Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 33, Issue 8

Volume 33, Issue 8, October 2015, Page 106-1560

Genetic Based Optimization Models for Enhancing Multi- Document Text Summarization

Hilal H. Saleh; Nasreen J. Kadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 8, Pages 1374-1387

Extractive multi-document text summarization – a summarization with the aim of removing redundant information in a document collectionwhile preserving its salient sentences – has recently enjoyed a large interest in proposing automatic models.This paper proposes two models for extractivemulti-document summarization based on genetic algorithm (GA). First, the problem is described and modeled as a discrete optimization problem with two candidate expressions and a specific fitness function is designed to effectively cope with each candidate. Then, a binary-encoded representation together with a heuristic mutation and a local repair operator are proposed to characterize the adopted GA. The semantic roles of similarity of sentence to sentence, sentence to center of document collection and center of summary to center of document collectionareexploited in the proposed model formulations. Experiments are applied to ten clusters from DUC2002 datasets (d061j through d070f) and compared with another state-of-the-art model.Results clarify the effectiveness of the proposed models. Moreover, the injection of several levels of text similarity in the model formulation shows a positive impact on enhancing the overall performance of the proposed GA.

Studying the Effect of Different Etching Parameters on the Physical Properties of Porous Silicon Prepared By Electrochemical Etching

Haider Amer Khalaf; Uday Muhsin Nayef

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 8, Pages 1388-1401

In this work we prepared a porous Silicon (PS) layer by electrochemical etching (ECE) technique using different etching parameters including current density, anodization time and Hydrofluoric (HF) acid concentration. From the structural properties, we found that the full width half maximum of the observed spectrum from the XRD analysis has been increased and the peak position is slightly shifted to higher value. Also the etching parameters effect on the pore diameter and in turn on all chemical compositional and optical properties. As well as for electrical properties, the barrier height increases with pore diameter and the depletion width as well. From these result, it can tell that PS layer is better than c-Si for many applications.

Effect of (ZnO/MWCNTs) Hybrid Concentrations on Microbial Pathogens Removal

Duha S. Ahmed; Ali L. Abed; Azhar J. Bohan; Jhan Y. Rbat

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 8, Pages 1402-1411

In this study, hybridmaterial like ZnO coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (ZnO/MWCNTs) was formation by a multistep chemical procedure and evaluated for their application potentials as an antimicrobial agent for slowing down bacterial growth as bacteriostatic and inactivating pathogenic bacteria as bactericidal. The prepared carbon nanotubes and ZnO nanoparticles were investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The antimicrobial properties of hybrid material (ZnO/MWCNTs) were tested against Salmonella typhi (S.typhi), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) which are Gram-negative and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) which is Gram-positive by using standard agar dilution (plate count) method.

Preparation of Calcium Phosphate Via Precipitation Technique

Wafaa A. Hussain; Luay H. Alwan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 8, Pages 1412-1419

Recently, there has been an increasing attention on the preparation of calcium phosphates CaP for the development, understanding and manufacturing of biomaterials. In this study, precipitation process was performed to prepare calcium phosphates powders by varying the Ca/P molar ratio as (1.54, 1.67 and 1.8). Calcium acetate was added to disodium hydrogen phosphate, the precipitate was left overnight and dried at 100oC and then the powder was treated at 900oC for 1 hour. The powder sample was evaluated using such as scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force molecules (AFM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). It can be concluded, it is possible to synthesis hydroxyapatite (HA) and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) powders with nano particle.

Computing The Number of Integral Points in4-dimensional Ball Using Tutte Polynomial

Shatha Assaad Salman Al-Najjar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 8, Pages 1420-1429

In recent years, the uses of high dimensional appear in a large and a lot of applications appearwithin it. So, we study these applications and take one of them that play a central role in the factoring of prime number which is an application especially in cryptography. Our main purpose is to introduce another procedure which make the operation of computing the factoringof N = p.q as more easy as the direct computation fast, therefore, an approachis working on for finding the number of integral points(lattice points) make benefit from the concept of theTuttepolynomial and its application on integral points of a polytope. Polytopes whichare taken are the Platonic solid, and a map is making between a ball and a polytope in four dimensions, then discusses the relation between the numbers of integral points ofthem from dimensionone to n dimension. We found a relation between the radiuses of the ball, the edge of the cubewhich is one of the Platonic solid and the dimension together with Pascal triangle,the rhombic dodecahedron, octahedron, and icosahedrons are also taken.

Developing a Mathematical Method for Controlling the Generation of Cubic Spline Curve based on Fixed Data Points, Variable Guide Points and Weighting Factors

Abdul Monem S. Rahma; A. M. J. Abdul Hussen; Abbas Muhammed Allawy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 8, Pages 1430-1444

The cubic spline interpolation method is used to design the developed curve. The method enables the designer to change the shape of the curve to the desired one without changing the original data points. That done by changing the value of the parameter ti depending on defined guide points and weighting factors that assigned secretly by the designer, so that not easily recreate the same design by anyone else even he knows the original data points that used to design the curve. These curves can be used in many fields such as banknote design, secure printed documents, the design of cars and airplanes structures, and Ornament.This paper modifies a mathematical technique to design complex curves, which are not easy to recreate. The results of this research had compared with other related methods since the improved models of this research is used the negative values of the guide to compute the parametric rather than using the only positive ones; the efficiency of the modified technique had proved by several comparative examples.

The Inhibition of Corrosion for Metal Matrix Composites Reinforced with Nano Alumina in Al–Fao Water by Thiourea

Mohammed Saieed Waheed; Niveen J. Abdalkadir

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 8, Pages 1445-1457

In the present investigation, the static electrochemical corrosion behavior of nano (Al2O3)P based aluminum in Al –Fao water with and without inhibitor was compared. The nanocomposites were fabricated by using liquid metallurgy technique. The effect of inhibitors for nanoparticulates weight percentage on the corrosion rate was studied. The corrosion rate was increased by increasing weight percentage of the nanoparticles, the Al/ 5% nano (Al2O3)P composites exhibited the highest corrosion resistance among all the investigated nanocomposites with and without inhibitors. The obtained results signified that the mechanism of adsorption of thiourea molecules on the MMC surface was by physisorption.

Influence of Annealing on Properties of Cadmium Oxide thin Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis

Jehan A. Saimon; Douaa S. Jbaier; Azhar I. Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 8, Pages 1458-1466

CdO thin films have been deposited by Spray Pyrolysis Technique (SPT) on a glass substrate. The structural and optical properties of thin films are studied at different annealing temperatures 100, 200 and 300 Co. By using X-Ray Diffraction, XRD patterns indicated that films are polycrystalline innature and cubic phase with preferred orientation along the plane (111). The optical properties using UV-VIS spectroscopy show that the direct band gaps decreased from (3 to 2.75) eV with increasing the annealing temperature from(100-300)Co, this decreasing could be ascribed to increase of the localized states available in band gap which referred by Urbach,s energy value.

An Investigation of Germanium Properties Prepared by Laser Ablation in Liquid

Iman H. Hadi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 8, Pages 1467-1472

In this work, fabrication and characterization of germanium (Ge) NP is presented. The germanium particles were prepared by pulsed laser ablation in liquid technique (PLAL) at different laser fluenceusing Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at (1.06 µm) laser wavelength with pulsewidth 10 ns .Atomic Force Microscopy(AFM) and Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-rays (EDAX) are utilized here to study the surface and sizes of Ge nanoparticles and the evidences for ablation of materials respectively and the spectrophotometer have been used to characterize the optical properties of the prepared nanoparticles.

A Study on the Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of Tungsten TrioxideWO3Thin Film for Gas Sensing Applications

Adawiya J. Haider; Huda A. Mutasher

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 8, Pages 1473-1482

The pulsed laser deposition method, PLD, has been used in this project to deposit the pure Wo3 The aim was to study the influence of temperature on surface morphology of the deposits materials using Atomic Force Microscope measurements at different temperatures of (RT,300 ,400)°C. The structural characteristics of the films prepared on glass substrates have been studied by using X-ray diffraction and AFM. These tests show that there is a direct relationship between the grain sizes of the nanoparticles observed at the surface and influence of temperature which means as temperature increases there will be a similar enhancement in the grain size as well. Additionally, we were able to find that the best of temperature was 400ᵒC. Furthermore, the characterizations of the gas sensing of these thin films were strongly influenced by the surface morphology. It has been also found that nanocrystalline Wo3 gas sensing material was presented a better sensitivity as temperature increases

A Proposed Algorithm for Translating English Written Text to Fingerspell Language

Asmaa Mohammed Ali; Alia Karim Abdul Hassan; Hala Bahjat

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 8, Pages 1483-1492

Finger spelling (or dactylology) is the representation of the letters of a writing system, and sometimes numeral systems, using only the hands. These manual alphabets (also known as finger alphabets or hand alphabets), have often been used in deaf education, and have subsequently been adopted as a distinct part of a number of sign languages; manual alphabets have had a number of additional applications — including use as ciphers, as mnemonics, and in silent religious settings. In this paper a proposed algorithm for translating English written text to fingerspell, we execute the algorithm using python programming language on windows eight operating system and produce good results about accuracy, speed, and the size of text to be translated; also in this paper we will discuss types of fingerspell and its applications.

Collocation Orthonormal Bernstein Polynomials Method for Solving Integral Equations

Suha. N. Shihab; Asmaa. A. A; Mayada.N.Mohammed Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 8, Pages 1493-1502

In this paper, we use a combination of Orthonormal Bernstein functions on the interval [0,1] for degree m=5,and 6 to produce anew approach implementing Bernstein operational matrix of derivative as a method for the numerical solution of linear Fredholm integral equations and Volterra integral equations of the second kind. The method converges rapidly to the exact solution and gives very accurate results even by low value of m. Illustrative examples are included to demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the technique and convergence of the method to the exact solution.

Structural and Optical Characterization of Nickel Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis Technique

Fadheela H. Oleiwe

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 8, Pages 1503-1512

In this research, Nickel oxide (NiO) thin film were prepared by using nickel chloride ( NiCl2.6H2O) on glass substrate by using Spray Pyrolysis technique. The Structural and optical properties were studied for the growth thin films under influence different molarities (0.5,1,2 M) by XRD , SEM . The optical properties studied in the wavelength range from 200-1100nm measured by UV-VIS Spectrometer device.
The X-ray diffraction studies indicated that intensity was increased with molarities increase and had cubic structure , these films has grain size values (4.13-11.95 nm) with different molarities (0.5, 1 , 2M) , SEM found the films has smooth surface with grains scattered throughout the surface and the surface the films filled with the clusters of the larger grains the at increase molarities and AFM it is found the (RMS) of NiO films increased from 7.77 to 20.7 nm and the roughness average increased from 5.73-15.6 nm with the increase of molarities from 0.5-2 M .
From the optical studies it is found the film thickness increased with molarities increase, while the transmittance decreased from approximately 75% to approximately 54% and the energy gap for the NiO films varies from ( 3.65 to 3.1eV) as the molarities increase.

Fabrication Solar Cell Device From CdTe Nanoparticles Suspension

Mayyadah H. Mohsin; Amenah Ali Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 8, Pages 1513-1521

In the present study ,nanoparticles cadmium telluride (cdte) on si p-type substrates heterojunction solar cell has been made byusingpulse laser ablation PLA.Q-switching, Nd:YAG laser (500mj,9ns),wavelength 532nm with number of pluses(60 and 120)pulseusingofthe bulk materials target in methanol solution. Optical, structure characterization of Nanoparticles suspensions studies by using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM).The photovoltaic characteristics included short circuit current and open circuitvoltage (ISC –VOC), where the maximum (Jsc) and(voc)obtained were 25.3 mAcm-2 and 144.9mv respectively. The fill factor(ff) was( 0.42) and the conversion efficiency(1.5% ).

Gold Nanoparticles Synthesized by Laser Ablation in Water: Optical and Structural Characterizations

Fattin Aabdulameer Fadhil

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 8, Pages 1522-1529

In this study we report the effect of laser energy on the size and morphology of the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) prepared in deionized water by pulsed laser ablation. The optimum conditions at which gold nanoparticles obtained with controllable average size have been reported as these parameters affected the size, distribution and absorbance spectrum. Effect of energy was studied. The laser energy was divided into three regions (low, middle and high). A noteworthy change was observed at each region, as the average size ranging from 30 nm at low energy to 60 nm at high energy.

The Role of FAK ( Focal Adhesion Kinase) in Fertilization of Starfish Asterina Miniata PLC

Rana Hussein Naser Al-Qaysi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 8, Pages 1530-1537

Fertilization need increased the concentration of Ca+ for egg activation. Inositol 1,4,5- trisphosphate (IP3), the second messenger of phospholipase Cγ, regulates the initial calcium rise from egg’s endoplasmic reticulum. However, FAK (focal adhesion kinase) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, which is known to create docking sites for signaling molecules that contain SH2 domains, including PLC. PLC participates in other signaling pathways besides fertilization and the role FAK may play in fertilization has not been determined. The goal of these experiments is to determine is the FAK is the link between Src and PLC, as well as, confirming or not confirming if Src directly or indirectly activates PLC.

New Selective Block Matching Searching Algorithm Based on Block Discriminator Values For Motion Estimation

Bushra A. Sultan; Nidaa F. Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 8, Pages 1538-1548

In this paper, a new, fast and efficient selective block matching algorithm based on block discriminator values is suggested. The searching scheme consists of three stages: block discriminator values calculations, open full window then cascaded selection sub stages have been applied where each sub stage uses distinct block discriminator value to select sub set of candidate search points and finally perform block distortion measurement calculation to the latest candidate search points to find the best match. The famous Exhaustive Search (ES) and Three-Step Search (TSS) algorithms are used to compare with proposed algorithm. The experimental test shows that the proposed searching method results in compare with TSS algorithm, produce results little slower in term of search time but better in term of distortion measurement when the size of search area is [-6,6].Results in compare with ES show that the proposed searching method produces results near the ES in term of distortion measurement but faster than it in term of search time when the size of search area is [-7,7].

Cloud Based Secure Web Application

Saad K. Majeed; Hanaa M. A. Salman; Ahmed Hashim Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 8, Pages 1549-1560

The types of web attack continue to appear and add their impacts on web application security, SQL injection, and XSS is one type of these attack, that causes extremely high risk for web application through stolen critical information or broken web authentication.
The aim of this paper is to design and implement software as a service for securing web applications from attack which cover two directions, the first direction: propose modern black-box web application vulnerability scanners that diminish the false positive and false negative drawback of the current black-box web application vulnerability scanner, The second proposed subsystem cloud platform as a service web application firewall hosting web application which scan all http requests to deny or accept it according to dummy execution result.
The numbers of vulnerable web applications are selected to evaluate the capability of the proposed system in detect attack and protect vulnerably web application also efficiency has evaluated through measure the server performance when WAF (Web Application Firewall) was disabled and enabled on vulnerably web application and comparison made between these two cases.According to analyzing of the experimental result shows that the proposed system can effectively and efficiently protect web application and discover SQL injection, and XSS vulnerabilities.

Determination Some Creep Factors For Lead Under Tension

Tariq Mohammed Ali Al Nuaimi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 8, Pages 106-118

There are a lot of engineering structures working at elevated temperatures for long periods, as in chemical plants, generation, transfer and energy application or devices uses of energy, such as turbines and reactors. When those parts work at high temperature, it was found that their materials which exposed to loads will undergo to plastic deformation and deforms slowly like a crawl turtle, for this reason they named this slow deformation as a Creep.
Care has been given in this research has to study the issue of creep under the influence of various loads under certain temperature, and the implementation of a creep test machine by a tension samples made from lead .
This research includes a study of creep parameters under the influence of temperatures. Creep properties were investigated under constant stress and fixed temperature in terms of the relation between a strain for period of times by the specimen used in this study which was lead and the applied load was tension.

Bioactivity Study of Rosmarinus Officinalis and Thymus VulgarisExtracts Against the Growth of SomeEntrobacteriaceae Species

Mustafa M. Abd Al razak; Jameel M. Badi; Hassan M. Resen; Arkan M. Majeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 8, Pages 119-130

The aim of current research is statement efficiency of different solvents (ethyl alcohol 80%, cold and hot water) to the extract the highest contain of active compounds for Thymusvulgaris andRosmarinus officinalis.The results showed that the alcoholic extract has the largest number of active groups in the vegetarian ThymusvulgarisandRosmarinus officinalis compared with other extracts. The results biological activity of plant extracts the against pathogenic bacteria (P mirabilis., V. cholera (NAG) and S. typhi) showed the phenolic groups and weak acids of alcoholic extract for both plants ,where the greatest impact on the bacteria at a concentration of 100 mg / ml for all species bacteria studied . S.typhi was more sensitive towards phenolic groups with 16 mm diameter of the inhibition for both plants, while the V. cholera was most sensitive for the weak acids 8mm diameter and 14 mm inhibition of for both plants respectively. The results of the synergistic reaction of the part extract bicarbonate (phenolic groups) to extract alcohol for both plants when blended equal showed increase diameter of inhibition of bacteria to 25 mg / ml concentration, were the S. typhi was more sensitive toward the mix and the diameter of the inhibition was20 mm. Both cold and hot water extract Separately did not show any effect inhibitory toward studied bacteria.