Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 34, Issue 4 A (A)

Volume 34, Issue 4 A (A), April 2016, Page 90-815

A Comparative Study of Total and Bioavailable Cadmium and Zinc Concentrations and Distributions among Different Land Use Types within Baghdad City

Abdul Hameed M.J. Al Obaidy; Riyad Al-Anbari; Fatima H. Abd Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue Issue 4 A, Pages 685-697
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2016.112931

Total and bioavailable levels of Cd and Zn in topsoil (0–20) cm taken from four different land use types (residential, commercial, industrial and mixed) of the urban area of Bagdad, Iraq, were analyzed by the flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. This was with a view to appraising the influence of a variety of anthropogenic activities on heavy metal contamination of the urban soil. Results showed that the range of Cd and Zn were (0.00-6.35) mg/kg and (5.20-219.95) mg/kg respectively. As compared with the calculated world average of unpolluted soils, cadmium displays higher concentrations while the zinc concentration was within this common world range. The level of pollution was assessed using geoaccumulation index (Igeo), for all land use types Igeo decreasing order, followed the order of (Cd> Zn). The relative bioavailability for Cd, and Zn has been observed as 2.46-5 % and 2.80-9.78 % respectively. It can be concluded that, although total concentrations of the examined heavy metals were generally high, but at the same time the bioavailable ones were relatively low. This can be an indicator that with the recent environmental factors (alkaline to sub-alkaline soil pH), the toxicity of heavy metals to humans was in its minimum level.

Quality management for Ground water by Assessment of Aquifer Vulnerability to Contamination in Erbil City

Khalil I. Wali; Zina M. Alwan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue Issue 4 A, Pages 698-714
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.4A.2

Groundwater Protection begins with an assessment of the sensitivity of its environment. This study attempts to create a groundwater vulnerability map for Erbil city, Groundwater quality management can be effectively carried out by mapping for groundwater vulnerability to contamination. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the vulnerability of the aquifer to pollution in Erbil city, and to discover the groundwater vulnerable zones to pollution in the aquifer of the study area and to provide spatial analysis of the parameters and conditions under which groundwater may become polluted by using DRASTIC method within GISienvironment. According to the DRASTIC model index, the results show that in the South-eastern part of the studied area, highly vulnerability to pollution due to the aquifer media consists of gravel and sand, it is also found that the most parameter effects on the calculation is the soil media. It found that when the soil is gravel, “the Impact of Vadose Zone” is composed of gravel and sand and “Hydraulic conductivity” is high. Most of the studied areas are found to be classified within the moderate level of vulnerability to contamination.

Impact of Medical City and Al-Rasheed Power Plant Effluents on the Water Quality Index value of Tigris River at Baghdad City

Abdul Hameed M.J. Al Obaidy; Eman S. Awad; Zahraa Zahraw

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue Issue 4 A, Pages 715-724
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.4A.3

Water quality deterioration in surface water is the impact of anthropogenic activities due to rapid industrialization. Tigris River within Baghdad city is of particular importance in the study of surface water quality because; industrial and municipal wastes, agricultural and runoff from developing areas were mixing with river flow and surrounding water body thereby deteriorating the quality. The aim of the study was to assess the WQI on the basis of Weighted Arithmetic Index in order to evaluate the water quality of the Tigris River for drinking purposes from three stations within Baghdad city during 2013. The WQI was calculated based on the concentration of eleven parameters (pH, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Total Hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride, Turbidity, Nitrite (NO2), Nitrate (NO3), sulphate (SO4) and Zinc). The calculation of WQI showed that the water quality of Tigris river can be rated as very poor and unsuitable conditions at winter and summer, respectively, in the 1st site which is situated at the north of the study area while the water quality of the 2nd site can be categories as unsuitable conditions at all season of study and for 3rd site can be rated as poor and very poor conditions at winter and summer season, respectively. Therefore, there is need a regular monitoring of water quality in order to detect the changes in physio-chemical parameter concentrations.

Comparison Study of Environmental Impacts between Mid (CML) and End Point (Eco 95) Methods for Babel Lead Acid Battery Production Processes

May George Kassir; Lamyaa Mohammed Dawood; Hind Ihsan Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue Issue 4 A, Pages 725-738
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.4A.4

In this research, quantitative analysis, comparison of the environmental impacts for Iraqi Babel Lead acid battery (capacity of 135 Amps/hr) throughout the production processes is conducted for 2012 year, according to the ISO (14040-14043) series of standards. Two impact assessment methods employed are; Centre of Environmental Studies (CML–midpoint) and (Eco 95-endpoint). Chain Management Life Cycle Analysis [CMLCA] software is used to process and generate the collected data. In CML (mid-point) method four potential environmental impact categories are; [Global Warming Potential (GWP), Acidification, Eutrophication, and Human toxicity], while Eco 95 (endpoint) method evaluates six categories of environmental impact are; [Global Warming Potential (GWP), Acidification, Eutrophication, Heavy metals, Summer, and Winter Smog]. Results generated according to CML method reveal that formation process as the highest contributor to GWP by (26%), Eco 95 declared contribution to the GWP of the same process by (4%). Through CML (mid-point) the assembly process is identified as having the most significant impact on acidification by (50%), while Eco 95 method quantify acidification for the same process by (4%). Human toxicity is allocated by (60%) contribution in the assembly process by CML method, whereas the same process is identified as the most hazardous process of (93%) contribution heavy metals impact is, and winter smog (3%) according to Eco 95 method. Formation process is the highest contributor to Eutrophication according CML method, while Eutiphication is not of concern, according to (Eco 95) for this process. It is concluded that the environmental impacts of Babel battery spread over the production processes and every process have certain environmental impact category (nerveless the quantifying method). Therefore, it is recommended using both methods to expose all the environmental categories, and to control the environmental aspects of the company, also it is recommended to use new technologies for battery production that have less impact on the environment.

Sustainability for Heavy Engineering Equipment Industries Using Lean Concepts

Luma A. H. Al-Kindi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue Issue 4 A, Pages 739-753
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2016.112935

Steel is one of the most used materials in the industry. In particular, Steel is the dominating material used in the fabrication of heavy engineering equipment. It is estimated that the world’s annual production of Steel is 1500 Million tons. One of the best ways to reduce such environmental hazard is by recycling of Steel. Recycling of Steel is widely implemented and in terms of tonnage Steel is the most recycled material in the world. Currently, it is estimated that 85% of annual steel production is recycled worldwide. Sustainability benefits of recycling steel include conserving valuable natural resources and raw materials and eliminate negative environmental effects. However, in many cases, handling and transportation of scrap steels to recycling facilities and locations may not be feasible due to many reasons such as transportation cost, scrap bulky sizes and shapes, or scrap quantities. Therefore, in such cases Steel scrap presents a real problem to relevant industries; heavy engineering equipment industries present an example of suffering industries.
Lean Manufacturing is one of the best ways to run a manufacturing company and Lean principles have been successfully applied in many industries in the last two decades or so.
In this paper a “Road Map” for a heavy engineering equipment company is suggested to make use of huge amounts of steel by recycling. A case study is selected to be on one of the Iraqi Ministry of Oil Companies. The aim is to develop and apply Lean concepts to reduce and eliminate Steel scrap accumulation. The paper takes into consideration the actual accumulated Steel scrap resulting from the company processes for ten years. The results of the paper show that applying of the Lean concept will beneficially lead to reducing the accumulated scrap over the years and accordingly save a lot of resources. The conclusions demonstrate that sustainability is fruitful to be adopted in this area.

Optimization Corrosion Protection Parameters of steel pipeline By Using Taguchi Experimental Design

Naser Korde Zedin; Muhammed A.Mahdi; Ruaa Abd Al Kaream Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue Issue 4 A, Pages 754-761
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2016.112936

Cathodic Protection System (CPS) is used to reduce corrosion by minimizing the difference in potential between anode and cathode. Two types of Cathodic protection systems are usually applied: The galvanic protection systems use the sacrificial anodes, the other system is impressed current (that used in this paper), and this can be achieved by applying a current to the structure to be protected from electrical source. The main objective of this work is to determine experiments designed according to Taguchi method and Analysis the results by MINITAB program. Experiments have been conducted by using L9 orthogonal array with three parameters (concentrations of NaCl solution, Temperate and Speed of Solution) at three levels (low, medium and high). The result of research based on the signal to noise ratio (S/N) depending on the condition smaller is better approach. The results of this paper show that the significant factor is NaCl wt% and the optimum combination of parameters which were reducing the corrosion are temperature (35 °C), the speed of solution (15 r.p.m) and the NaCl concentration (20 %wt).

Using locally isolated Chlorella vulgaris in Wastewater Treatment

Alaa Kareem Mohammed; Safaa Abdalrasool Ali; Ibtisam Fareed Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue Issue 4 A, Pages 762-768
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2016.112937

In this study locally isolated microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris Bejerinck) was used in wastewater treatment to reduce the pollutant parameters. Three parameters were studied to determine the efficiency of Chlorella vulgaris in reducing COD, BOD and PO4 concentration. Samples of wastewater were taken from a primary station in Al-Rustomiya wastewater treatment station. Three different dilutions of wastewater were tested; 100% waste, 75%waste 25%waste with distilled water. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) values started with 370mg/l, 270mg/l and 200mg/l for samples A, B and C respectively, and it reached after 14 days to 112 mg/l, 88 mg/l, and 120 mg/l. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) started with 241mg/l, 200mg/l, and 170 mg/l for samples A, B and C respectively, and it declined to 110 mg/l, 61 mg/l, and 112 mg/l. Finally PO4 started with 39.9 mg/l, 30 mg/l, 21 mg/l and it reached to 17.1mg/l, 8mg/l, 11.2mg/l for samples A, B and C respectively. Sample B showed the best removal values for COD, BOD and PO4 which reached to 88 mg/l, 61 mg/l, and 8 mg/l respectively.

Sprinkler Irrigation Systems and Water Saving, A Case Study from South of Iraq

Suray A. Rasheed; Aqeel Al-Adili

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue Issue 4 A, Pages 769-786
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.4A.8

The irrigation systems modernization is a part of water resources management improvement process which requires a decision support system, the core of such system is an automated procedure for simulating the relevant processes governing the system. Simulation models have been used in two phases in this research for two specified areas within Maysan and Wasit provinces in Iraq with an area of 480×250 meters for each province, which have been taken as a case study to redesign and replace the existing open channel network with the new sprinkler irrigation system. The first phase is to find a crop water requirement and irrigation requirements for maize, wheat and barley using CROPWAT 8.0 simulation model, while the second phase includes the irrigation network design using EPANET 2.0 simulation model to perform extended period simulation of hydraulic behavior within pressurized pipe networks, in addition to, the SPAW model which have been used to evaluate soil characteristics. This study has revealed that the designed sprinkler system capacity is 113m3/hr with 5.04 mm/hr precipitation rate. The designed sprinkler system can be used to irrigate different crop types including maize, barley and wheat. Since, the sprinkler system has been designed to meet the maize irrigation water requirements which is the heights requiring water consumer crop the during the summer season, then it has the ability to meet the different winter cereals irrigation requirements. The designed system can be used in the different regions of Iraq generally and southern regions, especially because it has been designed to suit the soil that characterized by moderate, slow infiltration rates in addition to suit areas of relatively high wind speed which affecting the water distribution uniformity and slow infiltration rates of soils.

Using mobile to send an Environmental Report to the environmental database

Nahla F. Alwan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue Issue 4 A, Pages 787-796
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2016.112939

The purpose of this research to create an application on Mobile allows volunteers and official staff sends information about various environmental problems suffered by the Iraqi individual in his environment and sends it to the relevant environmental authorities for the purpose of storage and archiving electronically with the ability to display this data and retrieved and modified or deleted. The application is a client - server system and the application development for mobile device is Android Studio while environmental database created on the local host xampp server with web php pages to view reports and search or by using the Capabilities of the local host xampp server itself. Use the application allows the participation of the largest number of volunteers and environmental staff and notification directly about the problems and environmental damage at low cost, and improve the interaction between society and environmental authorities and to increase environmental awareness and improve the popular environmental control and provide the possibility of environmental remediation faster and achieve a something of Sustainable development social and environmental dimensions .

The Mechanisms of achieving and rating urban sustainable neighborhood projects in Baghdad city (Hypothesis academic vision)

Zaynab R. Abaas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue Issue 4 A, Pages 797-815
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2016.112940

This scientific study seeks to shed the light on the first academic sustainable housing projects study designed by the fourth stage students in Baghdad University- Architecture Engineering Department, 2015, in a site in Baghdad city chosen for its environmental and site potentialities that achieve urban sustainability. The idea of the academic project is adopting urban sustainable neighborhood principles starting with the development and planning level, mixed uses strategies, the application of TOD and green transportation, site and green natural areas preservation, reaching to the design level by designing compact within contemporary housing clusters which applied green technologies from the use of renewable energies like solar panels, green roof gardens, water recycling, to the designing detail of an eco-house in urban orchard area. Finally, the researcher seeks to rate the projects according to (LEED -ND) rating system to measure the level of sustainability in some of the best- chosen academic projects in order to study the possibility of achieving the universal principles of the sustainability in the local projects. The findings are so many creative academic projects which showed two main results, firstly the possibilities of applying the universal principles of urban sustainable neighborhood in Iraqi cities in general and Baghdad as a case study to achieve urban sustainability and secondly the necessity of developing a local Iraqi urban sustainability criteria and rating systems suit with Iraqi environment and work with the local microclimate.

Administration Water Supply Gap for Residential Land Use in Baghdad City for the Period 1993-2010

Haider Abd Alrazaq Kamonah; Kareem hassan alwan; Hekmat Abd Almajeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue Issue 4 A, Pages 90-99
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2016.112941

A service processing water supply for residential land use is a cornerstone to the success of all plans for economic and social development to bring it to the welfare of the required service, where the investment has been employed to improve the human and his service, lies in the attention to the safety of his health and social welfare, with a big return in increasing the productive capacity of society and development towards higher levels in human living. Problem lies in the lack of adoption of proper planning and successful completion of this vital service, task, and provided so as to ensure justice in the processing where not found in Iraq and in the study area, especially the standards and a real comprehensive studies planning cover all aspects of water supply service to residential areas, The city of Baghdad suffers from problems in justice processing water supply to revitalize the residential and scarves, and thus need to be clear and comprehensive study of this problem contributes to reducing the gap in the city of Baghdad and the rest of the provinces of the country.

Compared the Efficiency of Two Methods (Chemical and Biological) for Removal (Cadmium, Copper and Zinc) from Contaminated Water

Muntaha N. Althweni; Jenan H. Mohammed; Mayami H. Awad; Teba S. Ganee

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue Issue 4 A, Pages 100-107
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2016.112942

In the present study two methods were used to compare the efficiency of removing heavy metals (cadmium, copper and zinc) from contaminated water, and by applying the method of adding a chemical polymer dynamically (Alginic acid) and the method of adding a biological pure culture type of (green algae), different concentrations, respectively (1.0, 0.75, 0.5, 0.25 ppm) was prepared for each element. Both of these methods have been applied and the same working conditions of temperature and pH of the time (72 hours), and then detect the level of residual concentrations of the elements mentioned using Flame atomic spectroscopy technique for measuring the absorbance. The results showed that the two methods effective in drag tested with the superiority of biopolymer algae free in reducing cadmium and copper. While convergence efficient ways to remove the zinc from aqueous media contaminated.

The Emitted Emissions of Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Iraqi Diesel Fuel during Idle Time

Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue Issue 4 A, Pages 108-116
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.4A.13

Idle emissions of unburnt hydrocarbon (HC), CO, CO2, NOx, particulate matter (PM) and noise were measured from multi cylinder direct injection diesel-fueled engine. The purpose was to evaluate the hazards collateral to operate the engine at idle speed for long periods of time. Experiments were conducted at various speeds (900, 1000, 1200 and 1500 RPM) and for a 20 min period of time. The measurements were taken each 5 min. The results indicate that increasing idle time increased CO, HC, NOx, PM and noise, in the same time reduced CO2 concentration. Increasing idle time deteriorated combustion causing lower CO2 while the other emissions increased highly. Increasing idle speed improved the combustion and reduced CO, HC, PM and noise while increasing CO2 and NOx. Increasing engine speed enhanced combustion resulting in higher CO2 concentration, but it also increases combustion temperatures which resulted in higher NOx.

Environmental Management as an Entry Point to Achieve Sustainable Development with Reference to Reality Sustainable Development in Iraq

Amera khalaf Lftah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue Issue 4 A, Pages 117-130
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.4A.14

Led industrial activity and technological development in the countries of the world in recent years to the emergence of negative effects on the environment where the right of seriously polluting the natural and urban environmental components impact on natural systems and human health as well as the depletion of resource consumption is rational to her, leading to the depletion of non-renewable resources and influence the growth rate of renewable resources. EMS is one of the most important systems that are reliable in order to achieve reduction of environmental pollution targets and improve internal and external environment of the institutions. This system is based on a set of practices and tools include environmental impact and environmental risk assessment and management, pollution prevention and cleaner production consecration, and planning for emergency response, and environmental review. Cleaner production method is based like other preventive strategies, to the exclusion of pollution before it occurs. And it is a sure guarantee for the institutions to compete locally and globally, an option which ensures environmental bodies with the competent authorities on adoption in order to achieve green development (sustainable development) reduce loss and waste of natural resources and of energy, as a mechanism of sustainable development mechanisms. So consisted research the problem (the existence of environmental problems rather than on a specific place, but overtaken, to become a contemporary global problems, particularly when the exploitation of natural resources and unusually familiar, and without any consideration of what results from the act Alabama crowbar at the core of the ecological balance. The research aims to clarify the concept of environmental management (environmental management and its importance and its relationship to development). Identify the environmental situation in Iraq through the presentation of the most important environmental problems and sources of environmental pollution, causes, effects and various implications. Propose recommendations to improve the application of the proper environmental management system. The importance of searching through the occupied importance of environmental management, both in being a mainstay of economic activity in the conservation of natural resources and the rationalization of consumption, and in being responsive to the needs of sustainable development, and its ability to maintain the environmental elements of the system to continue. Study and analysis of the reality of environmental management and to assess its performance, and the disclosure of the difficulties and obstacles that stand in front of their evolution and limit their impact and do.

The Indicators of Sustainable Housing in Local Housing Projects

Safa Al-deen hussain ali; Sajda khadm al kindi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue Issue 4 A, Pages 131-151
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.4A.15

Most of the sustainable design principles work to reduce the cost of housing over the building life cycle (BLC) especially in housing development projects. As the concept emphasizes on the economy in the infrastructure or (basic structure), in the resources used for work, in the housing facilitating and its affordability for users. From here, the research shows its research problem” the absence of a strategic vision of adopting sustainable economic housing indicators in the local housing projects” assuming its effective role in creating economically sustainable housing projects through the needs approving, the quality performance improving and the cost reducing indicators, (or need approval, the quality performance improvement and the cost reduction), highlighting the importance of these indicators on the planning, design, and implementation level in local housing project to achieve an economic sustainable residential environment. In order to achieve the research aim, it has been shaded the light on the basic triple in the housing projects (housing-economic, sustainable) through an analytical review of the global experiences, Arabic and the local housing projects, (environmentally, economically, socially), to define the sustainable economic housing concept, and identify the planning, designing and operation factors & constituents affecting the sustainable economic housing standards. To reach the conclusions that show the indicators effective role in the sustainable economic housing (needs approval-quality performance improvement- and cost reduction), which included many of the secondary indicators that can be derived from the proposed plan and designing standard in Iraqi housing projects (housing density and structure and space housing unit area).