Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 33, Issue 4

Volume 33, Issue 4, May 2015, Page 47-1001

A Cumulative Damage Model for Fatigue Life Prediction Based on Dynamic and Static Deflections

AlalKawi H.J.M; Nazhat S. Abdul; Razaq; Hasan H. Juhi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 762-775

The main goal of this study is to report experimental evidence about the accumulative fatigue damage behavior of CK35 steel alloy at room temperature and zero main stress (R = -1) . A non-linear accumulative damage model based on static and dynamic deflection is proposed, considering the loading sequence into account and the constant S-Ncurve. Satisfactory predictions of cumulative fatigue life have been observed when applying the proposed model to the two block loading sequence. Comparison between LDR and proposed model has been made. It was found that LDR can underestimate the fatigue damage and the proposed model showed good agreement with the experimental results. A non-linear damage model seems to be a proper choice for predicting the cumulative fatigue two block loading histories.

Simulation of Spray Painting Using Articulated – Arm Robot

Alaa Hassan Shabeeb; Laith Abdullah Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 776-787

Robot trajectory generation for spray painting have highly demand in modern manufacturing. One of the most common surfaces in spray painting operations is ruled surfaces. In this paper, a geometry based spray paint trajectory generation system for ruled surfaces has been developed to simulate the spray painting process using articulated arm robot. The developed system uses the geometry information of both the required ruled surface to be painted and the paint spot to generate spray painting trajectory for Labvolt RoboCIM 5150 articulated robot. The developed system is designed by using Matlab software, and has been simulated and evaluated using the Labvolt system. The results have shown that the generated trajectory achieves satisfactory performance.

Some Properties of Self Compacting Concrete by Using Different Types of Local Rocks as a Coarse Aggregate

Ahmed H. Abed; Zena K. Abbas Al-Anbori; Firas Feisal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 788-801

Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) is a new type of concrete that possesses the property of high flow ability, passing ability and stability.This research aims to investigate the properties of the SCC produced by using locally available materials and to study the effect of using local rocks as a coarse aggregate such as quartzite, dolomite and limestone with two replacement ratio 50% and 100% of traditional coarse aggregate (gravel).
The SCC mixes prepared with full and 50% replacement of quartzite gives higher compressive strength, splitting strength, flexural strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity compared with mix that contained gravel with percentage of enhancement (11.9%), (9.5%), (12.4%) and (2%); respectively for fully replacement at 28 day.On the other hand, it has been noticed that the concretes prepared with full and 50% replacement of dolomite give lower compressive strength, splitting strength, flexural strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity compared with mix that contained gravel with percentage of detraction (10.3%), (4.8%), (5.9%) and (1.2%); respectively for fully replacement. Also, for both full and 50% replacement; limestone exhibits the same behavior of dolomite but with larger percentages of detraction which are (24.2%), (33.3%), (27.1%) and (3.6%).

Comparison Between T-Spline Surface and NURBS Surface

Laith Abdullah Mohammed; Mohanad Musadaq Jaafar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 802-814

This research uses T-spline for surface modeling and compares it with NURBS modeling to get the best modeling points between the two methods. The comparison will be through surface analysis and manufacturing process.T-Splines surfaces typically have 50-70% less geometric data structure than the equivalent NURBS surface, allowing for faster and more controlled direct editing and shape optimization. In Environment Map analysis, the image of T-Spline surface for the models is reflected more clearly than a NURBS surface, in measurement runtime for machining (roughing and finishing), the T-spline surface for the bicycle seat model is machined in (16 minutes) less than machining the NURBS surface, and the T-Spline surface of the longitudinal section of the bottle model is machined in (10 minutes) less than machining the NURBS surface. In measurement of roughness, the T-Spline surface for the bicycle seat model has (2.4861 µm) average (Ra) for patches measured roughness average (Ra), and the NURBS surface has (4.9216 µm) average (Ra) for patches measured roughness average (Ra).

Some Properties of Hybrid Fibers High Strength Lightweight Aggregate Concrete

Wasan Ismail Khalil; Suhad Abd Al-Jabbar Mozan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 815-829

This investigation aims to study some properties of high strength lightweight aggregate concrete (HSLWAC) reinforcedwith mono and hybrid fibers in different dimensions and types. High strengthporcelinite lightweight aggregate concretemix with compressive strength 41 MPa at 28 day age was prepared. The fibers used included macro hooked steel fiber with aspect ratio 100 (type S1), macro hooked steel fiber with aspect ratio 60 (type S2), micro polypropylene fiber (pp)and micro carbon fiber (CF). Eight HSLWAC mixes were prepared including, one plain concrete mix (without fibers), three mono (single) fiber reinforced concrete mixes (with 0.5% volume fraction of steel fiber type S1, 1% volume fraction of steel fiber type S1and 0.25% volume fraction of CF) and four double hybrid fiber reinforced concretes mixes [0.5% steel fiber type S1 +0.5% steel fiber S2 mix (HSF1), 0.75% steel fiber S1+ 0.25% steel fiber type S2mix ( HSF2), 0.75% steel fiber type S1+ 0.25% pp mix (HSPPF) and 0.75% steel fiber type S1+ 0.25% CF mix (HSCF)]. Fresh properties (workability and fresh density) and hardened properties (oven dry density, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength and thermal conductivity) of HSLWAC were studied.
Generally mono and hybrid fiber reinforced HSLWAC specimens show significant increase in splitting tensile strength and flexural strength in comparison with plain HSLWAC specimen. All hybrid fiber HSLWAC specimens show significant increase in splitting tensile strength and flexural strength compared to concrete specimens reinforced with 1% volume fraction of mono steel fiber type S1. The percentage of increase in splitting tensile strength for hybrid fiber reinforced specimens prepared from HSLWAC mixes HSF1, HSF2, HSPPF and HSCF is 316.6%, 361.1%, 377.7% and 433.3%, while the percentage of increase in flexural strength is 29.43%, 59.89%, 26.56% and 64.58% respectively relative to the plain specimens.

Evaluating Water Quality of Mahrut River, Diyala, Iraq for Irrigation

Abdul Hameed M. Jawad Al Obaidy; Eman S. Awad; Abbas J. Kadhem; Athmar A. Al Mashhady

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 830-837

Water Quality of Mahrut River, passing through Muqdadiyah, a city in Diyala, Iraq, was evaluated for irrigation using the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI). Water samples were collected from six sites during two seasons, summer and winter in 2010-2011. Index scores were determined for fifteen constituents (pH, EC, HCO3, Cl, Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR), Soluble Sodium Percentage (SSP), Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC), Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni and Zn). The results of the calculated CCME WQI indicated that water quality of Mahrut River was marginal condition for irrigation in the 1st site while it was poor condition in the other sites. It is suggested that monitoring of the river is necessary for proper management to solve pollution problems in the river system.

Analysis Seepage and Uplift Pressure for Al-Shamiya Barrage South of Iraq

Jaafar S. Maatooq; Haider Alwash; Hazim Muhammad Al-Khafaji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 838-844

This study aimsto analyze the settlementphenomena ofAl-Shamiya barrage located south of Iraq then shows if it is located within the safety limits. The two-dimensional model based on the finite elements specified softwarehas been used to analyze the seepageand uplift pressure under barrage to conclude if there is a piping and excessive uplift that may have the responsibility for the settlement. The results of the analysis illustrate that some default cases at which the barrage is not safe, however, ata design statthe barrage is safe. This indicates that the seepage pattern doesn’t lead to piping phenomenon, accordingly excluding its effect on the settlement problem.

Corrosion Behavior of V2AlC and Cr2AlC Materials in Acidic Media

Rana Afif Majed; Ahmad Mohammed Hasan; Russul Fadhel Faleh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 845-854

This work involves the manufacturing of MAX phase materials including V2AlC and Cr2AlC using powder metallurgy as a new class of materials which characterized by regular crystals in lattice. Corrosion behavior of these materials was investigated by Potentiostat to estimate corrosion resistance and compared with the most resistant material represented by SS 316L. The experiments were carried out in 0.01N of HCl and 0.01N H2SO4 at four temperatures in the range of 303-333K. Polarization resistance values which calculated by Stern-Geary equation indicate that the MAX phase materials have more resistance than SS 316L. Optical microscopy results for corroded surfaces were confirming the resistivity of MAX phase materials.

Characterization of Sherardized Low Carbon Steel Used in Oil Pipelines Coated with Polymer Blends Layers

Ali H. Ataiwi; Sihama I. Al-Shalchy; Gufran Abdul Mahdi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 855-867

Oil pipelines of low carbon steel were coated by sherardizing process at 400oC for different treatment times (15, 30, 60, 120, 240) min and then the sherardizing samples coated by polymer blend unsaturation polyester resin with butadiene rubber (UP: BR) and unsaturation polyester resin with nitrile butadiene rubber (UP: NBR) with different percentage weight ratio of BR and NBR (0, 5, 10 and 15 %) in the blends. The thickness of sherardizing coated, hardness, surface roughness and adhesive strength were studied. The results of this research showed that the thickness of sherardizing coated and hardness values increase with increasing time treatment. The adhesive strength of sherardizing surface coated with polymer blends layer increases with increasing surface roughness of sherardizing coated with two mixed group of polymers blends [(UP:BR) and (UP:NBR)] samples, as well as the adhesive strength decreases with increasing percentages weight of BR or NBR in the blend. The higher values of adhesion force reach to (2.761KN) and (0.848KN) for polymer blends (95%UP: 5%NBR) and (95%UP:5%BR) respectively. Whereas coating sherardizing surface by unsaturated polyester only has the high value of the adhesion force (2.921 KN) at surface roughness (2.29µm). As well as the results show the sherardizing surface coated by mixed polymers blend (UP: NBR) having higher values of adhesion force compared with other samples coated by mixed (UP: BR) polymer blend.

Combined Effect of Silica Fume and Steel Fiber on Modulus of Elasticity of High Performance Concrete

Muntadher J. Taher; Maan S. Hassan; Zeyad M. Al-azawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 868-876

Concrete elastic modulus is a basic property required for the appropriatepredicting of its basic behavior and for its correct implementation in a variety ofconstructional and engineering applications. This study presents an experimental and analytical evaluation of elastic modulus of high performance concretes (HPC) produced bysteel fiber and silica fume. The aim of this study is to develop the elastic modulus propertyof HPC and to show the applicability of ACI models to predict the elastic modulus of HPC from compressive strength. Four volume fractions of steel fiber with an aspect ratio (fiber length/ fiber diameter) of 60 were used (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 %). Incorporations of silica fume into the concrete were 0% and 15% by weight as a cement replacement. Water/cement ratio was ranged (0.28-0.4) with different amount of superplasticizer, and the reference slump was 170 mm. Both compressive and elastic modulus tests were made on hardened concretes reinforced with steel fibers and then compared with control specimens at 14 and 28 days. The results showed that the presence of silica fume enhanced the compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of evaluated concretes. In addition, adding steel fiber slightly increased both strength and modulus of elasticity values. Also, results showed that the elastic modulus of HPC is relative to the compressive strength, the ACI 318 expression is predicting elastic modulus of HPC and HPC-SF superior than ACI 363, but ACI 363 equation seems to be better in prediction modulus of elasticity of HPC-SF0.5S, HPC-F1.0S, and HPC-SF2.0S in comparison with ACI 318.

Iris Recognition Using Wavelet Transform and Artificial Neural Networks

Hadeel N. Abdullah; Ahmed A. Abdullah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 877-888

In this approach to get more accuracy of the iris recognition, is composed of many steps: capturing the iris image, determining the location of the iris boundaries, normalization, preprocessed using median filter to remove noise, using wavelet transform for two types of filter, Haar and Daubechies (db4), in order to extract the features and finally using the matching by artificial feed forward neural network with back propagation algorithm (FFBNN) for training and testing iris image. In this proposed system, two database systems are used. The first is CASIA database system (version 1.0) (Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Automation). And, the second is REAL database system by using real persons and each person takes many images for recognition through camera Mobile Type of Galaxy Note3. In CASIA System, the iris recognition rate for Haar filter was 84.2% and for Daubechies filter was 92.8%, while in Real system, the iris recognition rate for Haar filter was 90% and for Daubechies filter was 98.7%, this means the Daubechies filter was the best in time and error from the Haar filter. Finally, this system is efficient, because the performance measurement of FAR was 0%. The results and the experiments were implemented by P4 computer and the software package MATLAB (R2011a).

Indoor Investigation for Improving the Hybrid Photovoltaic /Thermal System Performance Using Nanofluid (AL2O3-Water)

Hashim A. Hussien; Ali H. Noman; Abdulmunem Raad Abdulmunem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 889-901

Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal system (PV/T) wasdesigned and implemented to investigate the improving of the electrical and thermal efficiency by using nanofluids. The electrical efficiency reduced due to the significant reduction in the maximum power of the photovoltaic panel under rising temperature, for this reason, the payback period of the PV system is extended and the lifespan of the PV module may also be shortened. In order to resolve this problem, cooling technique can be utilized effectively dissipate the heat from the PV module. An experimental rig is designed which is consisting of a heat exchanger and working fluid circulating pipes are placed at PV rear surface. Forced cooling using (AL2O3-Water) nanofluid with different concentration ratios tests is utilized to reduce the operating temperature of PV.
The results indicated that using base fluid, the temperature of the PV module was (79.1oC) and a conversion efficiency of about (8 %.).While using nanofluid at different concentration ratios (0.1- 0.5 step 0.1) % at constant mass flow rate (0.2 l/s), the temperature is more dropped significantly to (42.2oC) at concentration ratio (0.3%) and led to increase in the efficiency of solar panel to (12.1%), but when increasing of concentration ratios more than (0.3%) that led to increase PV temperature to (52.2oC) and led to a decrease of PV efficiency to (11.3%). The heat which was extracted from the PV module by the cooling nanofluid can contribute to the overall energy output of the system.

Erosion Wear Behavior of Industrial Material Reinforced Epoxy Resin Composites and its Coating with Natural Based Material

Aseel Basim Abdul-Hussein; Emad Saadi AL-Hassani; Reem Alaa Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 902-918

In the present study, composites were prepared by Hand lay-up molding The composites constituents were epoxy resin as a matrix, 6% volume fractions of Glass Fibers (G.F) as reinforcement and 3%, 6% volume fractions of preparation industrial powder (calcium carbonate CaCO3, potassium carbonate K2CO3 or sodium carbonate Na2CO3) as filler. The erosion wear behavior and coating by natural wastes (Rice Husk Ash) with epoxy resin after erosion were studied. The results showed that the non – reinforced epoxy have lower resistance erosion than industrial based Material composites and the specimen (Epoxy+6%glass fiber+6% CaCO3) has higher resistance erosion than composites reinforced with sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate at 25cm, angle 30°, grin size of sand 850µm, temperature 25Ċ, 200 gm salt content in 3liter of water and 15 hour. Coating specimen with mixed epoxy resin -RHA with particles size in the range (1.4-4.2) µm improves erosion wear resistance characteristics of the coated specimen, coating thickness was (16 ± 1) μm and after erosion in (15 hours) the thickness was (10) μm .Application of the work protection of pipes from erosion, these pipes include the sewage water , drainage pipe laboratory (hot water, chemicals and mineral oil) , pipeline transportation of petroleum products and pipeline transportation of gas products

Investigation of Tensile and Impact of Composite Materials Reinforced with Natural Materials

Alaa Abd Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 919-933

This work focuses on studying the effect of Data Seeds (DS) and Olive Seeds (OS) particles on tensile and impact properties of epoxy resin. Olive and dates seeds powder were added to epoxy matrix at weight fraction (0, 8, 13, &18 wt %) with grain size (300, 450 & 600µm). The composite specimens were prepared by Hand-Lay-up technique and cut according to standard test. It's found the higher value of modulus of elasticity and tensile strength happened at (=18 wt %) and grain size (300µm) for specimens reinforced with olive seeds powder, but obtained the lower percentage of elongation at break, impact strength and fracture toughness at this value. Also the mathematical model results show that the weight fraction of powder have higher effect than grain size on properties.

Design and Simulation of 1.5GHz Amplifier Utilizing the BFR92A and Transmission Lines

Ahmed W. Al-Saffar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 934-946

The key factor of providing good performance for any electronic device is by eliminating unwanted reflections those lead to waste energy and, therefore, affect circuit stability. This is done by finding an approach to match both of the circuit’s input and output to other in-between connected elements. Amplifiers fall within this category, in this paper, our target is to match the BFR92A transistor to 50ohms input and output loads to achieve 11dB gain at 1.5GHz with 100MHz of bandwidth that it can be used for RF low noise amplifiers.
In this research, different approaches were used to utilize and achieve our work requirements by, primarily, using Micro-Wave Office software (M.W.O) to calculate S-Parameters and simulate the amplifier performance. In the first design approach, intermediate line and quarter-wave plate have been used and the results are accurately discussed. Another way to design was by utilizing the stub lines to get preferring gain and bandwidth and, then, comparison has made between both approach’s results to examine which is better to use.

Measurement of Frequency Deviation By Using Arduino Uno

Widad Jasim Hamody; Nadheerah Haseeb Tawfeeq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 947-959

This studyaims at constructing and implementinga new technique for calculating and correcting the frequency deviation in power systems. Several techniques were used to measure frequency deviation. One of them was Arduino Uno card which uses microcontroller ATmega328. This microcontroller board is an easy to use,accurate, economic and flexible solution for measurement problems.
The main objective of the work was to measure frequency deviation by microcontroller and displays it on (PC) monitor or small liquid crystal display (LCD) or both. Also, to correct the error if occurred by moving stepper motor with accurate steps which control the fuel gate in the generator, by reading the frequency at periodical time such as per 0.3 second and check the changes, if the frequency is more than required value. The controller and its suggested program (code) in C language will move the stepper motor clockwise (CW) until frequency reaches the required frequency (F0),i.e.50.00 HZ, if the reading gets lower than (F0), and the stepper motor will move counter clockwise (CCW) to get the required frequency. The system is applied practically by implementing the suggested design. This search achieved established control frequency of 99% along any variations in loads with high frequency reaches an accuracy 0.01HZ with low cost components.

Constructing of Multi-patches B-spline Surfaces

Wisam Kadhum Hamdan; Mustafa Mohammed Abdul-Razaq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 960-972

Surface modeling utilizing B-spline technique is one of the most important tool in computer aided geometric design (CAGD). The aim of this paper is to build and develop an algorithm to design and implement the multi-patches of B-spline free-form surfaces. The technique has an effective contribution in technology domains and in aircrafts, ships, and cars industry, moreover for its wide utilization in making the molds. Blending the patches together in order to build the entire surface have been implemented to represent the different types of B-spline surfaces. This work includes the synthesis of these patches in a way that allows the participation of these control points for the merged patches, and the confluence of these patches at similar weights sides due to weights variation per patch.

The Effect of Aluminum Concentration on The Phase Evolution of The Ternary Ceramics Of (Ti-Al-C) System

Kahtan Khalaf Al-Khazrajy; Ahmed M.H.Al-Ghaban; Mazin Nabih Ali Hussain

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 973-984

In this work it has been tried to introduce this type of new materials as reproducible industrial materials and overtake some production obstacles by exploring on the direction of chemistry structure relation.
In this study composition was prepared from elemental powders (Titanium, Aluminum and carbon black) by using the powder metallurgy techniques, under different concentration due to the change in the Ti to Al concentration. The concentrations are (10% Al-80%Ti-10%C), (20%Al-70%Ti-10%C) and (30%Al-60%Ti-10%C).A compacted sample were formed in cold press using a 30ton followed by heat treatment started from (600˚C, 800˚C, 1200˚C and end in 1400˚C). The effect of Al concentration on phase evolution in the Ti-Al-C system has been investigated and the effects of cold pressing as well as heat treatment have been investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and SEM technique we used for phase evolution. The density and porosity percentage were calculated using Archimedes method, also the micro hardness was measured under that different process.
The XRD, SEM data shows that, by increasing the Al concentration intermediate phases like TiAl3 and/or TiAl appear to be stable instead of the H phase. By raising the temperature, transformations accurse to produce both MAX phase structures in this system Ti2AlC and Ti3AlC2. This production pathway from the intermediate phase to ternary phase is suggested to be the more accepted, and it depends on atomic mobility. No evidence for the direct formation of MAX phases from elemental powders is found which may explain the need of high temperatures to produce such phases since the breaking of bonds is required for the intermediate phase. Finally, the use of pre-heating process decreases the temperature of formation of the MAX phases with the effect of the highest Al concentration.

Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Flat Plate with Embedded Bearing Plate

Sabih Z. Al-Sarraf; Jamal S. Abd Al-Amier; Jawad K. Al-Bayati

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 985-1001

This study presents an experimental investigation on the influence of embedded shearhead reinforcement (steel plate) on the punching shear strength of reinforced concrete slabs. This work includes the investigation and testing of one control slab and five scale models of slab-column connection simply supported along the four edges. A shearhead was made by using a steel plate with T-section stiffeners, the stiffeners were fabricated to be with two lines welded on the tension face of the plates. The main variables studied were the dimensions and thickness of the steel plate (used as punching resistance) .The results show that ultimate load capacity at failure increases by (16.48%) over the reference slab. Also, punching shear stress decreases about (29.24%) below the reference slab.

Study of Treatment Al-Shamia West Drainage Water to be Used for Drinking Purposes

Saleh Issa Khsaf; Afrah Abdul Wahhap Jabar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 47-55

Al-Shamia west drainage water is located in the south of Baghdad, at 200 kilometers within the Kifil Shinafiya project between the two branches of the Euphrates River (Shatt al-Kufa and Shatt al-Shami).
The total length of the drain is 75 kilometers with water discharged of 36 m³ /s.This study included a choice of nine sites at the Al-Shamia west drainage water. Samples are collected and chemical and physical tests are curried out to assess water drainage possibility to be used for human purposes. Work continued from October 2013 to the end of July 2014. These samples have been analyzed chemically and physically for the following elements (TUR, TH, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Hco3, SO3, Cl , TDS , Ec , Mn , Cr , Co , Cd , Pb, B and Ph). After comparing the results of all these tests demonstrating that the water undrinkable and for improving the quality has been processed in a way reverse osmosis. That have improved (TDS) by 88% and improved the rest of the elements where improved concentration (Ca) and (Na) by 89% and (SO4) 88% either (Cl) has improved by 90% and the rest of the elements such as (Mg, K, HCO3 , TUR, B) has improved in the following proportions, according to the sequence (87% .39% .79% .80% .56%) either (Cd, Cr, pb, Mn) has improved by 100% and thus became possible to use this water for drinking purposes.