Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 34, Issue 3

Volume 34, Issue 3, March 2016, Page 80-684

Computation of Seepage through Homogenous Earth Dams with Horizontal Toe Drain

Raad Hoobi Irzooki

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 430-440

This investigation concerns to find a new equation for computing the quantity of seepage through homogenous earth dam with horizontal toe drain. For this purpose the computer program SEEP/W (which is a sub-program of Geo-Studio) was used. The SEEP/W runs were carried out with three different downstream slopes of the dam, three different upstream slopes, three variable horizontal toe drain lengths, three different free boards, three different top widths and three different heights of the dam. For each run the quantity of seepage was determined. The results show that the seepage discharge increased with increasing upstream slope, downstream slope, upstream reservoir water depth and length of horizontal toe drain. Also, the results show that the seepage discharges decreased with increasing the top width of the dam and the height of the free board. Using SEEP/W results with helping a dimensional analysis theory, a new easy and reliable empirical equation for computing seepage discharge through homogenous earth dams with horizontal toe drain was developed. The analysis of the results by Artificial Neural Network (ANN) shows that the length of horizontal toe drain (L) is the more geometrical variable effect on the seepage discharge, while the upstream slope (tanθ) of the earth dam has a little effect.

Comparison The Kinetics of The Uptake of Sugars From The Draw Solution

Ghazi Derwish; Adel O. Sharif; Sami Al-Aibi; Jenan A. Al-Najar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 441-451

The present work includes studying the kinetics of the adsorptionof two sugars (maltose and glucose)on activated carbon (GAC) and comparison between them. These sugars are used as draw solution in the forward osmosis process in MOD-SET system(manipulated osmosis desalination system, MOD combined with solute exchange technique, SET). In this work, batch experiment in a stirred tank was carried out to study kinetics adsorption. The experiment was carried out using HPLC to determine the concentrations of sucrose and maltosebefore and after adsorption. The kinetic models used are pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, intraparticle diffusion and mass transfer model. The findings indicates that sucrose and maltose sorption onto GAC are both well represented by the pseudo second order model.

Study of the Influence of the Elastic Rubber Cushion on Product Quality Formed by a Multi - Point Forming (MPF) Process

Marwa Sabah Fakhri; Sadiq Jaffar Aziz

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 452-463

The Multi-Point Forming (MPF) is an advanced flexible manufacturing technology for three – dimensional sheet metal forming. This is replacing the conventional solid dies by a set of discrete punches called (punch group).
This work presents the design and manufacturing of (MPF) dies. It covers also, the effect of using an elastic cushion on the quality of products. This technique eliminates the formation of dimples which, otherwise reduces the quality of product. The work falls into two parts. Part one includes the use of ANSYS, which employs a finite element method (FEM) for the simulation of MPF components, namely: upper jaw, lower die and cushion. In the other part (experimental), a complete MPF die was designed and manufactured in the local market.
The copper sheet metal was selected to study the influence of the elastic cushion on the quality of product which formed by MPF process. This rubber was used to avoid the dimples occurring on the metal surface. Experimental and numerical results showedthatthis technique produces a better quality free from dimples. The cushion proved to be effective in elimination of the thickness change. The thickness change was found to be in the range (0-0.05) for a blank of 2 mm.
Hence, it is recommended that the (MPF) method is effective in product quality. However, two layers of cushion are necessary to separate between the workpiece and pins to reduce the work piece deformation. Also, the numerical simulation was used by (ANSYS) software which was compared with the experimental result. A good agreement for numerical and experimental results was found.

Direct Torque Control for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Based on NARMA-L2 controller

Huda B. Ahmed; Ali H. Almukhtar; Abdulrahim T. Humod

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 464-482

This paper investigates the improvement of the speed and torque dynamic responses of three phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) using Direct Torque Control (DTC) technique. Different torques are applied to PMSM at different speeds during operation to ensure the robustness of the controller for wide torque variations. Optimal PI controller is used to modify the response of DTC. The optimal gains of PI controller are tuned by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique. Neural Network controller is called the Nonlinear Autoregressive-Moving Average (NARMA-L2) which is trained based on optimal PI controller (PI-PSO) data. The results show the superiority performance of using NARMA-L2 controller on PI-PSO controller for different speeds and load change. The overall simulation and design of the scheme are implemented Using MATLAB/Simulink program.

Pozzolanic Activity and Compressive Strength of Concrete Incorporated nano/micro Silica

Maan S. Hassan; Shakir A. Salih; Mohammed S.Nasr

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 483-496

This paper aims to give a recommendation about the suitable nano silica proportion and curing method for testing its strength pozzolonic activity, in addition to suggest a mixing or batching procedure of this material with other concrete ingredients. Theinfluence of nanoand micro silicaon concrete compressive strength is also studied. Three proportions of nano silica (0.5, 5, &10%) , two curing methods (accelerated in oven and normal in water) and two tested agesare used in pozzolonic activity test of nano silica. For compressive strength test, eleven mixes are considered:without-adding (two mixes), three micro silica (M) mixes with replacement ratios of 5, 10 & 15%, four nano silica (N) mixeswith replacement ratiosof 0.5,1.5, 3 & 5%, and three micro plus nano silica mixes (0.5N+9.5M,1.5N+8.5M and 3N+7M%) are adopted.Results of pozzolanic activity test denoted that nano silica has remarkable pozzolanic activity for all tested replacements.However, it is suggest using 5% nano silica for performing this testby usingeither accelerated or water curing. Additionally, it was found that nano silica had more impact on compressive strength of concrete than micro silica for all tested ages.Where, maximum enhancement ratios of compressive strength were about 33% and 27% for 3% nano silica mix at 7 and 90 days age respectively, and 22% for 5% nano silica mix at 28 days age. For micro silica mixes, higher improvement ratios were found in 15% micro silica mix: 2%,5%&7% at 7,28 &90 days age respectively.

3D Object Modeling Using Eye on Hand Approach

Athraa M.Salih Ahmed; Ali Abbar Khleif

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 497-512

This research proposed vision measurement system which consists of a camera carried on hand of a robot, which captured 2D image to the object from two sides with a constant distance of the objects. To achieve this work several experimental steps are needed: First step includes calibrating the camera by using a standard block to find the best distance between the camera and the object.The best result of a distance is (410)mm. The second step consists of using MATLAB 7.12.0 (R2011a) program to achieve image processing to get some digital information (number of pixels in each row and column), using the proposed line by line scanning algorithm, to extract 2D object dimensions. The resulted dimensions are found closer to real object dimensions that are measured using a digital vernier and 3d digital probe. Last step includes 2D image manipulating using the proposed algorithms to reconstruct the 3D objects depending on the resulted information (number of pixels).

Strain Behavior at Crack Tip in Thin Plate Using Numerical and Experimental Work

Bassam Ali Ahmed; Fathi A.Alshamma

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 513-526

In this work, strains were studied and analyzed in a thin flat plate with a surface crack at the center, subjected to cycling of low velocity impact loading for two types of aluminum plates (2024, 6061). Experimental and numerical methods were implemented to achieve this research. Two cases of boundary conditions were used in this study; clamped-clamped with simply supported at the other edges, and clamped-clamped with free at the other edges. Numerical analysis using program (ANSYS11-APDL) based on finite element method used to analyze the strains with respect to time at crack tip. In the experimental work, a rig was designed and manufactured for cyclic impact loading on the cracked specimens. The grid points was screened in front of the crack tip to measure the elastic-plastic displacements in the x and y directions by grid method, from which the strains are calculated. The results show that the strains increase with increasing the crack length. It was found that the cumulative number of cycles leads to increase in the strain values.

Effect of Steel Fibers, Polypropylene Fibers and/ or Nanosilica on Mechanical Properties of Self-Consolidating Concrete

Iqbal N. Gorgis; Maan S. Hassan; Rana T. Abdulkareem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 527-538

This research concerned studying the combined effect of using nano-silica and/ or hybrid fibers on key mechanical properties of self-consolidating concrete SCC. A comprehensive experimental work has been carried out, using steel fiber (SF) with volume fraction (0, 0.5% and 1.5%), polypropylene fiber (PPF) (0%, 0.05% and 0.15%) and SiO2 nanoparticles (0%, 2% and 4%) by weight of powdered material (silica fume- Sf ) with constant w/c ratio (0.48) to produce eleven different mixtures and tested at different ages (7, 28 and 90 days).
Results showed that adding fibers adversely affect SCC workability and thus more dosage of super plasticizer (SP) should be added to stay within the standard limits. comparable to conventional concretes, the presence of steel fibers with SCC provide slight increase in compressive strength at 28 days, (up to 11%), while significant enhancement in tensile properties were observed (up to 24% and 32% for splitting and flexural strength respectively). Polypropylene or hybrid fibers however, provide lower enhancement compared with steel fibers. In contrast, implementation of nanosilica leads to significant improvement in concrete strengths particularly at 4% dosage. Combined effect of 4% nanosilica and 1.5% of steel fibers provide the superior hardening effect on the flexural performance compared with softening effect provided by other added dosages. Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM) images confirm the matrix densification effect due to nanosilica adding. Flexural strength of SCCs without nanosilica was generally higher than splitting testing results. This fact does not change even with the presence of nanosilica and/ or fibers.

Evaluation of Modified Local Asphalt Mixtures by Fatigue Distress Criteria

Husam A . Abdulbaqi; Zaynab I . Kassam; Hasan H. Joni

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 539-552

A fatigue is the accumulation of the materials damage in asphalt concrete mixtures and growing of cracks, under increasing effect of repeated vehicular loading, aging and environment factors, in this research study the effect of temperature, asphalt content, mineral filler, applied Strain, and the polymer (SBS) as a modified asphalt to evaluate their effect on fatigue crack. To achieve the objective of this research, the Nottingham flexural fatigue test is considered and superpave mix design requirements are employed. Test specimens of 380 mm length by 60 mm width and 50 mm height were sawed from slabs of the prepared mixes by rolling wheel compaction. Using Controlled-strain procedure,the tests were conducted at temperatures of 10-20-30 ±1°C and at a frequency of loading of 5 Hz. The full factor design as well, three asphalt contents 4.72, 5.22 and 5.72%, mineral filler (Portland cement, limestone dust), applied strain (400-750µs), and (2-4%) percent of (SBS) polymer, Local material properties, stress level and environmental impacts are considered for this aspect. From the result, it is observed that 2% of SBS modified mixture given a best result due to increase the percent of fatigue life to (120%) as the average when compared with the control mixture, the fatigue life has a positive relationship with asphalt content and temperature when using control strain .The fatigue life of the mixture with limestone dust have result more than mixture with Portland cement,In the general, The fatigue lifeof mixture at 400µs has given result more than 750µs.

Studying the Effect of Nano Additives and Coating on Some Properties of Cement Mortar Mixes

Sarmad.I.Ibrahim; Alaa.A.Abdul Hameed; Farhad. M. Othman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 553-566

The experimental work is divided in two parts, in the first part was prepared the mortar samples and mixing proportions cementsand (1:3)they were mixing these samples with nano scale ceramic powders (ZrO2 and TiO2) respectively the percentages by weight are taken from cement ratio (0.1, 1, 2.5, 5, and 10%) at particle size (50nm) and curing time (28day). The second part has included the preparation of mortar samples and then coated with a mixture of methanol alcohol, cement and ceramic nano-powders by cold spray technique by using compressed air at room temperature with pressure (8bar) and the spray distance (20Cm) and heating of the samples at (75C°), and then study mechanical thermal physical and structural properties for prepared samples.
The results of mechanical and physical tests showed large and significant improvement for all mixed and coated samples with nanoparticles, and that the highest value of the mechanical and physical properties obtained from cement coated samples with (%5ZrO2), reaching the rate of increase in values of Vickers hardness by (%54), and wear resistance increased by (%66), while reaching the rate of decrease in values of total water absorption by (%79), The porosity has decreased at a rate of (%65), With regard to the dry density has increased at a rate of (%2.3). The higher values for the mixed samples reaching the rate of increase in values of Vickers hardness by (%38), and wear resistance increased by (%58), while reaching the rate of decrease in values of total water absorption by (%67), The porosity has decreased at a rate of (%51.68), With regard to the dry density has increased at a rate of (%1.9).
The thermal conductivity test results have shown that there is a marked decrease in values conductivity for all mixed and coated samples with nanoparticles and that the minimum value of conductivity obtained from coated and mixed samples with (%5TiO2) as the value decreases conductivity for coated samples by (%64), while the lowest value for conductivity to the mixed samples by (%49). Results of Characterizations tests showed images of all of (SEM and AFM) Mortar reference sample that a high roughness as well as having to structure Ca(OH)2 a needle shaped structures with the presence of large pores, while after adding and coating by nanoparticles shows the disappearance of structures needle and produce a homogeneous structure of compounds (C-S-H) and the disappearance of the pores and gaps further decrease in surface roughness this explains the clear improvement in the properties.

Lateral Seismic Response of Building Frames Under the Influence of Soil–Structure Interaction

Mohammed Ahmed Elaiwi; Ghzwan Ghanim Jumah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 567-577

This study deal with the elastic and inelastic structural responses of building frames under the influence of soil–structure interaction. Three give the types of moment-resisting building frames, including 5 storey, 10-storey and 15-storey buildings are selected. In addition, three soil types with the shear wave velocities less than 600m/s, representing soil classes Ce, De and Ee according to IBC-2006(3) , having three bedrock depths of 10m, 20m and 30m are adopted.
The structural sections are designed after conducting nonlinear time history analysis, on the basis of both elastic method and inelastic procedure considering elastic-perfectly plastic behavior of structural elements. The frame sections are modeled and analyzed, employing finite difference method adopting ANSYS software under two different boundary conditions: (a) fixed base (no soil–structure interaction) and (b) considering soil–structure interaction. Fully nonlinear dynamic analyses under the influence of different earthquake records are conducted. The results in terms of the maximum lateral displacements and base shears for the above mentioned boundary conditions for both elastic and inelastic behaviors of the structural models are obtained and compared, with the results. A comprehensive empirical relationship is proposed to determine the lateral displacements of the moment-resisting building frames under earthquake and the influence of soil– structure interaction.

Study the Performance of a Domestic Refrigerator with Dual-Loop Cycle Flow Condenser and Comparison with Wire-on-Tube Condenser

Dheya Ghanim Mutasher

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 578-587

This paper presents an experimentalinvestigation into the performance of domestic refrigerator system with two different types of condensers, novel design of dual-loop condenser and the conventional condenser.The geometrical configuration considered in this study is representative designing and manufacturing of novel type of dual-loop cycle condenser and compared with typical condenser. The experimentswere conducted with a refrigerator designed to work with HFC134a, under no load and with different loads as (1.5, 3 and 12 litters of water).The results showed that the dual-loop condenser decreases the work done by the compressor by about (1.951% to 5.257%). Also, the effects of shape change of the condenser can be reducing the pressure drop as result of reduction the frictional losswhere can rotate the flow without restriction to the flow in the dual-loop condenser

Comparative Study of Influence Post weld Aging on the Mechanical Properties of Similar Friction Stir Welded Joints for Al 2024-T3 and Al 7075-T73

Muna K. Abbass; Munthir M. radhy; Ruqaya Abdulkadhim Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 588-599

The aim of present study is to investigate the effect of precipitation hardening heat treatment at different aging conditions on the mechanical properties and microstructure of similar friction stir welding (FSW) joints ofAA 2024-T3 and AA 7075-T73 aluminum alloys. Friction stir welding was carried out using milling machine with best welding parameters (tool rotation speed 898 rpm, welding speed 45 mm ̸ min and threaded cylindrical pin geometry). Tensile test, microhardness test,microstructure examination,and X-ray radiographic inspection of FSW joints were made.The results indicated that the best aging conditions for similar welded joints of Al2024 and Al 7075 were in sample (natural aging for two week) and sample
(artificial ageing at 120°C for 24 h) respectively. ‏Microhardness in the as-welded samples showed fluctuations across the weld zone and minimum hardnessoccurs in the heat affected zone(HAZ) in both alloys while the hardness after heat treatment at best aging conditions was improved across the whole weldment and increased in stir zone,

Effect of Applied of Pre-Stresses on Corrosion Behavior of 304 Stainless Steel in 1N H2SO4

Sami Ibrahim Jafar; Israa Abud Alkadir; Samah Abdul Kareem Khashin

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 600-612

This research is devoted to study the effect of applying different pre-tensile stresses (255,305,355,405,455,505 555 and 605) MPa on the microstructure, hardness and corrosion behavior of 304 stainless steel in 1N H2SO4. The stress-strain curve was drawn for standard (304) stainless steel in laboratory environment. The curve was divided into three zones. At zone one the values of elastic pre-stresses vary between (σ0 - σpro.) MPa. The results showed; that the corrosion rate was very little increased compared with that of as received (304) stainless steel. The microstructure presented undeformed austenitic grains and the hardness value was (157.433) Hv. At zone two the value of plastic pre-stress varies between (σpro.- σ U.T.S) MPa. The corrosion rate increases after applying pre-stress between (σ255 - σ 455) MPa. The microstructure showed that the austenitic grains begin to deform in the direction of applied pre-stresses. The maximum hardness at this region was (229.2) Hv, but at higher pre-stress (σ455 – σ 605) MPa, the corrosion rate decreases. The microstructure inspection shows the deformed austenitic grain and ά-martensitic phase needle are appeared inside austenitic grains and the hardness reached the maximum value (332.433) Hv. At zone three the values of pre-stresses are between (σ605 - σf) MPa. The results showed that the corrosion rate increases. The investigation of microstructure showed that there are distortion in austenitic grains and ά- martensite phase observed inside austenitic grains. The hardness reached the maximum value at (354.3) Hv. The necking of gauge length of specimens occurs in specimens and this leads to deterioration in original properties

Numerical Analysis of The Multi-Stage Reverse Deep Drawing Process

Kariem Muhson Younis; Adil Shbeeb Jaber; Ammar Mahdi salah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 613-622

The paper presents an analysis of the multistage deep drawing process considering the three deformation stages namely drawing reverse and reverse redrawingrespectively. This work aim to study the mechanism of deformation during the redrawing process where the second and the third stages were done in reverse redrawing and study the effect of this mechanism on produced cup wall thickness, strain distribution across the wall of the drawn part. 2-D model of cylindrical cup (46.75mm) diameter has been developed in the first stage from sheet with thickness (0.5mm) of the low carbon steel (AISI 1008) and (85mm) diameter, while for second and third stages of drawing a punch diameter (32.725mm, 27.489mm) respectively, and inside diameter of dies equal to (33.825mm, 28.589mm) respectively, the clearance is chosen for three stage equal to 0.55mm. A commercial available finite element program code (ANSYS 11), is used to perform the numerical simulation of the multistage deep drawing. The results show that, when considering multi-stage drawing, the task is even more difficult because the strain and thickness distribution resulting from the first stage will influence the subsequent results,increase in thinning in the wall cup will appear in the second and third stages. Finally this work introduces new method (multi reverse redrawing) to produce circular cup throw three stages of drawing reduction in one stroke without the need to the loading and unloading the tools among the stages as in direct redrawing which means reducing the cost, time, efforts and enhancing cup production.

Evaluation of the Hydraulic Performance Indicators for Al- Ibrahim Irrigation Canal in the South of Iraq

Jaafar S. Maatooq; Ghazwan A. Kadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 623-635

This study was concerned for steady flow in open canals of different flow conditions that may exist in irrigation system. To achieve this objective, AL-Ibrahim Canal Located South of Iraq has been selected from numerous irrigation systems having deficiencies between demand requirements and actual supply, due to a problematic of distribution and management. The field works consists the measurements of stages at outlets,at upstream, and at downstream head regulators .The study adopted nineteen actual cases of discharge along six months, two or more measurements at each month during the study period,between November 2013 to April 2014.The main objectives of the present study are; analysis the actual operation of irrigation canal and evaluated indicators then the HEC-RAS model was applied to achieve these objectives. Themax. stage and discharges measurements at head regulator during the study period was4.415 m3/sec at Jan.2014,where it less than a target discharge , so the outlets along canal should not be operated at the same time especially if the gate of the outlets are fully opened , because for entire operation numerous outlets will take discharge higher than the target.The study has shown that it doesn'toperatethe channel and access to the standard of performance but several scenarios have been prepared depending on the discharge at head regulator.

Comparative Study for the Effect of Fixative Material Type and Perfume Formulation Parameters on the Fixation time of Local Formulated Perfume with Brand Perfumes

Alaa D. Jawad Al-Bayati

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 636-647

The effect of type of fixative material and the perfume formulation parameters (Concentration of ethyl alcohol, percentage of perfume and the percentage of the fixative used) were studied to determine the optimum conditions give perfume with high retention time (fixative), also the fixation time was compared with brand perfumes. Four fixative materials were studied; Sandal oil, Musk oil, Glycerin and benzyl benzoate. Design of experiments (DOE) with Minitab 15 software was done and leaded to minimum 20 runs necessary for this study. For the four fixatives the runs were eighty .The maximum fixation time of all the fixation materials are 6.3, 6.1, 5.9 and 5.9 h/g for Glycerin, Musk, Sandalwood and benzyl benzoate respectively with formulation parameters of (75% alcohol concentration, 30% perfume addition and 0.1% fixative material) for Musk, Glycerin and benzyl benzoate fixative materials and (85% alcohol concentration, 17.5% perfume addition and 0.55% fixative material) for Sandalwood as fixative material. The brand perfumes as Channel give 2h/g fixation time and for many other brand perfumes give fixation time in the range of 2.2-2.9h/g.

Behavior and Strength of Concentrically Loaded Flat Slabs Using Self-Compacting High Strength Concrete With and Without Openings with Steam Curing

Esraa Khudhair Mohsin Abuzaid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 648-663

Openings in slabs are usually required for plumbing, fire protection pipes, and ventilation ducts and air conditioning.
This study presents an experimental investigation on the influence of openings on the punching shear strength of high reinforced concrete flat plates. Five models of slab-column connection of (1000 x 1000 x 70mm) simply supported along the four edges are tested. The slabs are loaded concentrically by a central stub column. The main variables studied are the size(100x100mm and 200x100mm)and location(at 35 mm , at 135mm from center of slab and at the corner of slab) of the openings and used steam curing method.
Experimental results are recorded and studied at various stages of loading, deflection at the center of the slab, at distance (150mm) from the center of the slab in two directions and at the edge of the tested slab out of support. First cracking load and ultimate load capacity are also recorded.

Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer Enhancement with Nanofluid and Twisted Tape Inserts in a Circular Tube

Abdulhassan A. Karamallah; Nabeel S. Mahmoud

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 664-684

This paper presents an experimental study to investigate the heat transfer enhancement in a horizontal circular tube using three metal oxide (ZrO2 (80 nm), γ Al2O3 (20 nm), CuO (40 nm)–distilled water) nanofluids and fitted with three types of twisted tape (typical twisted tape, twisted tape with V-cut and clockwise-counter clockwise twisted tape) with twist ratios (TR=4, 6, 8). The studied concentrations of nanofluids are (φ = 0, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, 3% by volume) under fully developed turbulent flow and uniform heat flux condition.
The experimental test rig includes all the required instruments to study the heat transfer enhancement. All the tests were carried out with Reynolds number range (2490-20100) and uniform heat flux (2108-9280 W/m2). The experimental study also includes preparation and measurement of properties of density, viscosity and specific heat of nanofluids. The pressure drop, wall temperature, flow rate, heat flux and temperature of nanofluids.
For nanofluid, the maximum enhancement in the heat transfer (Nusselt number ratio) was (7.5), and the maximum thermal performance factor was (3.9) using (CuO)–distilled water nanofluid, clockwise-counter clockwise twisted tape with twist ratio (TR=4) at Reynolds number (2490) and concentration (φ=3%). The average Nusselt number and friction factor with Reynolds number, nanofluid concentration and twist ratio were correlated for each type of the used nanofluid.

Determination The Suitable Locations for Drilling Wells for Irrigation purpose by using Geographic Information System (GIS

Alaa Ghadhban Khalaf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 80-89

This study was conducted for the purpose of study and analysis of groundwater in the Karbala Governorate. Relied on a set of data and maps that relate to groundwater, topography and geology of the region in addition to 60 wells were distributed randomly in the region, all of this data has been entered in GIS environment to performance geometric and digital processing for it and completion of the analysis and extract the results from it.After conducting all necessary analyzes has been produced digital map that shows the best places to drill wells for irrigation in the region, depend on the topography of the region, basins and streams, sodium ratio and the proportion of dissolved salts in the groundwater in addition to the depths of those waters.where , the best place to drill wells was selected in the areas which has a little slopes because it contain high proportion of groundwater in addition to the sodium ratio in these areas does not exceed 40%, and this ratio consider good for irrigation, as well as the proportion of dissolved salts which range from 2,000 to 5,000 ppm and Although the height of this proportion , but the nature of the soil in the area and depths of groundwater led to use this water for irrigation , where it was observed that the soil of the region contain a high percentage of sand, in addition to the groundwater depths greater than 5 meter and this led to lack of water and salts accumulate in the plant root zone. Also three-dimensional map has been produced for the aquifer and the depths and thickness of the aquifer groundwater in the area.