Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 34, Issue 2

Volume 34, Issue 2, February 2016, Page 11-348

A Novel Algorithm To Detect and Extract The Texts of Road- Sign Plates in Video Scenes

Abdul Munem S. Rahma; Teaba Wala Aldeen Khairi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 180-193
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.2B.1

Traffic Road-Signs contain useful information for the road users; the operation of many of modern applications like the automatic or smart vehicle requires an automatic discrimination of the texts of the traffic road-sign. Discrimination of text compose of several stages, the first of these stages is detection and extraction of the texts. In this work, an algorithm is developed to detect, locate, and segment of the texts and the word in the video clips, that existing in the road signs in the city of Baghdad. The proposed approach includes two stages, the first one is processing the image to locate and extract images of the road-sign and neglect the rest of the image, and the second stage is processing the image of the road-sign plate to detect and extract the texts without symbols and shapes. The basic structure of the algorithm depends on the following functions: edge-detector, dilation, and filling-hole, morphological-opening. The total recall values of 89%, the total precision value of 93%.The algorithm is, then, tested based on video clips, implementation of the algorithm based on video clips confirms its ability to detect the texts which may appear in the video scenes, recall-rate(r) is excellent with a total value of 94.5% and a total precision value of 86.5%.The algorithm is tested to measure its validity to work under real-time operation, by processing one frame and exceed a set of next frames, the test appears that the algorithm is able to work under real-time operation with recall-rate(r) of(93%).

Proposed Data Coding Method

Suhad Malallah Kadhem; Sabrein Jassm

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 194-203
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.2B.2

In data communications, a text is represented as a bit pattern ,a sequence of bits(0’s or 1’s).Different sets of bit patterns have been designed to represent text symbols .Each set is called a code ,and the process of representing symbols is called coding.In this paper a new codingmethod is proposed and in this method Move to front coding method is used. The result of applying the new coding method provides high complex code which can be employed for security purpose.Also look up table (s-boxes) is stored as a B+tree to provide efficient access and take less time in processing.

Propose Hybrid ACO and NB to Enhance Spam Filtering System

Soukaena Hassan Hashem; Huda Adil Abd Algafore

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 204-215
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.2B.3

Unwanted e-mails became one of the most risk experienced by e-mail users, which may be either harmless or e-mails thatrepresenta threatto the internet.Filtering systems are used to filter e-mail messages from spam. This paper introduces a proposed hybrid system to filter the spam; the proposalhybrid Ant Colony System (ACS) and Naive Bayesian (NB) classifier. Where, ACS will dependon the Information Gain (IG) as a heuristic measure to guide the ants search to select the optimal worst features then omitting these features. The remind features will be the subset which is used to train and test NB classifier to classify whether the mail message spam or not.The proposal is experimented on spambase dataset, and the results showthat; the accuracy, precision and recall with NB which use a subset of features extracted by proposing IG-based ACS is higher than the traditional NB with all set of features.

Modified Method for Drawing Geographic Maps by Using Cubic Spline Interpolation

Abdul-Mohssen J. Abdul-Hossen; Imad Issa Fadhala

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 216-226
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.2B.4

This paper presents suggested modified algorithm to draw the geographic maps. Cubic spline interpolation had been used to draw these maps by generating intermediate points between each two points from a set of given points, where these intermediate points represent the control points which they are used to constrain the curvature of cubic spline depending on a value named divisor value that representsthe distance between any two adjacent points at spline knots, and specified by the user. Intermediate points have a great effect on curve shape, through dividing the interval between two adjacent points into equal subintervals. This makes the results of the weights ai, bi and ci in spline function will be equal to zero and di has already been determined to be di = yi , according the equations determining the weights,. So we can draw lines and polygons that are necessary in drawinggeographic maps.

Preparation and Characterization of Indium Oxide Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel Method and its NO2 Gas Sensing Properties

Saryia D. Al-ALgawi; Rashed T. Rasheed; Sahar Zeyad Tareq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 227-233
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.2B.5

In this work, In2O3 nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel method and deposited on quartz substrate by dip coating technique and annealed in air at different temperatures of (450, ,550 and 650) ̊ C at constant time (60 min). X-ray analysis has confirmed the formation of polycrystalline cubic phase that increases in crystaline size with increasing annealing temperature. The optical properties of In2O3 nanostructure thin film were studied. The transmittance was measured in the wavelength range from(300nm to 1100 nm) for all the films.The sensitivity toward NO2 gas has been measured,where In2O3 annealed at different temperatures.

Effect of Hydrocarbon Solutions on Polymer Concrete

Sanaa Abdul Hadi; Mustafa Hassan Omar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 234-242
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.2B.6

The damaging effect of oil products on concrete besides the high permeability of concretehave made researchers try to improve the properties of concrete exposed to oil products, hence improving the durability and serviceability of oil concrete structures.
Polymer concrete exposed to oil products is one of a new field that deals with the enhancement of concrete durability. In the present work polyester resin concrete was used and then immersed in different types of oil exposure liquids (gasoline, gas oil and kerosene) compared with reference concrete which left in the air.
Polyester resin concrete is used as a new type in this field, it is noteworthy that the use of this concrete gives good test results that raise the values of the mechanical properties, so we did the SEM test in an attempt to study the microstructure of this concrete after soaking for 90 days in oil products.

Determine Wind Frequency Distributions Through the Surface Layer of Baghdad City

Ahmed F. Hassoon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 243-254
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.2B.7

This study is made for determining wind speed frequency distributions at any height within Surface Layer SL (SL has height about 250m above ground) ,where wind speed is measured at low reference level (usually 10m) which is considered a routine meteorological data recorded hourly. This study needs to know in detail the roughness characteristics of the terrain surrounding the location study, that important to calculate the rate of growth of internal boundary layers resulting from discontinuities in roughness as well as the shape of wind profile in various layers. The shape characteristics of the wind profile are determined as a function of roughness length and stability and the result of this profile is compared with measurements from radiosonde, at height 10, 50,100,150, 200m. This study tested frequency percent for wind speed at 10m, 50m, 200m for the observed and calculated at July– month 1990 and at the 12:00 hour only. The calculated wind frequency has weak at 10m wind speed and all the frequency is concentrated at the (2-6) m/s, while the observed has high frequency at the wind speed reached to 8m/s. This case is changed at the height 50m, and 200m where the calculated have high frequency at the wind speed concentrated at (6-10) m/s. This study refers to the possibility of installing turbine in this layer to generate electricity at least in this period of this year.

A Modified Back Propagation Algorithm for Assyrian Optical Character Recognition Based on Moments

Luma Fayeq Jalil; Modhar Mohsen Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 255-268
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.2B.8

Character recognition has been very popular and interested area for researches, and it continues to be a challenging and impressive research topic due to its diverse applicable environment. The optical character recognition has been introduced as a fast and accurate method to convert both existing text images as well as large archives of existing paper documents to editable digital text format.
However, existing optical character recognition algorithms suffer from flawed tradeoffs between accuracy and speed, making them less effective and impractical for large and complex documents. This paper describes a suggested method for Assyrian optical character recognition using modified back propagation artificial neural network based on moments. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves higher recognition accuracy rate in compared with the standard algorithm.

The Effect of pH on Partial Size of Ferrimagnetic Powders Prepared by Auto Combustion Method

Ghead K. Salman; Saja M. Jabaar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 269-277
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.2B.9

During the preparation of this research ferrites - copper powder chemical auto-combustion method ,has been studying the effect of changing of (pH=3, 5, 7, 9, 11) coefficient on the particle size of the powder, used Debye-ScherrerFormula, to calculate the particle size by use of the highest peak (311) in X-ray diffraction (XRD) were obtained particle size ranges (11.5-13.75) nm, and also has been compared to the values obtained in drawing curves that represent change the latticeconstant, particle size and density as a function of the (pH), and used Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to determine the internal structure of models, and also has been studying the microscopic structure took photos by electron scan microscopy (SEM) where indicated formation of high porosity homogeneous this change in the acidity coefficient(pH)led to change particle size and therefore a change in the properties of structural and physical .

Image Encryption Using Block Cipher Based Serpent Algorithm

Yossra Hussain Ali; Haider Aabdali Ressan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 278-286
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.2B.10

In an encryption scheme, the message or information, referred to as plaintext, is encrypted using an encryption algorithm, generating cipher textthat can only be read if decrypted.A proposal algorithm forimages protectionis depending on the block cipher serpent algorithm infeistel network structure, because numbers of round and linear transformation function and used block size of 512 bits rather than 128 bitshas more complexity for attacker or unauthorized person to discover original images.In modified serpent, the correlation coefficient decreases to below the traditional serpent algorithm. When 64*64 pixel bitmap image is used the correlation coefficient for gray level between plain image and cipher image is (0.0023) in modified serpent and (0.0814) in traditional serpent.

Synthesis and Characterization of New ethyl -2-(5-benzoxazol-2-ylamine-1H-tetrazol-1-yl) Acetate Derivatives

Nisreen Kais Abood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 287-294
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.2B.11

The present research work describes the synthesis of new heterocyclic compounds. The 2-Hydrazino benzoxazole pre-prepared was reacted with sodium nitrite and CuCN and afford the 2-cyano amine benzoxazole(1).Compound(1) react with sodium azide and ammonium chloride in DMF afford the 1-H-tetrazole-5-amino benzoxazole(2) ,ethyl chloroacetate react with compound (2) to giveethyl -2-(5-benzoxazol-2-ylamine)-1H-tetrazol-1-yl) acetate compound (3).Treatment (3)with thiourea or urea afforded compounds (4,5),p-bromo phenacyl bromide react with compounds (4,5) afforded (6,7),treatment (3) with hydrazine hydrate to afforded2-(5-benzoxazol-2-ylamino)1-H-tetrazol-1yl) acetohydrazide compound (8).Azomethines (9, 10) were prepared through reaction of compound (8) with aromatic aldehyde, then (9,10) converted to thaizolidinone derivatives (11,12) after treatment with HSCH2COOH .Reaction of compound (8) with phenyl iso thiocyanate and ethyl chloro acetate afforded compounds (13, 14)respectively. All compounds were confirmed by their melting point, FT-IR spectrum,1HNMR spectrum for some them.

Silver Nanoparticles Prepared by Electrical Arc Discharge Method in DIW

Halah H. Rashed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 295-301
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.2B.12

In this work, Silvernanoparticles prepared by arc discharge method in deionized water byapplying stablized direct current between two silver rods which are submerged in deionized waterat room temperature without any heat exchanger,vacuum equipment and gas handling equipment. During electrical discharge the temperature between electrodes can reach several thousand Celsius degrees. This leads to etch of silver electrodes in deionized water, silver vapor condensed in water creats a stable silver aqueous suspension.
The silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visiblephotometer, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Atomic Force MicroscopeAFM. The optical absorption measurement showsthat the spectrum exhibits a Plasmon absorption band at ~ 400 nm which is the characteristic of silver nanoparticles.
X-Ray Diffraction of the resulting NPs indicated that the particles had a crystalline structureand the average particle size determined from AFM, is about 78.75 nm.

Enhance Inverted Index Using in Information Retrieval

Alia Karim Hassan; Duaa Enteesha mhawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 302-310
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.2B.13

This paper proposes a method to represent the first step in information retrieval (IR) (that prepare the document set (preprocessing), In Information retrieval systems, tokenization is an integral part whose prime objective is to identify the token and their count. In this paper, an effective tokenization approach which is based on proposed new method called enhance inverted index (EII). The result shows that efficiency/ effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Tokenization on documents helps to satisfy user’s information need more precisely and reduced search sharply, believed to be a part of information retrieval. Pre-processing of input document is an integral part of Tokenization, which involves preprocessing of documents and generates its respective tokens, which is the basis of these tokens. Probabilistic IR generates its scoring and gives reduced search space. The comparative analysis based on the two parameters; reduce the time of search space, Pre-processing time

Photovoltaic Properties of CdS/Si Heterojunction Prepared by DC Plasma Sputtering Technique

Mohammed K. Khalaf; Sabah Habeeb Sabeeh; Azhar K. Sadkhan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 311-316
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.2B.14

CdS/Si heterojunction has been fabricated by dc plasma sputtering technique. Polycrystalline CdS films have been prepared by dc plasma sputtering technique on Si substrate. The current – voltage under illumination showed that the photocurrent increases with increasing incident illumination intensity for CdS/Si heterojunction. The CdS thin films have been sputtered under vacuum of (9×10-2 ,8×10-2, 6×10-2,5×10-2) mbar, theheterojunction has better photovoltaic properties. The open circuit voltage (Voc) and the short circuit current (Isc)were found to vary with working discharge pressure, and the efficiency is 6.72% at 50.3 mW/cm2.

Design and Implementation a Server Receiving Data in Both Forms TCP and UDP Through the Same Port and its Impact on the Network Performance

Husam Ali Abdulmohsin

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 317-327
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.2B.15

Internet is the largest network that transfers a huge amount of information through the web and that requires data transfer between many network bottlenecks, devices and different hardware technologies. This data movement requires data transfer between many application, software’s and operating systems. Many theses and researches were published in the topic of solving the issue of extreme data transfer rate; this issue causes time consuming problems. There are many technologies of transferring data across the internet; two of the major data transfer technologies are the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). Those different data transfer technologies through the internet cause most of the servers much of their time translating the data from one technology to another because most of the servers deal with one data transfer technology and therefore it has to translate all other technologies to the technology that it deals with. This research establishes a Server named TCP-UDP Server (TUS), to receive data from both UDP and TCP nodes through the same path without the need of changing the network entities or protocols connected to the server and to avoid the need for transferring the data from the (UDP) form to the (TCP) form and vise versa. All the operations performed by the server are accomplished without any hardware intrusion to avoid time consuming. The TUS server as many servers support the multithreading technology to serve a large amount of nodes at the same time. Each node has its own thread to deal with. This thread has its own life time determined by many facts, and that in turn decides to terminate the thread or not.

Commutativity Results on Prime Rings With Generalized Derivations

A. H. Majeed; Shaima,a B. Yass

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 328-333
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.2B.16

Let R be a prime ring. For nonzero generalized derivations F and G associated with the same derivation d, we prove that if d≠0, then R is commutative, if any one of the following conditions hold: (1) [F(x), G(y)]  0, (2) F(x)oG(y)  0, (3) F(x)oG(y)  xoy, (4) [F(x), G(y)]  [x, y], (5) [F(x), G(y)]  xoy, (6) F(x)oG(y)  [x, y], for all x, y  R, where F will always denote onto map.

Structure Properties of Graphene- polymer Nanocomposite

Salam H. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 334-340
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.2B.17

In this work graphene-PVA composites samples prepared with different graphene loading (0.2, 0.5, 0.7, 1)gm, where prepared by direct mixing then dried at (60 C˚) in an oven. The present work focuses on studying the structural properties of composite, using analysis like X_ray diffraction, SEM and AFM. The results show that the chemical composition has major effect on structural properties, the phase analysis done by X_ray diffraction has confirmed the formation of the expected graphene structure where the crystal size was increased but the X-ray density was decreased when increasing the graphene content in PVA matrix. SEM shows surface image of composite films where the graphene nanoplates can be homogeneously integrated with in PVA matrix. AFM examinationshows that the surface roughness decreased with filler increasing.

Production of Silver Nanowires From Silver Nanoparticles by Thermal Treatment

Suaad .S.Shaker

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 341-348
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.2B.18

Silver nanowires (Ag NWs) have been attracted much attention in recent years .view of the extensive its use in various fields. Ag NWs were successfully prepared by two steps firstly electrochemical method and heating secondly silver nanoparticles colloidal solution at different temperature. The optical results show that the position of the plasmon absorption peak depends on the particle size and shape and the adsorption of surfactant to the particle surface. It was noticed that the plasmon absorption peak shifts toward shorter wavelengths (blue shift) as increased temperature.SEM result appeared that silver nanoparticles transformed to Silver nanowires by heating. XRD results explained that the intensity of peak at 64.46° was increased as heating increase much higher at 38.18° which indicted wire growth . The results zeta potential showed that all samples preparation shown across all the zeta potential tests were negative .

Testing of the Effect Drying the Marshes on the Climate Elements in South Iraq

Wafaa Sayyid Hasanain; Ali Rahim Tuema; Samer Kasim Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 11-25
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.2B.19

This research aims to test and analyze the impact of the process of drying the marshes in the cities of Basra , Amara and Nasiriya on the climate elements (maximum temperature , minimum temperature , average temperature , relative humidity , wind speed , rainfall and atmospheric pressure) statistical analysis using the t-test statistical that based on the Statistical Package (SPSS), by comparing and analyzing the difference between the climate elements averages during the two periods (1981 – 1991) and (1992 - 2002) , and the impact of that process on the climate elements.
The results showed the negative impact of the drying process on climate elements of the three cities cannot be attributed to chance.

Study the Effect of Coupling Agents (Polyvinyl alcohol) and (Lignin) on Mechanical Properties for Polymer Composite Materials

Balkees Mohammed Diaa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 26-34
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.2B.20

In this research study the mechanical properties of (Impact, Hardness and Surface roughness) for PMCs materials that used for (Load-bearing structure, Sandwich panels , radio controlled vehicles, sporting goods …etc.), the PMCs materials made from epoxy resin (Polyp rime-EP) type as matrix and a random glass fiber (E-type) as a reinforcementwith volume fraction (20%) by Hand-Lay up process after addition of coupling agent (Polyvinylalcohol (PVA)) with percent of (0.5%) for first sample and addition of coupling agent (Lignin (Lg)) with percent of (0.5%)for second sample but third sample was polymer composite material without addition of coupling agent for comparing with others, and we noticed an enhancement in mechanical properties for polymer composite material after addition of coupling agent. Either when immersion the three samples in solutions, first solution was water (H2O) and the second solution nitric acid (HNO3) diluted with concentration (0.1N), for seven weeks to each solution, mechanical properties were tested for samples every week, showed decreasing in values of mechanical properties, the polymer composite materials that contains coupling agents expressed more resistance than polymer composite material untreated with coupling agent. And the material that contains coupling agent after immersion in water showed much higher resistance to mechanical properties than immersion in diluted nitric acid.