Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 34, Issue 1 (Science)

Volume 34, Issue 1 (Science), January 2016, Page 1-179

Public Key Cipher with Signature Based on Diffie-Hellman and the Magic Square Problem

Abdul Monem S.Rahma; Abdul Mohssen J. Abdul Hossen; Omar A. Dawood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 1-15
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.1B.1

In the present paper, wedeveloped a new variant of asymmetric cipher (Public Key) algorithm based on the Discrete Logarithm Problem (DLP) uses Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol and the mathematical features of magic square. The proposed method exploits the DLP problem in the key exchange by using the final value of Diffie-Hellman key agreement, just as the dimension to the magic construction and through which determines the type of magic square construction if it is (odd, singly-even or doubly-even) magic square as well as through which determines starting number and the difference value. From the other point, it exploits the magic squares problem in encryption/decryption and signing/verifyingoperations. The developed methodextremely speed in the Encryption/Decryption process as well as in the digital signaturethat uses aSecure Hash Algorithm SHA-1, since the proposed cipher does not use logarithm and the factorization as the traditional algorithms in ciphering and deciphering operations just in the mutual exchanging, but it depends mainly upon the magic constant and magic sum as alternate that deduced from the result of multiplied fixed value, which selected randomly and imposesto keep secret, as we shall explained in the next sections.

Improvement Majority Function in A5/1 stream cipher Algorithm

Hala Bahjat; Mohanad Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 16-25
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.1B.2

Security is an important issue, especially in today’s technologically advanced society. Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) is a world-wide standard for digital wireless communication. GSM uses A5/1 stream cipher in order to provide privacy on air communication. This paper introduce new improvements to the A5/1 stream cipher in order overcome the weakness that appear in clocking mechanism that used in A5/1 stream cipher. New S-box generation is proposed to increase the efficient for A5/1 majority function and improve randomness features. The randomness results confirm that the output bit-stream generated by the proposed stream cipher has improved the randomness performance.

An Efficient Image Thresholding Method for Arabic Handwriting Recognition System

Alia Karim Abdul Hassan; Mustafa Salam Kadhm

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 26-34
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.1B.3

Image preprocessinghas assumed an essential part ofhandwriting recognition system. The main primary stage of the image preprocessing is thresholding.Aneffectivethresholdingmethodis based on Fuzzy C-Means clustering (FCM) for Arabic Handwriting Recognition system (AHR) has been proposed in this paper. Since thresholding stage in AHR isimperative to reduce the dimensionality of image to remove the undesirableinformation (noise)then increase the processing speed of the AHR system. The algorithm is performing by feedingthe intensity of the pixel value of the image pixels into the FCM clustering algorithm. Exploratory results with artificial and real life images show thatthe proposed method gives better accuracy and good efficiency than the current methods.

Spectroscopy and Formation of Carbon Nitride by Pulse Laser Ablation in Liquid of Graphite Target

Mayyadah H. Mohsin; Khawla S. khashan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 35-45
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.1B.4

In this work carbon nitride was synthesized by pulsed laser ablation of graphite in ammonium solution. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Visible Spectrophotometer and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to study the bonding, absorption, size and morphology of the carbon nitride nanoparticles. The FTIR absorption peak at 2121.6, 1631.7, 1384 cm-1 stretching vibration bond, it is inferred that the C ≡ N, C = N and C-N, respectively. Bonds suggested the formation carbon nitride nanoparticles. UV absorption peaks coincide with the electronic transitions corresponding to formation carbon nitride C3N4 and monocyanopolyynes. The TEM image showed the aggregation of the carbon nitride nanoparticles with size ranges from (4 to 83.3 nm); the Leaf- like structure is shown in the structure of carbon nitride suspension.

The Relationship between the Stasheff Polytope and Painted Trees Using Tubings

Shatha Asaad Salman; Anwar Khaleel Faraj; Alaa Sabeeh Dawood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 46-58
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.1B.5

A polytope plays a central role in different areas of mathematics. It is used quite heavily in applied fields of mathematics, such as medical imaging and robotics, geometric modeling.
A polytope has many users in modern science such as computer graphics, optimization, and search engine. It is intended for a broad audience of mathematically inclined. Therefore in this paper, we shall take a polytope with one kind of application, which is known as a Stasheff polytope. it has been applied in: moduli spaces, Erhart polynomial, physics- chemistry, and Hopf algebras.
In this paper,a finite graph G with tubingis taken, the nodes of the graph are reducetopoints in R^n and the convex hull for them are simplex, permutahedron and associahedron (Stasheff polytope ) are studied.
Also, a fan graph to the painted tree is also taken and reduces its nodes to points inR^n. The converse of this result is also given with different examples to consult our results.

Domination and Independence in Cubic Chessboard

Ahmed A. Omran

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 59-64
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.1B.6

In this paper, we are interested in some problems on cubic chessboard with square cells (domination and independence numbers). At the beginning, these problemsare examined with one type of the chess pieces. In certain technique, studying these problemswill continue with two different types. In the case of one type of chess pieces which have been dealt with in this article, the typeis rookor king. The pieces of the two different types in our study are: kings with rooks together

Synthesis of MgO Nanoparticles and Its Enhanced Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity Against Selected Bacteria and Fungus

Saba A. Mahdy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 65-72
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.1B.7

MgO nanoparticles were prepared by using sol-gel technique, the MgO nanoparticle was pure and chemically homogeneous, the determination of physio-chemical characterization of MgO nanoparticles showed standard techniques.
MgO nanoparticles were used in study their ability to inhibit the growth of E. coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, S. aureus, Candida albicans were found that MIC was studied by MTT assay in presence of different MgO nanoparticles concentrations for 24 hour, the results showed that 40 μg/ml of MgO nanoparticles was effective for E.coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa, 20 μg/ml and S. aureus while Candida albicans inhibited with 30 μg/ml.
The shelf-life of MgO determined by agar plate methods MgO nanoparticles showed highly effective against selective pathogens by preventing the growth of gram positive and negative bacteria to more than 40 days and 21 days for fungi and this could significantly enhance microbial safety and extend the shelf-life of foods.

Enhancement of DSSC by Using Gold Nanoparticles

Ghufran S. Jaber; Abdulrahman K. Ali; Mukhlis M. Ismail

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 73-79
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.1B.8

In this research, AuNPs prepared by laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) at 750 mJ energy and 90 pulses. They have been added to N719-dye to form (Au-N719) mixture. TiO2 paste was deposited on FTO substrates and immersion in a mixture dye and AuNPs. DSSC was fabricated and enhancement of the DSSC conversion efficiency was achieved. Scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and UV-Visible spectrophotometer were used to characterize and study the DSSC components. The UV-Vis data show high absorbance of AuNPs+N719 dye compared to N719 dye only; that means the immersion of AuNPs in the N719-dye solution tend to increase the total absorbance of the dye. The XRD pattern of AuNPs has diffraction peaks at 38.2° and 44.4° which can be indexed by (111), (200) plane of Au in the cubic phase. The shape and size distribution shows spherical AuNPs with particle size about (50-60) nm. The relative increase of short circuit current density after the adding gold nanoparticles was about 76%. In the same way the relative increase of open circuit voltage after adding gold nanoparticles was about 6.7%. The total photon-to-current energy conversion efficiency for the standard DSSC is 1.75 while its 2.8 of the enhanced DSSC with gold NPs.The maximum enhancement is about 60 % under illumination (105 mW/cm2, (AM1.5).

On Generalized Left Derivation on Semiprime Rings

A. H. Majeed; Shaima,a B. Yass; a B. Yass

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 87-92
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.1B.10

Let R be a 2-torsion free semiprime ring. If R admits a generalizedleft derivation F associated with Jordan left derivation d, then R is commutative, if any one of the following conditions hold: (1) [d(x), F(y)] [x, y], (2) [d(x), F(y)] xoy, (3) d(x)oF(y) xoy, (4) d(x)oF(y) [x, y], for all x, yR.

Effect of Nano SiO2 Particles on some Physical Properties of (UP/PU) Blend Composite

Hanaa Sh. Mahmood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 93-99
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.1B.11

The effect of SiO2 physical properties (Shore D hardness, impact strength, 3 pts bending, thermal conductivity, and weight gain) after and before immersion in different liquid solution (water, HCL 0.2 N , and NaOH 0.2 N), of (UP/PU) blend was studied. Hand lay-up technique was applied using unsaturated polyester and polyurethane blend as a matrix and silicon oxide nano particles (Nano SiO2) as a filler with volume fraction (3% Vf ) .
Results showed that liquids affected bending properties and thermal conductivity (k) by decreasing values, while the impact strength, and weight gain also studied for 4 weeks and it increase with increasing of immersion time in liquids.

Synthesis and Characterization of TiO2 Nanoparticles by Laser Ablation in Liquid

Amenah A. Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 100-106
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.1B.12

The laser ablation techniques was employed to prepare TiO2 nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation of titanium target immersed in the double distilled deionized water using wavelength of 532nm and 1064nm of Nd:YAG laser with energy 500mJ. The as prepared products werecharacterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) andUV-Vis spectrophotometer. The results indicate that the Tio2 nanoparticles are synthesized at room temperature and the average diameter is about (84.78, 95.96) nm to the wavelength (1064nm, 532nm) respectively. The optical study shows the nanoparticles possesses direct optical transition with band gab (3.82,3.65)to the wavelength(1064nm,532nm) respectively.Aheterojunctionphotodetectorfabricatedby drop cast film of colloidal TiO2NPs(nanoparticles) onto p-type single crystalsilicon wafer.I-V characteristics of Tio2NPs/Si heterojunction under darkand illumination conditions have been studied.

Characterization of Rheocast Al-Mg Alloy

Zainab Kassim Hassan; Awfa Abdul-Rasoul

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 107-120
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.1B.13

The present work encompasses the development of a new method of cooling plate casting process by changing the inlet and outlet of water flow which is different from the conventional cooling plate casting process.This process consists in pouring the molten metal at temperature close to the liquid line in an inclined cooling plate. Pouring temperature and inclination angles have effect on microstructure.The following variables have been used in this work: pouring temperatures of(750,800. and 850ᵒC), tilt angles of (30ᵒ, 40ᵒ, 50ᵒ, and 60ᵒ), and Mg additive of(1%, 5%) with constant cooling length (380mm).After the melt flow down cooling plate,the melt becomes a semi-solid slurry at the end of the plate. Optical microstructure test shows that, the pouring temperature and tilt angle affect the size. Grains shape decreases with decreasing of tilt angles and with decrease pouring temperature as well as Mg addition also has the same effect on Al-Mg microstructure.X-Ray diffractography for Al-Mg alloys shows the appearance of peaks of intermetalic compound and different phases of (Al3Mg2, Al, δAl2O3)and for Al-1%Mg has a phases (Al Mg , ,MgO ),while SEM picture shows , Al3Mg2 phase as dark regionand α-Al as light region for Al-5%Mg, and Al Mg phase for Al-1%Mg.

Medical Texture Recognition Based on Intelligent Technique

Hasanen S. Abduallah; Hajer Mazin Salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 121-128
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.1B.14

The aim of this paper is to improve a disease diagnosing system through classifying the skin diseases depending on the skin images of many patients by using the multiwavelet transformation. First, extract features from multiwavelet coefficients. Second, the skin images are classified as Warts, Vitiligo, Hemangioma, and Normal depending on the decision rules generated by the decision tree using the ID3 learning algorithm.

Structural Properties of Multi-layer Graphene (MLG) Films Prepared by Flame Technique in Open Environment

Salam Hussein Ali; Adi Mahmoud Abdul Hussein; Mustafa Karim Abd Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 129-135
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.1B.15

Two multi-layer graphene (MLG)filmswere prepared on copper foils by flame synthesis technique with propane gas as carbon source at different temperatures( 6000 C and 7000 C).The structural, morphological and chemical properties, of the synthesized MLG were studied. X-ray diffraction shows that the structure of MLG films is polycrystalline with preferential orientation in the [101] direction. Morphological properties were observed by AFM images, the grain size and average surface roughness of the obtained MLG films are found to increasing with temperature increases and decreasing with the distance.The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectrum showed the stretching vibration of C=C aromatic ring and the stretching vibration from C-C bond. Also the oxygen-containing functional groups have been appeared like C=O, C-O and C-OH.

3D Surface Reconstruction of Mathematical modelling Used for Controlling the Generation of Different Bi-cubic BSpline in Matrix Form without Changing the Control Points

Abdul-Mohssen J. Abdul-Hossen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 136-152
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.1B.16

This paper introduces a 3D surface reconstruction of mathematical modelling by using blossoming, dependent on a parameter in the coefficient of the control points, the bi-cubic B-spline surface in matrix form scheme can be utilized to obtain a better quality of reconstructed surface, by using different values of parameter of coefficients used for controlling generating 3D complex surface, which is not easy to recreate. The de-Boor method is used to upgrade the matrix form of 2D to bicubic 3D- b-spline surface depends on parameter value. The model can be seen more efficient of surface in comparison with that needed in conventional methods. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is illustrated through several comparative examples of 3D matrices surface. The change in surface is made without any change in the control points. Applications of the modeling in both the curve and surface can be used in many fields, such as banknote design, shape design, decorations, governmental document, and other documents, all of which are of high impotence. And it is used to find the appropriate solutions that prevent or reduce the forgery and counterfeiting of the important and vital documents

Trivial Extension of π-Regular Rings

Areej M. Abduldaim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 153-159
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.1B.17

In this paper we investigate if it is possible that the trivial extension ring T(R,R) inherit the properties of the ring R and present the relationship between the trivial extension T(R,M) of a ring R by an R-module M and theπ-regularity of Rby taking new concepts asπ-coherent rings and C-π-regular rings whichintroducedas extensions of the concept of π-regularrings. Moreover we studied the possibility of being the trivial extensionT(R,M) itselfπ-regular ring according to specific conditions. Thus we proved that if R is an Artinian ring, then the trivial extension T(R,R) is a π-regular ring. As well as ifthe trivial extension T(R,R) is a Noetherian π-regularring, then R is a π-regular ring. On the other hand we showed that if F is a field and M is an F-vector space with infinite dimension, then the trivial extension ring T(F,M) of F by M is C-π-regular ring.

Face Retrieval Using Image Moments and Genetic Algorithm

Wathiq Najah Abdullah; Yossra Hussain Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 160-171
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.1B.18

Content-based image retrieval has been developed in numerous fields. This provides more active management and retrieval of images than the keyword-based method. So the content based image retrieval becomes one of the liveliest researches in the past few years.In a given set of objects, the retrieval of information suggests solutions to search forthose in response to a particular description. The set of objects which can be considered are documents,images, videos, or sounds.
Moments can be viewed as powerful image descriptors that capture global characteristics of an image. The magnitude of the moment coefficients is said to be invariant under geometrical transformations like rotation which makes them suitable for most of the recognition applications.
This paper presents a method to retrieve a multi-view face from a large face database according to face image moments and genetic algorithm.
The GA is preferred for its power and because it can be usedwithout any specificinformation of the domain.
The experimental results concludes thatusing GA gives a good performance and it decreases the average search time to (56.44milliseconds) compared with (891.6 milliseconds) for traditional search.

Images Encryption Using Chaos and Random Generation

Yossra Hussain Ail; Zahraa A.H. Alobaidy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 172-179
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.1B.19

Due to the network and multimedia application development information security become important since information can be attacked over the transmission channels and the combination of cryptography and chaotic become important filed of information security, where many encryption algorithm are based on chaotic mapping due to the inherent features of image like high redundancy and bulk data capacity. In this paper, three chaotic maps are used to achieve good diffused image by setting the initial conditions to generate the shuffling sequence randomly by 2D zaslevskii mapand employ them in 2D cat map for shuffling the image pixels positions, also baker map is used to decomposed image into four rectangles and shuffle them.To increase the security level of the encryption algorithm Geffe random key generator is used to generate 128 bit key and employ it with exclusive-OR equation to the diffused image. The results indicated that the combination of chaotic and cryptography proved to be good for high security level. All the experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is secure due to the large key space and the high sensitivity to the secret key.

Detection of Genome Content of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilm Formation and Resistance to Some Disinfectants and Antibiotics

Fatimah Ramadhan Abdel; Maysoon Khaleefa Abbas; Firas Nabih Jaafar; Maha Mukhlif

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.1B.20

This study have been includedfortyisolates ofthe bacteriumPseudomonas aeruginosaisolatedfrom Department ofbiology /College of Science /University of Mustansiriya from different clinical specimens itwas diagnosisbased on themethodsof microscopic,culturalandbiochemicalandfinal diagnosisusingVitek 2system . The ability of the isolates to produce biofilmwas tested usingCongo Red Agar Method (CRA).The resultshowed that(12)isolated (30%) are biofilm producer. Antibiotic sensitivity test have been done multiple drug resistance therevealed showed thatisolates had moreoverallclinical isolates ofP. aeruginosa 100%) )were resistantto Piperacillin, Amoxicillin / Clavulanic acid, Cephalexin, Ceftriaxone and Ceftazidime and while the isolates gradually were resisttoother antibiotics untilshowedlessresistantto theImipenem.( 16.7%)In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) for P. aeruginosa isolateswere determinedto five antibiotics included ( Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin Ceftriaxone, Ceftazidime and Imipenem) and three types of disinfectants (Povidin - Iodine, Chloroxylenol, Formalin) . Bacterial isolates under this study were showed high resistance to both Ceftriaxone and Amikacin. The rang of (MICs) Values was between (16-512) µg / mL. the results showed Values of the (MICs) of disinfectant formalin was low compared otherdisinfectants in this study. Since rang values(MICs) between (512-2000) µg / mL, (512-3500) µg / mL for Dettol and (1024-4000) µg / mL for Iodine solution. The study also showed that sensitivity percentage increased with increasing of disinfectant concentration.
All isolates showed negative results for of Metallo-β-lactamase by EDTA method and PCR showed negative results for both of blaSHVand blaTEM genotype , While
isolates showed positive results for blaCTX-M .