Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 33, Issue 2

Volume 33, Issue 2, February 2015, Page 46-372


Spectral Study of Some Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics

Abdulhadi Kadhim; Leiqaa A.Hameed; Raid S.Jawad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 172-177

The current study deals with hazards and safety precautions of some pharmaceutical and cosmetic creams used extensively in Iraq. UV absorption - related diseases of these products and people unawareness of side effects and the weak quality control are other reasons for conducting such study. Spectral study of fourteen pharmaceuticals and cosmetics was carried out within a wavelength range of (200 – 700)nm. The maximum absorption percentage of UV region was 5% for Tetraderm and and 3.66% for Nivea cream.

Fuzzy Bounded and Continuous Linear Operators on Standard Fuzzy Normed Spacesa

Jehad R. Kider; Rami M. Jameel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 178-185

In this paper we introduce the definition of standard fuzzy normed space, then we discuss several properties after we give an example to illustrate this notion. Then we define F-bounded operator as an introduction to define a standard fuzzy norm of an operator and if T is a linear operator from standard fuzzy normed space X into a standard fuzzy normed space Y we prove that T is continuous if and only if T is F-bounded.

Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Phthal and Maleimide Derivatives with Studying of Antimicrobial Activities

Mohammed Shamil Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 186-191

A series of phthal and maleimide compounds have been synthesized by the condensation reaction of phthalic and maleic anhydride with four different amino compounds.
The structures of all the synthesized compounds were characterized using (1HNMR, 13CNMR, IR and UV. VIS.) spectral analysis. The synthesized compounds were screened for their anti-microbial activity. The results show that the compounds 1 and 3 exhibited good to moderate activity against Gram-positive and negative bacteria. While the compound 8 had no effect organism. Finally, the other compounds exhibit moderate to low activity on all gram-positive and negative bacteria under study.

Efficient Digital Watermark key Generation Using Hexagonal Structure and parametric Lagrange Curve

Hala Bahjat Abdul Wahab; Sarah Faris Amir

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 192-203

Digital watermarking provides copyright protection for digital image by hiding appropriate information in the original image. Hence copyright protection has become essential to avoid unauthorized replication problem. In paper produce improvements on generating digital watermark key generation. Firstly, add another parameter to increase the security features on the encryption stage, based on Lagrange polynomial under time condition to increase the robust in front of the attacker. Secondly proposed new improvement on gray watermark image (logo), that aim to reduce the logo size that embedded in the host image by analysis the feature and extract the sensitive positions only. The experimental results give efficient and acceptable result based on most popular image processing measures which give approximately same efficient results with increase the security and complexity features.

Image Encryption Based on Hyperchaotic Liu system Algorithm

Alia Karim; Shams Mahmoud

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 204-212

In this paper a proposedmethod to encrypt images based Liu Hyper Chaotic System(LHCS)is presented. In the proposed algorithm is used to generate a key for diffusion process, to confuse relationships between the input image and encrypted image. Besides of the four initial states (initial keys) in LHCS, six control parameters were used to increase the key space. Simulation results show that the proposed method has large key space (key space is 1070), and it is responsive to a trivial change of the key.Therefore it withstands different types of attacks such as brute force, differential, and chosen-cipher text attacks.

Improved Approach to Iris Normalization for iris Recognition System

Abdulamir Abdullah karim; Sarah jasim Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 213-221

As a part of a growing information society, security and the authentication of individuals become nowadays more than ever an asset of great significance in almost every field.Iris recognition system provides identification and verification automatically of an individual based on characteristics and unique features in iris structure. Accurate iris recognition system based on iris segmentation method and how localized the inner and outer iris boundariesthat can be damaged by irrelevant parts such as eyelashes and eyelid, to achieve this aim, the proposed method applied canny edge detection then circle hough transformation on an eye image passed through preprocessing operations. The proposed iris normalization is done by using the important information that resulted from circle hough transformation such as center and radius of iris and center and radius of pupil to convert iris region in original image from the Cartesian coordinates (x,y) to the normalized polar coordinates (r,θ).The proposed approach tested conducted on the iris data set (CASIA v4.0- interval), and tested on (CASIA v1.0- interval) iris image database and the results indicated that proposed approach has 99.8% accuracy rate with (CASIA v4.0- interval),and has 100% accuracy rate with (CASIA v1.0- interval) .

An Adaptive E-Commerce: Applying of Psychological Testing Method to Improve Buying Decision Process

Ayad R. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 222-234

In recent years, with the use of e-commerce sites the need for adaptive contents to help customers to find suitable online products to purchase. Despite the limited use of adaptive services, most of these sites have “complex buyer behavior” often marked by customer confusion and information overload because of neglecting customers purchasing power ability. Therefore, this paper applies psychological testing method called Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) taking into account product price, quality and customer ability (customer purchasing power). Whereas, the proposed system focuses on a new adaptivemechanism that gives the customer an opportunity to select best products from several categories on the basis of consumer perceptions (e.g. perceivedquality and perceivedprice). Experiment results show that applying CAT to E-Commerce can help and enhance buying decision process when searching for and selecting online products by providing suitable product quality and price with corresponding customer’s ability.

The Dynamics of An Eco-Epidemiological System Involving a Prey Refuge

Raid K. Naji; Ali Yousef Abdullah; Haneen R. Jameel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 235-251

In this research a predator–prey model involving disease in a prey and prey refuge has been proposed and analyzed. It is assumed that only the prey species is divided into two classes infected and susceptible and disease transmitted by contact between a prey species. The existence, boundedness , permanence of the model has been investigated. The local and global stability conditions of all possible equilibrium points are established. Finally, numerical simulation is carried out to study the global dynamics of the model.

Synthesis of Prodrug Polymer as Ring Opening of PVP

Firyal Mohammed Ali; Halah Hamid Humadi; Luma Amer Mussa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 252-258

In this work a new drug polymer was prepared from reaction of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with doxycylin in 10:1 dioxane: dimethelyformad solvent mixture. The prepared drug polymer was formed with 85% conversion percentage. The physical properties were studied and intrinsic viscosity was equal to 0.23 dl/g. The drug polymer was characterized by FT-IR and UV spectroscopy. The swelling % was studied in different non solvents. The elemental analysis and DSC were analyzed. The controlled release rates for drug polymer were studied in different pH values at 37oC for 4 days. The softening point of the prepared doxycyclin drug polymer was 143.4oC to 150.3oC with ΔH=-189.89 J/g.

A Method For Detect Forgery from Images

Hanaa Mohsin Ahmed; Sabaa Rakan Salim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 259-272

Due to the availability of many image editing and processing tools, it is possible to easily change the information represented by a digital paintings without leaving any obvious traces of tampering, which led to the problem of verification image. These issues of multimedia security have led to the development of several approaches to tampering detection. Digital image forensic is a branch that deals with the identity and authenticity of the images.
The proposed system is the Verification system for paintings. Where the Verification system used non-blind passive image forensic, and that it has been achieved by using fuzzy gradient based image reconstruction, which is able to detect all types of forgery (Splicing, Image Retouching, Geometrical Transformation, Copy Move Attack, other type) and also able to compute forgery ratio as percentage.
This methodology has its application in a context where the source image is available.The experimental results show that the algorithm can effectively locate the tampered area in multi block size 4X4 of any type, and using fuzzy process is obtained a good result to reduce time consuming for solving image reconstruction and also enhancement reconstruction image .

Metamaterials Characterization

Dalya H. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 273-279

Meta-materials are usually metal-dielectric composites having unique electromagnetic properties. These unique electromagnetic properties of meta-materials have attracted much interest. Therefore, meta-material fabrication is developing, The fabrication method is based on the design of polymer material with holes. Where these holes are filled with metal in a micro-structure form which produce the meta-materials. Themethod for design this structure includes arrays of wires, which allow the permittivity to be tuned through the details of the wire diameter and spacing. Metamaterials are characterized by many parameters, one of them is its ability to control electromagnetic waves in the subwavelength, depending on the resonant unit cells.This work is done by using a simulation program to draw a metamaterials in the form of 2D array of wires as a fiber. Then simulate the effective mode index inside them. our results show that the effective mode index is increased by increasing the plasma frequency.

Existence of Some New Classes of Semilinear Unbounded Perturbed Operator Equations

Sameer Qasim Hasan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 280-297

In this paper, the adopted approach of existence is based on Leray-Schauder degree theorem. The necessary theorems of nonexpansive perturbed operators, lemmas and propositions for the existence and uniqueness of proposed classes of semilinear perturbed unbounded operator equations have been adapted and developed with proofs and supported by some illustrative examples.

Synthesis and Study The Dielectric Properties of La-Doped and Undoped Barium Titanate Nanopowders

Sabah M. Ali Ridha; Mojahid Mohammed Najim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 298-306

Lanthanum doped Ba1-xLaxTiO3 (BLT) with ( x = 0.005, 0.015, 0.02, 0.025) and undoped Barium titanate BaTiO3 (BT) nanopowders were synthesized at Room temperature via a semi-oxalate method with adjusting a pH of the solution around (5.5).Crystallization processes and Particles size of prepared powders were studied, measured and calculated by using X-ray diffraction. XRD analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy SEM techniques, and the particles size was found to be about 65 nm. The dielectric properties (real є' and imaginary є" part of dielectric constant) of polymer/BT, polymer/BLT nanocomposites, and UPE (unsaturated polyester resin) samples were studied at different frequencies in the range of (20kHz-5MHz) using LCR meter, while theoretical dielectric constant of the prepared samples were calculated by using Bruggeman rule of mixture. The results of dielectric measurements found that the real dielectric constant and tangent loss of the nanocomposites samples decreases with increasing Lanthanum content.

Hydrocarbon Exploration Using Thermal Images West Baghdad

Intehaa A. Muhammad; Haithem D.Alki

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 307-317

This study is based on thermal anomaly of hydrocarbon materials phenomenon. This phenomenon has been used as a result from the leakage of these substances from the oil trap on the earth's surface through faults and cracks in the earth's crust over the oil trap, that affects the emission of heat and temperature in the area above the oil trap. The thermal band scene (Landsat ETM+ in central Iraq-west of Baghdad) has been used to the region located between longitudes 43 o 62' 7.20" East to 44 o 61' 14.48" East and latitudes 32 o 94 '12.99" North to 34 o 0' 49.53" North. The thermal anomaly (ΔT) was estimated in relation to the change in temperature compared to the temperature anomalies in the surrounding areas. After studying several areas in central of Iraq, it is found that the thermal anomaly lies "between" (1-5) Ko which indicates the presence of Hydrocarbon in those areas.

Preparation and Characterization of Nano Porous Silicon for Chemical Detection Applications

Alwan M. Alwan; Russul M. shehab

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 318-325

In this research Photo-electrochemical etching processwas used to preparenano porous silicon from n-type Si.The characteristics of Silvered porous silicon samples(active-substrate), were studied as substrates in terms of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) phenomena. Maximum of (SERS) enhancement forCresylviolet (CV) dye was obtained. The active substrate was prepared by the immersion plating from the water solutionof AgNO3 with the (10-2M) concentration during (5min). The relation between the etching parameters, morphology of porous silicon surface and its SERS efficiency after silver deposition is examined .We show that thenano (PSi) allows the formation of a film with close-packed silver nanocrystals, which possess strong surface enhancement properties.

HMM Based POS Tagging System for 8 Different Languages and Several Tagsets

Ahmed Hussein Aliwy; Rosual Ali Radie; Hiba Sarteel Hamed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 326-337

We propose, in this paper,Part-Of-Speech (POS) tagging system is proposed which based on Hidden Markov Model (HMM) for several languages. HMM is implemented using Viterbi algorithm on 8 languages; English, Hindi, Telugu, Bangla (Bengali), Marathi, Standard Chinese, Portuguese and Spanish. The data for these languages were taken from the freely available corpora: Brown, NPS-Chat, Indiana, Sinica, Floresta and CESS-ESP Corpora.
HMM is the most learning method used in many NLP applications, especially POS tagging. HMM taggerwas implemented by other researchersfor a lot of languages, where each one take his mother tongue language.
system testing is done by splitting each corpus to 99% training and 1% testing. This testis repeated for 10 times by changing the training and test data. The accuracies (average for all 10 tests) for English (using two tagsets of 40 tags and 472 tags), English (NPS corpus), Hindi, Telugu, Bangla or Bengali, Marathi, Standard Chinese, Portuguese (using two tagsets of 32 tags and 269 tags), and Spanish (using two tagsets of 14 tags and 289 tags) are (95.3%& 92.39%), 87.17%, 81.3%, 74.03%, 72.01%, 69.56%, 87.59%, (84.56%& 83.95%), and (94.26%& 92.08%) respectively.
Several languages are taken for recording the limitations of HMM tagger on different languages as will be seen, I.e, the limitations of using one method on many different languages are recorded. Same corpus annotated with different tagsetsis taken for studying the effect of tagset’s size.Also two different corpora, for the same language, are taken. According to our knowledge, there isn’t study implemented HMM on such various cases as in our work.
We provide an executable application for tagging all words in any sentence for any of the used 8 languages in our work. The unknown words (words not exist in the trained data) are manipulated by a simple method as Laplace smoothing.

Electrophoretic Deposition of In2O3 nanoparticles prepared by PLAL in Water

Khaleel I. Hassoon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 338-345

Indium oxide nanoparticles were prepared in water using a Laser Pulsed Ablation technique in Liquid (PLAL). The Nd:YAG laser was used as an ablation source. The nanoparticles are deposited onto Si wafers by direct overcasting method and also glass substrates covered with Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. The optical properties for the colloid (nanoparticles in water) are studied with spectrophotometers. UV–vis spectral analysis showed that the solutions have an absorption edge at 3 eV and average particle size about 30 nm. In order to estimate the particle size of In2O3 in water, the colloidal solutions have been deposited on silicon wafers and imaged by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). On the other hand, the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) is used to study the topographic nature of the prepared thin film. The results of the spectrophotometric analysis show that the average energy gap and the average particle size of In2O3 nano particles were about 3 eV and about 30 nm; respectively. The interference technique which used to identify the thickness of the films, deposited by electrophoretic deposition, showed that the thickness is about 90 nm. The images of SEM showed that the film, prepared by electrophoretic deposition on ITO substrates, is of porous structure. We observed that the overall process time in this case is much shorter than CVD and PVD.

Cephalometric Measurements and Morphological Evaluation for Head and face of an Iraqis adult for cephalic x-ray

Nada Mahdi Hussein Alhussiny; Adil Abbas Majeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 346-372

The aim of this study is to establish cephalometric norms using Jarabak’s analysis for an Iraqi community sample and to compare these norms with the norms used by Jarabak’s analysis. In this study mean values of Jarabak’s cephalometric analysis for Iraqi was determined. There are no previous studies establishing cephalometric norms for Iraqi population according to Jarabak’s analysis and there are no previous studies published about Cephalic Index (CI) of Iraqi community. The present study identified the shape of the head for Iraqi community.
The mean cephalic indices in Iraqi male and female were found to be 79.45 And 74.34 respectively, the shape of the head for Iraqi community is distinguished as Mesocephalic.The mean of Facial Proportion are significantly much less in Iraqi community (55.38% ) compared with Saudi community(64.65%),and also was significantly much less compared with Jarabak’s norms (63.5%).The numbers of cases used in this study were 100 for females and 120 for males of young adults; the ages were between 18-32 years. The results of this study will be of importance in forensic medicine, anthropology and in genetics. The present study, the cephalic algorithm, was conducted through application c++ programming.

Study The Case of The Evolution of Domestic Solid Waste Generated by Human Activities in The City of Baghdad and Characterization of Waste Can Be Retrieved

Rola Abdul Khader Abbas; Imad Salman Kazim; Abdul Hamid Rahim Mahdi; Safaa Hamza Abdul-Hussein; Suad Abdel-Mahdi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 46-56

The case of the evolution of domestic solid waste generated by human activities in the city of Baghdad and characterization of waste can be retrieved study.
This study included determining the composition of municipal solid waste in the city of Baghdad with the calculated density and the percentage of generation per person per day of these residues .
It also recorded the amount of gas flowing out of the landfill , which escalated into the air daily ones, which scientists believe that there is a certain between the observed increase in global warming and the increase in the amount of this landfill gases.
The overall findings of this study indicate that the amount of waste generation per person in the city of Baghdad during January months and February and September and October 2012 about (0.8 kg / person / day), as this current study demonstrated that the waste density inside the truck waste transfer from residential areas (312kg / m3) ... but the show beyond any doubt that CBS this waste in the manufacturing process stations piston with a force of some ( 70 tons ) causes an increase in the density of this waste from (312 kg / m3)to (570 kg / m3) that any waste density increase by about 83% after composting .The results also showed a comparison using the default method (Default method) that the amount of methane gas emitted total of all landfill sites in the city of Baghdad (54.370 Ggm / gr) which leads to the possibility of producing approximately ( 3.4496 billion kWh ) electricity annually.

Students Understanding Level to Subjects and Their Assessment Toward Teaching Performance

Khawla Bahjat Abdul Razzak

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 57-66

In this research we applied statistical methods to approach the main reason which increases students understanding level to the subjects , depending on statistical survey, which was done in the institute of technology / Baghdad during (2010 – 2011) and by using Factor Analysis . The research shows if there was any difference in the students evaluation of the faculty members performance on the basis of variables like gender, Department.
The research arrived to the following :
1- Teaching ways of staff have great effect toward students understanding levels in subjects
2- There are statistically significant differences between the mean of the students assessment of the faculty members attributed to difference in department. But, there were no significant differences due to gender.
Finally, we recommend some steps to improve student's understanding levels, depending on teaching staff performance .