Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 4,

Issue 4

Modified the RC4 Stream Cipher Algorithm Based on Irreducible Polynomial

Zainab Mohammed Hussein; Abdul Monem Saleh Rahma

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 578-586

The increase in the speed of computers and adoption on it as means of encryption (send and receive encrypted data), which led to the development of modern encryption techniques such as (stream cipher and block cipher). This increase in speed of the computers has increased the strength of the attacking techniques for stream cipher which is built according to two ways: (random key generation and XOR operation).
This paper proposes approach in modifying RC4 stream cipher algorithm based on irreducible polynomial which is used in modern encryption methods such as AES.
The proposed algorithm achieves best results, it provides high level of complexity, to decrypt an encrypted message is composed of 8-bit the attacker needs 30*28 probability of keys at minimum, this mean the proposed algorithm will increase the complexity of the algorithm 30 times

Study The Effect of Thermal Annealing on Structural and Some Optical Properties of The Znse1-X Alx Thin Film

Duaa A. Hashim; Akram N. Al- Mashhadani

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 587-594

The effect of both thermal annealing temperatures( 373 and 473) K for one hour in vacuum furnace on optical properties of ZnSe1-xAlx thin film doped with aluminum at x% (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8) was studied, which prepared by thermal evaporation method with 0.3μm thickness. The optical properties have been studied, and structure properties of ZnSe1-x Alx films have been studied by X-ray diffraction .The structure was polycrystalline with cubic structure with orientation (111), the films withx% 6 and 8and annealed at 373 K appeared new planes in (222) and (220) lead to appear the Al2Se3 phases. The observed results of the optical properties prepared films after heating treatment were decreased in absorption and increased in transmission. The value of the optical energy gap increased with increasing of thermal annealing from 373 to 473 K and decreasing with increasing aluminum concentration (x) from 2.85 eV to 1.99eV for all prepared samples.

Investigation of Laser Assisted Etching for Preparation Silicon Nanostructure and Diagnostic Physical Properties

Zahraa J. Abdulkareem; Uday M. Nayef; Kadhim A.Hubeatir

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 595-601

In this paper; nanostructure porous silicon (PS) was prepared by using photo-electrochemical etching (PECE) of n-type silicon at 10 & 30 mA/cm2 etching current density for 10 minute. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the formation of porous silicon and the crystal size is reduced toward nanometric scale. The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) investigation shows the sponge like structure of PS, the width of surface pits and surface roughness increase with etching current density.Finally, the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) illustrates the PS layer have large amount of dangling bonds.

Structural and Optical Properties of CuAlO2 Thin Film Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis

Azhar A. Hassan; Nuha F. Abd Al-Rushed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 602-611

Transparent conducting oxides thin films of copper aluminium oxide (CuA1O2) were prepared by spray pyrolysis technique on a glass substrate at temperature (500oC). The precursor solution was mixture of CuCl2 and anhydrous AlCl3 salts with different concentration (1:1), (1:2), and (2:1) of (Cu:Al) ratio. It appears that from XRD spectra the pure delaffosite phase of CuAlO2 was dominate at the ratio (1:1). UV-visible spectrum measurement showed highest absorption coefficient in the visible region at ratio (1:1). The optical alloweddirect and indirect band gap of thin films at ratio (1:1), (1:2) and (2:1) were estimated to be (2.9, 3, 2.6 and 1.2, 1.5, 1.4) eVrespectively. The extinction coefficient was also studied for different ratio. The effective ratio is (1:1) for photoelectric application.

Improving Thermal Properties and Reducing Total Cost of Plastic - Agricultural Residues Composites Used as Non- Traditional Building Materials

Qasem Abd Saloom Ahmed; Zareh Azat Sarkis; Ali Salman Owaid; Ansam Adnan Hashim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 612-620

Samples of plastic agricultural residues composites were prepared for different compositions. Mechanical,thermal and physical tests were performed for all samples. Tensile, flexural, compression, hardness and Izod impact tests were performed as mechanical tests. Optical, thermal mechanical and density tests and measurements were also conducted for all samples to insure and confirm the physical properties and stabilities. Results of56 %weight percentage ratio of reinforcing phase (agricultural residue) shows a good properties for samples which include coupling agent, UV Stabilizer and lubricantsas 7% of weight percentages.

Effect of MgAl2O4 Particles on Characterization of Y2O3– ZrO2 System

Shihab A. Zaidan; Sadeer M. Majeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 621-630

In this study, four samples composite materials used for manufacturing by using uniaxially technique compressed into cylindrical pellets. The matrix materials of these composites are: yttrium oxide + zirconia (3mol%Y2O3+ZrO2), reinforced with spinel (MgAl2O4) particles which is added in three percentages (5, 10, 15 % wt) to the matrix. Additionally there are pellet without reinforced and with spinel (MgAl2O4) particles, then sintering at temperatures 1550 ºC for 2 h.
The density and the apparent porosity of the sintered pellet were measured by the Archimedes drainage method, the microstructure features and the phase identification were examined using SEM and XRD; and the mechanical properties such as hardness and toughness were determined using Vickers indentations.

The Study of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles Effect Against Local Bacteria

Amer Hasan Abdullah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 631-639

Gold and silver nanoparticles colloids were produced by irradiating a metallic target plates with a thickness of 1mm immersed in distilled water with a pulsed laser beam. The size and size distributions of the metals nanoparticles were examined by the transmission electron microscope TEM analysis. The nanoparticles concentrations were also characterized by atomic absorption spectroscopy AAS measurement.
Antibacterial properties of silver and gold nanoparticles are attributed to their total surface area, as a larger surface to volume ratio of nanoparticles provides more efficient means for enhanced antibacterial activity.

Controllability of Nonlinear Boundary Value Control Systems in Banach Spaces Using Schauder Fixed Point Theorem

Naseif J. Al-Jawari; Imad N. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 640-653

In this paper, sufficient conditions for controllability of nonlinear boundary value control system in Banach spaces are established. The results are obtained by using semigroup theory “compact semigroup”and some techniques of nonlinear functional analysis, such as, Schauderfixed point theorem. Moreover, example is provided to illustrate the theory.

Using a Parser for Steganography Purpose

Suhad M. Kadhem; Abdulraheem A. Abdulraheem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 654-667

Steganography techniques or information hiding are concerned with hiding the existence of data in other cover media. Usually one hiding method is used to hide secret data in a cover text and that will reduce the security, so in this paper we will use more than one hiding method to hide secret data according to syntax grammars of cover text produced by a special parser.
We represent the Arabic language grammar as logical terms and use B+tree for storing, and Augmented Transition Network) ATN) for parsing.
The proposed technique was implemented using Visual Prolog and after testing according to the authorized measures that are used in this field The proposed approach has provide good security (transparency) for steganography.

Using X-Ray Radiographic Technique to Determine the Depth of Internal Defects in Castings and Calculation to Obtain the Optimum Radiographic Resolution

Farqad Rasheed Saeed; Mustafa Zaid Abdullah Aziz

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 668-676

This paper presents modification method to calculate the depth and cross section area of defects in internal structure of castings by X-Ray radiography technique. Aluminum block incorporate simulated defects which represented by three steel spheres of different sizes and depths, were prepared. Typical radiographs were taken at optimum conditions from two opposite sides of the aluminum alloy block. Then typical radiographs were taken from top side of the aluminum alloy block accomplished by moving the x-ray source at measured interval distances for depth determination. Image J program were used to analysis of the X-Ray films, getting information about the cross section area of the shadow of defects on radiographs and required distance measurement on radiograph, whatever their shape, regular or irregular. Equations derived earlier were adapted to calculate the depth of defects in term of their shadows on radiograph. By compensation the optimum data which got from the Image J program in these equations, the ultimate goal in high accuracy detection of the depth of defects were achieved. The effect of the x-ray fluorescence on the quality of the x-ray image due to use of unsuitable x-ray voltage was also studied. This was achieved by using of different kV to radiograph a test object of (0.1) mm in thickness of Cu and Ag samples.

Simple Method For Control of Phosphate Level of Manure Using Magnesium Oxide

Mahmood M. Barbooti

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 677-689

A simple method is described for the reduction of available phosphate released from soaking manure in water. The method involves the indirect contact of magnesium oxide, MgO, with manure soaked in water for pre-specified time. Preliminary study indicated that phosphate could be removed effectively by MgO addition and the precipitation is accelerated by NH4Cl addition. Thus, and for economic reasons, the study was continued using only MgO. Two sets of experiments were carried out. Water was used for the extraction of manure by shaking for 2 h followed by press filtration. The aqueous phase was used for phosphate removal experiments. The weighed amount of MgO was placed in a cotton bag fixed to the stirring bar of a jar tester. The concentration of phosphate was monitored after equilibration for 0, 7, 30, 50, 89, 100, 120, 150 and 192 hours. In the other set of experiments, weighed amount of manure powder (Less than 2 mm diameter particles) was placed in 50-mL capacity capped plastic bottles (50 bottles) with various amounts of MgO: 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.4 and 2.0% (by weight MgO:Manure) in 9 bottles each. Water was added to the bottles to make 40 mL. The bottles were shaken on a rotary shaker at 250 rpm. One set of bottles containing the different amounts of MgO was removed from the shaker after 2 hours. The other sets were removed after 7, 10, 25, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 120 hours. Phosphate was determined in the filtered aqueous samples. The first seven hours was enough to cause a removal of 65-70% of phosphate from solution. The removal of the remaining part of phosphate required as long as 9 days. It was concluded that MgO in clothing bags may be suspended and moved inside manure-water suspension for 10 hours to extract the majority of the phosphate. The remaining manure may be used for fertilization with harmless phosphate content that may not result in the growth of undesirable water environment plants. The reacted oxide in the bags can then be used later as a slowly released phosphate source (Struvite) for plant application a matter that increase the economy of the method.

Real Time Face Recognition in Video Using Linear Discriminate Analysis and Local Binary Patterns

Yossra Hussain Ali; Istabraq Saleem Abed Aljabar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 690-701

The need for robust recognition system in applications of surveillance and biometrics is increasing with the advancements in technology. The conventional method of passwords and pin numbers can be easily hacked,a so these are being rapidly replaced by more secure and reliable biometric methods. This paper produces a new real-time surveillance system in video which makes use of face characteristics of the user for correct identification. The face is first detected using Viola-Jones algorithm, then a hybrid algorithms were used to extract the features and determine the faces linear discriminate analysis and local binary patterns.The proposed approach tested and gives efficient results when compared with other previous approach.

Hybrid Techniques for Proposed Intelligent Digital Image Watermarking

Bashar S Mahdi; Alia K. Abdul Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 702-713

Digital watermarking provides a solution of the recent problems such as a copyright protection and digital content authentication, as well as the balancing between the copyright protection and authentication requirements are the challenge of the many watermarking methods. In this paper, which is proposed a new intelligent watermarking methodto solve that problem by usingproposed hybrid techniques.
The proposed method can be describe by three phases, first one is employ the hybrid approach of visual cryptography and one way hash function which providing the security and authenticity to the watermarking system. Second one is concerned with intelligent embedding of watermark data in the cover image data by using three basics techniques which are the genetic algorithm, artificial neural networks and the human visual system model which obtains the effective balancing between the robustness and imperceptibility of the digital imageusing the middle frequency coefficients. Finally phase is depending on the extracting of the encrypted watermark by using the same operations of embedding stage and by using the overlapping approach in the visual cryptography. Experimental results demonstrates that the proposed methodprovidesa secure adaptive intelligent system which can apply in the different filed of application that need the reliable copyright protection with highly security and authenticity. Moreover, Obtaininga highly balancing among imperceptibility, robustness and security, that are showed by surviving the extracted watermark fromdifferent types of malicious and adaptive attacks.

An Improve Differential Box Counting Method to Estimate Fractal Dimension

N.M.G. Alsaidi; W.J. Abdulaal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 714-722

The mathematical concept that used to measure the complexity of the fractal sets is known as fractal dimension. It is considered as a global feature for fractal images. Many methods have been proposed to estimate this value according to object nature. Differential Box Counting method is one of the most important methods used to estimate the dimension of gray scale image. In this paper, we proposed a new method based on the aggregate gray level values in the image. The results of the experiments show an improvement over the traditional DBC method.

A Comparative Corrosion Studies of Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites Reinforced with nano (Al2O3 and SiC) Particles In Fao Water

Mohammed Saieed Waheed; Niveen J. Abdalkadir

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 723-732

In the present investigation, the static electrochemical corrosion behavior of nano (Al2O3)P and nano (SiC)P based aluminum in Fao water was compared. The nanocomposites were fabrication using liquid metallurgy technique. The effect of nanoparticulates weight percentage (5%, 15% and 25%) on the corrosion was studied. The results showed that the Al reinforced with nano (Al2O3) composites exhibited lower corrosion rates that the Al reinforced with nano (SiC)Pcomposites.
The corrosion rate was found to be increased by increasing of the weight percentage of the nanoparticles more than 5% nano (Al2O3)P composites exhibited the highest corrosion resistance among all the investigated nanocomposites.

The Maximal Number of Vertices of The Reflexive Polytope

Shatha A.Salman; Noor Rashid Shabeeb

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 733-744

In this work the basic concept of reflexive polytopeand Gorensteinpolytope and Fano with some theorems about them are given. Three standard binary operations on polytopeswhich are: the cartesian product (×), the direct sum (⊕) and the free join(⋈) are examined. Finally techniques are used to prove the conjecture |V(P)|≤6^(d/2) of the maximal number of vertices for a simplicialreflexive polytopes of even dimension.

Behavior of A.C conductivity and Complex dielectric constant of ZnS Thin Films

Zainab Taha A; Khitam S. Shaker; Suaad S. Shaker; Raghdaa Hameed Hani

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 745-752

The effect of temperature on dielectric properties of the prepared ZnS thin films by chemical bath deposition at film thickness (200) nm deposited at substrate temperature 333 K, was measured at frequency range (0.04-10 MHz) in the temperature range (298- 473) K .The temperature – dependent of electrical conductivity, the real and imaginary parts of the complex dielectric constant are calculated at the selected frequencies. The frequency exponent n, and the activation energy, Ea, are determined. The a.c. conduction mechanism of ZnS films has been explained on the basis of hopping of charge carriers.

Antimicrobials Nano-Fiber PVA Pure and PVA: TiO2 for Filtration Applications

Aus A.Najim; Suaad S. Shaker

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 753-760

In this study, polyvinyl alcohol composite polymer membrane was successfully synthesized pure and at different TiO2 concentrations (1%, 3%). The diameter of the PVA–TiO2fibers ranged from 100 to 200 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the main crystal structure was amorphous and there are no any sign of Anatase or Rutile or Brookite when increased TiO2 concentrations to3% .absorption properties of polymeric membranes doped absorb of increases compare with of the undoped membrane. PVA pure nano-fibers membrane less zone of inhibition than PVA : 0.1 TiO2nano-fibers membrane and PVA : 0.3 TiO2nano-fibers membrane against gram-negative(Pseudomonas and Salmonella) and gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)).

The Reasons of Using Students to Internet

Khawla Bahjat Abdul Razzak

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 91-99

Internet give a great support to educational environment which increase student's motivation toward study and research . Sample consisting of (55) students from Institute of Technology was randomly chosen during academic year of (2011 – 2012) , give us an ideas of why and when they using internet . By some statistical tests we approach that there is a strong correlation between [male , female] level of use internet .

Calculate theDry Season fromtheRainy Season For The City Of Baghdad

Asraa Khtan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 100-105

The importance of the drought have been calculated for the city of Baghdad using percent of normalmethod (PN), a method used for the first time in Iraq, despite its importance in giving an idea of the drought Monthly and seasonal one area. It found in the study period, where a thirty rainy season the half seasons,was a dry varies from moderate drought and severe.The general trend of rainfall in the case of diminishing that is meanincreases in dry seasons that recorded at nineteen decade across seven seasons dry.