Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 2,

Issue 2

Preparation of NanostructureTiO2 at Different Temperatures by Pulsed Laser Deposition as Solar Cell

Amin Daway Thamir; Adawiya J. Haider; Ghalib A.Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 193-204
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2016.112609

Deposition of the Titanium oxide (TiO2) particles on glass and the Si substrates was materialized for a wide range of temperatures (100-400)°C; using PLD technique at constant laser energy 800 mJ of frequency doubled Nd: YAG laser wavelength of 532nm running at 10 Hz rate and 10ns duration pulses. UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope(AFM), electrical conductivity (σdc), Hall coefficient (RH) and (I-V) and (C-V) measurements were employed to examine optical, morphological and electrical properties of the deposited films. 85% film transparency was accomplished with optical band gap of (3.25 – 3.64) eV.(I-V) characteristics showedan enhanced TiO2 p-n junction thin film solar cell efficiency by 1.6% at 400°C.

Experimental Investigation of Jet Impingement Cooling On Ribbed Target Surface

Assim. H. Yousif; Ali K. Bayer

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 205-219
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2016.112610

Experimental investigation of jets impacting at right angleon a flat surfaceis introduced in the present study. Round jet holes of inline arrays arrangements with diameter (5mm) and jet to jet spacing of 4 jet hole diameter are considered. Jet Reynolds numbers of 4000 to 16000 and jet height to diameter ratio (space between the jet plate and target plate) of 2.0 is maintained. The heat transfer model consists of amultiple jet holes, ribbed target plate having back side resistive film. Threetarget models have been considered; model (1) is a clean surface target acting as the baseline case, the model (2) the target surface consists of lateral rib rows and model (3) the target surface consists grids rib arrangement. The ribs height for models (2 and 3) is 0.86 of jet diameter of the triangle shape. The average wall cooling effectiveness and heat transfer coefficients and consequently the Nusselt numbers for each model are estimated. Numerical computations of jets flow field are made.Theresults show that model (3) enhanced both heat transfer coefficients in the target plat inner surface and wall cooling effectiveness in the target plat outer surface greatly,the maximum increments in heat transfer coefficient and wall coolingeffectiveness are 14.5% and 4.5% respectively.

Comparison between Different Seismic Design Criteria for Tanks

Mohammed Ahmed Eliwi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 220-232
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.2A.3

It is well recognized that liquid storage tanks possess low ductility and energy absorbing capacity as compared to the conventional buildings. Accordingly, various design codes provide higher level of design seismic forces for tanks. In this article, provisions of IBC 2000, Euro code 8, and NZSEE guidelines are reviewed to assess the severity of design seismic forces for tanks than those for buildings. It is seen that, depending on the type of tank, design seismic force for tanks can be to 7 times higher than that for buildings. Based on the comparison of provisions in these documents, various similarities, discrepancies and limitations are found in their provisions.

Balancing Mixed-Model Assembly line in Electronic Industries Company

Sawsan Sabeeh Al-Zubaidy; Mahmoud Abbas Mahmoud; Israa Dhiaa Khalaf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 233-244
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.2A.4

In this work, an approach to solve mixed-model assembly line balancing Problem has been suggested which consists of six stages. In the fourth stage of this approach, a heuristic method is suggested for solving the combined model. This method is programmed using C# language. This program is called “Assembly line balancing-Method of Merging Shortest and Longest Operation" symbol by (MMSLO), which is based on merging two heuristic methods “Shortest Operation time" (SOT) and “Longest Operation Time" (LOT). This approach has been applied in the actual industrial environment at Electronic Industries Company (EIC) in assembly plant for assemble three models of automatic changeover (ACH). The results of the suggested method in (MMSLO) program compared with the results of the basic method (SOT) and (LOT) that existed in"production and operations management, quantitative methods" software that symbol by (POM-QM). It has been proved the ability of the suggested method to give a better solution than the traditional methods, in which the efficiency increased from 92.75% for (LOT) method and 86.98% for (SOT) method to 93.53% for the suggested method.

Determination Formability of Tubular (AL-alloy) by Hydraulic Bulge Test

Azal Rifaat Ismail

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 245-256
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.2A.5

This study aims to establish the forming limit diagrams of tubular material by bulge test.The bulge test applies internal (hydraulic) pressurewith and without applied axial feeding on tubularspecimen causing tube expansion, undergoing plastic deformation until bursting occurs.
In order to investigate bulge test, a hydraulic bulgetool has been designed and manufactured with insert dies having profile die radius (10)mm. the fixed bulgeand the bulge with axial feeding can be fulfilled by this tool.Axial feeds applied to tube ends were (1, 3, 5, 7) mm. The process has been carried out using aluminum alloy (6063) tubes with dimension of (d_°=50 ,t_° =1.7,L_° =150) mm before and after annealing.
Before doing the bulge test, tubes were annealed at temperatures of (425) ᵒC with holding time of two hours and then cooled in the furnace. Square grids have been printed on all tubes wall with dimension (5x5)mm. The grid was printed by screening method to calculation major and minor strain. A commercially available finite element program code (ANSYS11.0), was used to perform the numerical simulation of the bulge test.
Maximum bulge height without axial feeding that can be obtained from tubes annealed at 425ᵒC was (4.62)mm with bursting pressure of (7.5)Mpa and final tube thickness of (1.42)mm.When applying axial feeding the max bulge height is(4.95)mm with bursting pressure of(9.5)Mpa and final tube thickness of (1.55)mm these results obtained from axial feeding(5)mm,wrinkling occurs when applying axial feeding(7)mm.
Straincalculation wasperformed using software program (Matlab). The strain value was obtained by measured grid dimension before the bulge test and grid dimension after bulge test fortubes at all annealed temperatures and applied axial feeding.
It is noted thatgood agreement between experimental and numerical results, the maximum error is 5.2%.

Iraqi Cars License Plate Detection and Recognition System using Edge Detection and Template Matching Correlation

Eyad I.Abbas; Thaaer A. Hashim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 257-271
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2016.112614

Automatic License Plate Detection and Recognition (ALPDR) system is an image processing technology used to identify cars by their license plates.This system consists of two main parts: the first is a practical implementation of how to take an automatically snapshotfor cars passes, this was done by two sensors type(GP2Y0A21YK0F sensor) connected with each other and interfaced with a A4tech USB camera,and this camera is interfaced using Matlab 2013a with the personal computer. The second part is image processing, this part includes four basic stages: The first stage is image preprocessing which involves image normalization and RGB to gray image conversion. Second stage is detection of a possible license plate using edge detection technique and extracts these LP using region growing technique, detection rates reach to 95%. Third stage is alphanumeric character segmentation to isolate each character, numbers and words of the license plate using Otsu's and Hough transforms technique for subsequent recognition. The last stage reads the alphanumeric character and words by correlation template matching, which is a simple, fast and given a recognition rate reach to 98.245%.

Prediction Fatigue Life of Aluminum Alloy 7075 T73 Using Neural Networks and Neuro-Fuzzy Models

Mustafa S. Abdullatef; Nazhat . AlRazzaq; Mustafa M. Hasan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 272-283
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2016.112624

In present paper the fatigue life of aluminum alloy 7075 T73 under constant amplitude loading is predicted using ANN and ANFIS models. Many neural networks models are used for this purpose and also different neuro-fuzzy models are built for predict fatigue life.Theclassical power law formula ismost common used to find fatigue behaviors of materials. In present study, two techniques are used to find coefficients of the formula linear and nonlinear regression. Forcomparison the fatigue life curves of soft computing methods are plotted together with two conventionalmethods. The neural network and neuro-fuzzy models give good results compared with two conventional methods. Also it is shown thatneural network model which is trained using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is best neural network modelscompared with other NNS models.Also, it is foundANFIS models with input trapezoidal membership function is best performance from other membership function types to predict fatigue life. It can be stated that neuro-fuzzy models are better models than neural network and conventional methods to predict fatigue life of the maintained alloy.

Predicting the Crop Coefficient Values for Maize in Iraq

Sabah Anwer Dawood Almaraf; Ehab Fahkre Hikmat

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 284-294
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.2A.8

The objectives of the study are to predict the crop coefficient for Maize using watermarks gypsum blocks and atmometer apparatus during the growing stages, 2013, compare the estimating values with Food and Agriculture Organization in United Nations (FAO) and local study work. Thestudy work was conducted in the Al-Yusufiya field Township, 30km south of Baghdad under semi- arid weather conditions. The watermarks and atmometer were used to measure crop evapotranspiration and reference evapotranspiration, respectively. The predicted average value of crop coefficient for initial, develop, mid and late of seasons were: 0.14, 0.6, 0.91 and 0.57, respectively. The results from the comparison between the estimating crop coefficient and FAO values showed that the average values of relative error was36.29%and with mean absolute error was0.27. Moreover, root mean square difference was0.32.Additionallythe comparison between the estimating crop coefficientswith the local study values showedthat the average values of relative error was33.57% and with mean absolute error was 0.24. Moreover, the root mean square differencewas 0.29.

High Level Implementation Methodologies of DSP Module using FPGA and System Generator

Majid S. Naghmash; Mousa K. Wali; Amar A. Abdulmajeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 295-306
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.2A.9

This paper presents the high level implementation methodologies of Digital Signal Processing (DSP) module by using the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) andintegrated software environments (ISE) with the System Generator programs. The shortest and efficient paths to design a Xilinx Vertix-4 FPGA using MATLAB, ModelSim, synplify Pro software tools is introduced. The floating point design in MATLAB has been moved to fixed point values using Xilinx DSP system generator software a model based approach associated with assistance software from Mathworks and Synplicity. The obtained result shows an important utilization in FPGAarea.

Field Static load Effect on Performance of Hollow Section Girder Bridge Subjected to Fire (Part A)

Haleem K. Hussain

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 307-321
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.2A.10

Hollow Bridge section inspection was carried out in this study and different reasons may cause major failure of bridge. The field inspection of bridge structural elements has been paying more attention of engineering academic researchers. The bridge has been exposed to fire accident in additional to the excessive load and environmental factors effects. This study dedicated for inspection the White River Bridge elements (Bai xi da Qiao/ China) including the essential damage in main girder , concrete spalling, deformation due to deflection and excessive stress and strain, deck slab and concrete cover, steel corrosion…..etc. The analysis of field test evaluates the performance of whole structure of bridge element under static load test. The investigation results shows that the bridge has minor defects through the substructures such as there is no major corrosion of reinforcement and the concrete in a good condition. The upper structure depending on analysis field test of deflection and strain at the critical section, that the main girder has no enough capacity and need to be strengthened.

Design and Development Dynamic Functional Models of Radio Systems by Using the MATLAB System

Saad Z. Sekhi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 322-333
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.2A.11

In this study, we have presented brief theoretical information regarding the design of dynamic functional models of radio systems and practical recommendations for their development and investigation in the MATLAB system. The paper mainly concentrates on three points, as follows: 1. Development of a dynamic functional model filters shaping to obtain the Gaussian random processes with given correlation properties using the MATLAB environment. 2. A development study of a dynamic model rectangular pulse detector against the background self-noise.

Neural Network Modelling of Tds Concentrations in Shatt Al-Arab River Water

Ahmed Naseh Ahmed; Ammar S. Dawood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 334-345
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.2A.12

River water salinity is a big concern in many countries, considering agricultural and drinking usages. Therefore, prediction of amount of Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) is a necessary tool for planning and management of water resources. Shatt Al-Arab river basin in Basrah which is located in south of Iraq suffer from high salinity, therefore use of the water for irrigation and drinking has become problematic. In this regard, prediction of future TDS of Shatt Al-Arab river basin was studied using Artificial Neural Network (ANN).
Data measured monthly from January 2007 up to December 2012 at monitoring station in the middle point along to the Shatt Al-Arab river has been used for training of the selected ANN.
Some of water quality parameters such as, power of hydrogen (pH), Total Hardness (TH), Magnesium hardness (MgSO4), Calcium hardness (CaSO4), Chlorides (Cl), Sulphates (SO4), turbidity (TU) and electrical conductivity (EC) were considered as inputs for the ANN and Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) was the output of the model.
The validation of the neural network model showed very good agreement for predictions of the TDS concentrations between observed and simulated values.
The coefficient of correlation (R), during the validation process was found to be (1), and the mean squared error (MSE) was (0.075). This work supports the concept that the neural network approach is a successful method of modelling such complex and nonlinear behavior of TDS in the rivers with different environmental conditions.

The Effect of In-Situ Method Parameters in Size and Distribution of Particles for Aluminum Matrix Composites

Ahmed Flayyih Hussein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 346-355
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.2A.13

In this work, an in-situ (oxidation) method was used extensively to reinforce aluminum matrix composites with alumina particles. Multi parameters such as alumina particle size and its distribution were studied in details. Side hole diameter, stirring velocity and stirring method were studied also. XRD and SEM tests were used to characterize alumina particles. Results revealed it was obtained on aluminum matrix composites reinforced with alumina particles in Nano size via control side hole diameter and stirring velocity, where the side hole diameter is very effective factor on alumina particle size. The particle size decreases from several microns at (900µm) side hole DIA. to Nano size (≥100nm) at side hole DIA. 500µm with manual stirring. Increasing stirring velocity has led to decrease in alumina particle size which givesthe ability to obtain alumina particles ≤50nm at stirring velocity 2280 RPM with side hole DIA. 900µm. The decreasing in the side hole diameter and increasing in stirring velocity lead to decrease in alumina particles size from several microns toward Nano size, but it has a negative influence on alumina particles distribution.

Effect of Floating Debris on Local Scour at Bridge Piers

Mahmoud Saleh. Al-Khafaji; Ali S. Abbas; Rusul I. Abdulridha

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 356-367
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2016.112631

This research studied the effects of dimensions and shapes of debris accumulations on river’s bed scour at bridge piers by preparing and operating physical model and compared the results with that of applying a one-dimensional steady flow mathematical model using HEC-RAS software to the same geometry and boundary conditions of the physical model. TheResults of studying three shapes of accumulation floating debris (wedge, rectangular and trapezoidal) on bridge pier using physical model show that the dimensions and shapes of accumulation debris have a clear effect on the patterns of bed scour and the maximum scour depth at the pier.There is a big difference between the measured and computed scour depths using the physical and the HEC-RAS models where the software exaggerates in the calculation of the scour depths and the widths of scour hole without taking into consideration the effect of debris shape on the shape of scour hole.

The Effect of variation Longitudinal Ribs Height in Spanwise Direction on Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics in a Rectangular Duct

Ekhlas M. Fayyadh; Moayed R. Hasan; Sahira H. Ibrahim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 368-385
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2016.112637

The present work has investigated numerically and experimentally the effect of a streamwise riblet on the flow and heat transfer characteristics for fully developed turbulent flow in a rectangular duct heated with constant heat flux for Reynolds number based on hydraulic diameter range of (1.5×〖10〗^4-6×〖10〗^4).
Numerical simulations have been done by solving thegoverning equations (Continuity, Reynolds.
Averaging Navier-stokes and Energy) in turbulent regime with appropriate turbulence model Shear-Stress Transport (k-ω) in three dimensions by using the FLUENT version (12.1.2).
The variation of peak to peak height of riblet in spanwise direction ratio with 〖(h〗_s⁄h_L =0.5)was simulated. The flow structure and heat transfer characteristics (the velocity contours, vorticity contours, secondary flow contours, temperature contours, the distribution of local wall shear stress and heat transfer coefficient in spanwise direction at ribs)were presented as results. Also the effects of ribs on the flow and heat transfer characteristic at duct were presented, as the percentage of average skin friction, Stanton number and the heat transfer efficiency relative to a smooth surface. Experiments were conducted for rectangular duct of aspect ratio =10.
Experimental results indicated an increase in the thickness of hydraulic and thermal sub-layer and shifted up the velocity profile, reducing the skin friction coefficient and Stanton number by about (6 %) and (23%) respectively. The experimental results gave a good agreement with the numerical simulation and previous works.

Smart Hunting Cage for Predatory Animals and Moving Bait for Zoology Researches

Mohammed Ehsan Safi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 386-392
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2016.112638

This paper presented an approach to design and implement a control scheme for hunting cages of predatory animals without hurting for scientific researchers or animals. In this paper, laser detection circuit is applied to detect target entering the cage and send signal to microcontroller to lock the two gates of the cage then send signal to alarm user. The bait is used to lure the target mounted on moving robot using ultrasonic sensor to determine the distance between the target and the bait and made it go in the cage.

Image Based 3D Object Reconstruction System

Ali Abbar Khleif; Athraa M.Salih Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 393-405
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2016.112639

The concepts of image processing, computer vision and computer graphics have very important using in different laterals science. This research proposed vision measurement system which consists of a camera carried on hand of a robot, which captured 2D image to the object from two sides with a constant distance of the objects. To achieve this work several experimental steps are needed: First step including calibrating the camera by using a standard block to find the best distance between the camera and the object, the best result of a distance is (410)mm. The second step consist of using MATLAB 7.12.0 (R2011a) program to achieve image processing to get some digital information (number of pixels in each row and column), by scanning the image line by line, to extract 2D object dimensions. The resulted dimensions are found closer to real object dimensions that are measured using a digital vernier and 3d digital probe. Last step includes 2D image manipulating to reconstruct the 3D objects depending on the resulted information (number of pixels).

Analysis and Estimation of Downward Seepage from Lining and Unlining Triangular Open Channel

Asmaa Abdul Jabbar Jamel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 406-419
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.2A.18

This research concerns to study the quantity of seepage running downward from triangular open channel with lining and unlining using computer program SEEP/W (which is a sub-program of Geo-Studio).
Using SEEP/W experiments two groups were carried out with three different downstream slopes of triangular open channel, three different upstream slopes, three variable free board, three different height of triangular open channel, for first group using three different permeability for soil around the triangular open channel and for second group using three different permeability for lining layer and for soil around triangular open channel. For each run the quantity of seepage were determined. Dimensional analysis was used with helping of the theoretical results to develop empirical equations in order to determine the quantity of seepage running downward the triangular open channel for lining and unlining. Also, Verify the SEEP/W results with analytical method ofVedernikov’s equation. Results show good agreement for triangular open channel unlining layer.

Estimating Angle of Arrival and Output Signals to Noise Ratio for Wideband Signals

Bassim Sayed Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 420-429
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2016.112641

Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm is the most popular algorithm to estimate angle of arrival (AOA) for narrowband signals. This algorithm is based on the use of subspace noise Eigenvectors (Q_n) matrix related to the smallest set of Eigen values of received signal covariance matrix (ϕ_xx). These set of Eigen values are corresponding to thechannels thermal noise. It is found that when the received signal has none zero bandwidth the distribution of Eigen Values magnitudes is changed according to the value of received signals bandwidth. The Eigenvalues magnitudes which are relating to the received sources are spreading on expense of noise sub space Eigen values .This new distribution causes a change in the relating eigenvectors, and now the Eigenvalues corresponding to thermal noise is no longer exist .Since Music algorithm is based on the use of these eigenvectors relating to the thermal noise Eigenvalues, and all these thermal noise subspace Eigenvalues are occupied by wideband signals, Music algorithm is no longer work. In this paper we suggest a new approach to estimate angle of arrival (AOA) as well as output signal to noise ratio (SNR) for wide band signals by using linear adaptive array antenna with transversal filter as a wide band beam-former processor in conjunction with Linearly Constrained Minimum Variance beam-former algorithm (LCMV). A general mathematical model for M array sensors with J taps behind each sensor and with a delay time between taps equivalent to a phase shift (90o) at center frequency is presented. The proposed approach is simulated and tested in different cases for different input levels and different received signals relative bandwidth (10%, 15%, 20% up to 40%) the result shows that with a proper number of taps behind each sensor the system is excellently Compensate the effect of signals bandwidth and estimate the angles of arrivals well the output SNR's of all received signals simultaneously with high accuracy. Under the same assumptions MUSIC technique is tested with transversal filter as a broadband processor, the results were very poor.

Evaluation of the Surface Temperature and Study of Its Effects on the Dry Sliding Wear Characteristics of a Bainitic Ductile Cast-Iron

Adel K. Mahmoud

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 68-79
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2016.112642

This work shows the evaluation process of the surface temperature by using heat sink (thermocouple) technique from type Alumel-Chromel (Ni-Al/ Ni-Cr) and to study its effect on the dry sliding wear characteristics of a bainitic ductile cast – iron. These characteristics represented with wear rates and coefficient of friction, which evaluated by using Pin on Disc machine under different laboratories conditions involved four applied normal loads (10, 20, 30, 40)N and three linear sliding speeds (1.4, 2.2, 3.0)mm/sec at room temperature. The present work shows the dry sliding wear characteristics and variables depend on the surface temperature generated during wear test. So, it can’t ignore these effects during the service. In addition to, it must be avoided using loads range (30-40)N and temperature range (310-360)Cͦ during practical applications it may be used this alloy within these ranges, because of both the two ranges may be led to occur severe wear of the bainitic ductile cast – iron surfaces with other counter surfaces of its working conditions.