).
The XRD spectra revealed a high oriented grain in the (002) lattice system which is hexagonal wurtzite and proved that the ZnO films have a polycrystalline structure. Also, the morphological properties of ZnO films show that all films have a homogeneous surface morphology and it appears, to change significantly as a function of thickness.The energy gap of ZnO films decreases as the thickness increases. The FTIR spectra indicate the existence of the distinct characteristic absorption peak at 472.56cm-1 for Zn-O stretching mode.
Study of effect I-V and C-V measurements of ZnO films with the increase thickness. The photovoltaic properties confirmed that the photovoltaic depends strongly on the bias voltage and the amount of current produced by a photovoltaic device which is directly related to the number of photons absorbed. C-V results demonstrated that the fabricated heterojunction is of abrupt type. Also, the width of the depletion layer (w) follows the same behavior (V_bi ) decreased while the charge carrier density (N_d ) was increased with the thickness increase.

Synthesis and Theoretical Study of Some 2,4,6 Trihydroxyacetophenone Schiff base Ligandes

Rashed Taleb Rashee; Mahammed Shamil Ali; Hadeel Salah Mansoor; Hasan R.Obayes; Abdulnasser M. AL-Gebori

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 45-51

Schiff bases have been synthesized, identified by FTIR and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Visible) spectroscopy. The theoretical calculations of Schiff base were studied through the optimized structures of the Schiff base ligand was obtained by density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31G level. Also total energy, heats of formation, dipole moment, point group, molecular orbital's energy of highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) , energy gaps (Eg) and ΔG reaction were calculated. Here we suggest the optimized structure for the studied Schiff base. The theoretical study and based on the results of density function theory (DFT), L1 possess higher stability state compared with other Schiff bases studied.

Preparation and Characterization of NiO Thin Films by PLD

Azhar I. Hassan; Khawla S. Khashan; Jehan A. Saimon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 52-60

In this work, NiO thin films have synthesized by pulsed laser deposition on glass substrates with different substrate temperature (100, 200, 300)°C, using Q-switching Nd:YAG laser. Structure and optical properties have carried out by using FTIR, AFM and UV- Vis spectroscopy. FTIR spectraconformed of NiO bonding and AFM images show the increase in grain size with temperature. The optical transmission results show that the transparency of the NiO films is greater than 85% in the visible region which increases with the increasing substrate temperature, While the energy band gap was decreased with increasing substrate temperature.

The Preparation of Foam Cement and Determining Some of Its Properties

Qassim Abd Saloum; Mustafa Zaid Abdullah; Ansam Adnan Hashim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 61-69

The purpose of this research is to prepare samples of foam cement with different mixing ratios of raw materials. Several exams have been performed such compressive strength which was (5.9 N/mm2) and density (0.903 gm/cm3) for some samples.
These values show that this material is suitable to be used as untraditional building material for construction of nonstructural walls. Due to its liquidity, foam cement is suitable to be used for mold casting, surface repairing and voids filling for walls.

Antimicrobial Effects of Ethanolic and Nano Extract Produced by Bark of Salix Alba on Growth of Some Pathogenic Microbes

Nehia N. Hussien; Saria D. Mohamed; Buthiana Abd AL.alhamza

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 70-75

In this study, the comparison between the effectiveness biological of alcoholic and nano extract used by green synthesis method of Salix alba( willows ) plant on the growth of two types of pathogenic microbes isolates which have been obtained from AL-alywia hospital for children thats Proteus vulgaris(Gram-ve) ,and yeast Candida albicanes(Gram +ve) . Alcoholic extract that gave the highest effect on growth of Proteus vulgaris bacteria by inhibition zone (8mm ), but not effected on the growth of the yeast Candida albicanes. While the nano extract has been shown that the highest effect on the growth of Proteus vulgaris bacteria by inhibition zone reached to (21mm), followed by Candida albicanes by inhibition zone reached to (11mm).

Digital Signature Based on Quantum Key Exchange Algorithm

Samer Saeed Essa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 76-84

Digital signatures are growing in importance as a legal standing with traditional handwritten signatures, most secure web transactions today are already dependent on digital signatures, which are included as part of the digital certificates a server presents to a client identify. The digital certificates bind a key exchange algorithm with an identity and enable a receiver to verify the sender's digital signature, or as case when setting up a secure connection with a web server, enable a client to encrypt information.
This paper, describes the quantum computing with the representation of quantum bit, then this paper explains the proposed algorithm which is serving digital signature under unsecure communication channel by applying the quantum key exchange algorithm which is more complex in degree of computational complexity in data security of client than the classical key exchange algorithm.

Mechanical Properties of Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy Prepared by Slope Plate Casting Process

Awfa Abdull-Rasoul; Zainab Kassim Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 85-98

The present work encompasses the development of microstructure by using cooling plate casting process. This process consists of pouring the molten metal at temperature close to the liquidus line in an inclined cooling plate. The mould and the slope plate unit were manufactured by the researcher. Pouring temperature and inclination angles have effect on microstructure, tensile strength, and on the macro hardness for both Al-1.6%Mg, Al-0.46%Mg.
The following variables have been used in this work: pouring temperatures of (750,800,850ᵒC), tilt angles of (30ᵒ, 40ᵒ, 50ᵒand 60ᵒ), and Mg additive of (1.6%, 0.46%) with constant cooling length (380mm). Tensile results reveal that (750,800 and 850ᵒC) especially for (30ᵒ, 40ᵒ, 50ᵒ) for 1.6%-Mg, and 0.46%Mg have a high value. Vickers macro hardness has a gradual increasing value for Al-0.46%Mg, but for Al-1.6%Mg rheocast alloy it has a fluctuated value, the higher value is for small angles (30ᵒ, 40ᵒ, and 50ᵒ) and small value for high angle (60ᵒ).

A Zero Knowledge Authentication Protocol Based on Novel Heuristic Algorithm of Dense Induced Subgraphs Isomorphism

N. M. G. Al-Saidi; N.A. Rajab; H. N. Abdul-Rahman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 110-126

Graphs provide an useful mathematical tool for modeling various real world phenomena. Dense graphs arise in many places of interest, for instance the internet and social networks to name just two. The density of a graph should be a real number reflecting just how many edges it contains. Many networks found in the real world share the so-called “small world” property that is organized into communities. These organizations rely on close relationships of people belonging to a same subgroup.
The term “network” is used to denote the real world entity that usually maps to a graph after it is modeled. Therefore, there is greater need to propose more efficient graph and subgraph match methods to decide if their structures are identical.
Reduce the search space in these networks motivate many researchers to give generously persevering attempt to propose a new efficient algorithm for that purpose. According to theoretical and practical interest in graph isomorphism, a new algorithm for determining graph isomorphism between two dense graphs is proposed. Furthermore, a new algorithm for determining an induced subgraph isomorphism between pattern and target graphs is proposed also.
Those algorithms are analyzed from complexity point of view to demonstrate its effectiveness after applying it to several types of graphs. It is demonstrated that subgraph isomorphism is an improvement over the use of graph isomorphism in the zero knowledge protocol. The improvement comes from subgraph isomorphism being an NP-complete problem, and therefore, more difficult for an unauthorized user to solve. Whereas, the graph isomorphism problem has been solved therefore, is vulnerable to attacks of malicious users. The algorithms have been applied using VB-language, with two easy to use interfaces to be helpful for the beneficiary.

Real-Time Panoramic Video Construction Using Harris Corners Detector

Abdulameer A. Kareem; Saif Salah Abood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 127-140

This paper discusses the possibility of stitching two video streams to create a panoramic view in real-time, The challenge with constructing Panorama Video in real-time is the time-consuming in stitching images.
Image alignment didn't need to detect all interest point, only few well distributed point is enough to calculate good projection matrix, and the great similarity between the frames in video stream provides temporal information which can be used to reduce the number of selected points
In this paper the stitching images method which using Harris Corners Detector has been customized to be appropriate to meet the requirements of viewing a video in real time, through reducing the number of Interest Points in each stitching and employ the Parallel Processing to separate the calculation of transform matrix from the process of blending.
Reducing the number of Interest Points has been done by fragmentation of images into numerous regions and getting a feedback information from the stitching of the previous frame to limitate the search space based on the area of overlapping.
Results show that (i) panoramas generated from the proposed algorithm feature a smooth transition in image overlapping areas and satisfy human visual requirements; and (ii) the preview speed of the generated panorama satisfies the real-time requirements that are commonly accepted in video panorama stitching.

Physical Properties of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Nanopartical Thin Films Used as Gas Sensor

Saryia D.M AL-Algawi; Selma M.H Al-Jawad; Noor M. Saadoon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 141-151

ITO/ Si gas sensor was fabricated by an efficient and size – controlled by using DC-Sputtering technique suitable for large deposition area and high quality thin films. Structural, optical and electrical properties of ITO thin films were investigated and analyzed extensively under different doping concentration. Structure and surface morphology of ITO thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Atomic Force Microscope. XRD technique that showed these films is polycrystalline structure with a preferred orientation of (222),( 440),(400) the best orientation plain is (222) It was found that crystalline size decreases with increasing doping concentration. The optical properties of ITO thin films were studied such as transmissions, energy gap The transmittance was measured in the wavelength range from(300nm to 900 nm) for all the films it was highly transparent (greater than 85%). The optical energy band gap was increased with doping concentration in range from (3.9 to 4.15) eV. The electrical properties for ITO thin films include D.C electrical conductivity and Hall effect which shows that the type of films is (n- type), and the film has two activation energies in the rang (305-355)K, and the resistivity increases with doping concentration at 8wt%. The sensitivity toward NH3, NO2 gas has been measured.In2O3 doped with (Sn) has higher sensitivity to NH3, The sensitivity toward, NO2 gas has been measured, where In2O3 doped with (Sn) has higher sensitivity to NO2than to NH3.

Gradient-Porosity Porous Silicon (GPSi) as Anti-reflection Coating in Solar Cells Applications

Alwan M. Alwan; Suaad M. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 152-159

Laser Assisted Etching (LAE) technique with short laser wavelength was used to provide a gradient-porosity porous silicon (GPSi) layer. Morphological aspects, reflectivity and photoelectric properties of (GPSi) layer were studied based on a bare solar cell substrate (p-n). The results show that the (GPSi) layer has a lower reflectivity of about (1.3%) comparing with bulk silicon (reference sample 50%) and single layer PSi of about (10.5%) at wavelength regime (400 nm). The surface morphology and x-section images present the formation of (GPSi) with layer thickness of about (400 nm) less than the junction depth. The photoelectrical properties of (GPSi) layer shows an increase of short circuit current density of (2.8 mA/cm2) compared with the ordinary solar cell of (2.15 mA/cm2) while for single layer PSi is about (2.05 mA/cm2).

Annealing Effect on Structure and Optical Properties of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis

Selma M.H. Al-Jawad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 160-171

Polycrystalline films ZnO has been grown onto glass substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) method. They were given heat treatment at different temperatures and constant time and for different times with constant temperature in air. The change in structural and optical properties was studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, and optical absorption measurements. Structural analysis by X-ray diffraction pattern showed annealed ZnO film has high-orientation along c - direction (0 0 2), which remained the same with different heat treatment. The lattice constants of ZnO thin films were also obtained from XRD data. It is found that, with the increase of different heat treatments, the lattice constant a increases from 3.208 Å to 3.254 Å, and c increases from 5.125 Å to 5.219 Å. Where at higher annealing temperature and time the lattice constant c and a approach from bulk value. Other orientations corresponding to (1 0 0) and (1 0 1) are presented with very low relative intensities as compared to that of (0 0 2) plane. The transparency is increasing with increasing annealing temperature and time due to decreasing in films thickness with increasing annealing temperature and time. Change in bandgap energy from 3.2 to 3.01 eV was observed for different heat treatments.

The Attitude of Students in Institute of Technology Towards Mathematics

Khawla Bahjat Abdul Razzak

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 1-9

This study aimed to identifying the attitudes of students in institutes of technology , Baghdad towards Mathematics and their relationship with achievement in the light of some variables . To achieve the objectives of this study . We use some statistical methods in order to identify the attitudes , after establishing its validity and reliability on sample consisting of (152) male and female students . This random sample was chosen from institutes of technology / Baghdad students during the second semester of academic year (2011 – 2012) . The results of the study revealed that the attitudes of students towards Mathematics were generally positive but low results also indicated that there ane statistically significant difference in the attitudes of students towards mathematics on the scale as whole and on some factors .

Determination of The Properties of Unsaturated Polyester Resin Composites Reinforced by Hollow Glass Microspheres to Use it as Untraditional Building Material

Ali Kadhem Mahdi; Mustafa Zaid Abdullah Aziz

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 10-21

A light weight composite is fabricated by adding hollow glass microsphere (HGM) as a reinforcement material to the matrix which is unsaturated polyester resin. Different volume fractions of ( HGM) from (30%) to (70%) are used. (HGM) are chosen because of their smooth glass surfaces that enable them to be mixed uniformly through out the resin matrix. The study shows that the resultant composite has enough hardness value and can be molded in Templates and worked easily. The low density of the composite which is only (0.62 gm/cm3) with high compressive strength and low thermal conductivity coefficient make it suitable to be used as untraditional, low cost building material, in addition to repair surfaces and antiquities.

Practical Implementation for Quality ToolsIn woollen Industriesv (Application study)

Afaf Ali H

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 22-39

This research focuses on these tools which are essential for unambiguous establishment of quality improvements. In this paper , we took a case study of woolen production factory ALFatih factory as a model to demonstrate how the lactory can applied these tools separately or as group . Data is collected and analyzed using MS-Excel. The research represented a good conclusions with a practical recommendations.

Carcinogenic Bromate Ion Between the Quality of the Product and Sterilization Technique in the Treatment of Drinking Water

Estabraq Ali Hamed; Noor Al Huda Abdul- Razak; Amal Abdul- Reda

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 40-45

Classified ion bromate ( BrO_(3 )^- ) in groups of cancer-causing even if they are present in bottled water concentrations very low estimated μg / L (ppb) in this research was an assessment of the concentrations of ion bromate to ten models of bottled water taken at random from the local markets and in three batches and the values for some models higher than the allowable limit is (10 μg / L) (0.01 mg / L), as stated in the first batch contains (130 μg / L) of ion bromate as well as in the batch second (164 μg / L) In the third installment (155 μg / L) and through these figures had to be standing when this problem which effects just too dangerous for the consumer, where the majority of plants and filling plants are far from understanding and knowledge of how negative this ion when he was in concentrations higher than the allowable limit specified local or international specifications. It was also in this research measuring the concentration of ion bromide (Br^-) for surface water (river Tigris) (Baghdad - Jadiriyah) and over seven months of the year, starting from the fourth month until the tenth month and the results were pointed to a rise in the value of this ion where they arrived in the months to one (0.730 mg/L), higher then the value allowed for the presence of this ion in the surface water (rivers) and adult (0.03 μg / L).