Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 34, Issue 5

Volume 34, Issue 5, May 2016, Page 152-1028

Hardware Implementation of Wireless Sensor Network Using Arduino and Zigbee Protocol

Mahmood F. Mosleh; Duaa SH. Talib

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 816-829

This paper presents a designed and implemented Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) based on Arduino and IEEE 802.15.4/Zigbee standards. This network consists offour end nodes; each one is connected to an individual type of sensors (lighting, temperature, motion, and distance) to form a safety network for building offices, factories, homes…etc. Also there is a fifth node in this network to collect the information from each node and send it to the base station which is a computer to be process the data and take the appropriate decision according to the program established by the user. Results confirmed that the network performs its functions with high efficiency and gave accurate readings of the surrounding circumstances. Stable reading of temperature and lighting had been achieved in the implemented network. Also, the motion and distance sensors gave good results depending onthe presence ofobjectsclose tothemore peoplemovingnear. In addition, the network is characterized by high flexibility and ease of programing that can be used to give various applications such aswarning of fire by setting a threshold level of temperature to enable an alarm when exceeding such level. It can also be used to preventtheftsbydetectingmovements ofthe humanbody with distance sensor. Inaddition, other uses can be implemented such as controlling heating and lightingdevicesin homes andotherbuildings.

Study the Effect of Iron Powder Additives on Mechanical properties of Recycling of Aluminum Cans Scrap

Jawad. k. Oleiwi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 830-838

This paper involves the effect of iron powder in recycling of aluminum cans scrap on some mechanical properties. This process includes burning aluminum cans to remove paint and shredding into small pieces then melting aluminum pieces using an electrical furnace at (750 ºC). Iron powder (0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 wt %) was added to the melt sequentially. The composition is then casted into cylinder steel molds. The mechanical and metallurgical characteristics of the fabricated alloys were studied through an optical microscope including hardness, tensile testing, scanning electronic microscope and X-ray fluorescence. The results indicated that the maximum value of tensile strength and elongation percentage are recorded for the addition of (1.2%) of Iron powder. While maximum modulus of elasticity reported was at (0.6%) Iron powder cast. Hardness also increased with the increase of Iron additives.

Design and Construction of Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) System for NOx Remote Sensing

Mehdi M. Shellal; Naseer M. Hadi; Thamer M. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 839-846

Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique is one of the methods used for measurement, analysis and managing air pollution, studying the chemical properties of trace gases in the atmosphere, identification of critical (peak) values to determine the concentration of trace gases that cause an air pollution in industrial-urban locations, and are used in evaluating criteria of photochemical or smog pollution cases of fewer days, and in analysis of wind directions. According to these issues the (DOAS) technique has been developed to become one of techniques that have high order in practical performance based on UV-Visible and near infrared region at spectral range of (200-1100nm) wavelength absorption by molecules of gases in atmosphere. The experimental work of this thesis has been focused on calibration of the system with laboratory experiments to detect many atmospheric gases which are nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2 and NO3 radical). DOAS technique is based on the principle of optical absorption by molecule of gas over several meters to many kilometers length, DOAS gives average concentration measurement lead's to general pollution estimation at long distances, and consequently avoids local perturbation events in point's measurements. The DOAS technique provides typical database by using the language of C # compared with results obtained from experimental measurements.

Experimental and Numerical Study on the Improvement of Uniformity Flow in a Parallel Flow Channel

Wissam H. Alawee; Jafar M. Hassan; Wahid S. Mohammad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 847-856

The flow uniformity among individual branches within a manifold system can be a significant factor to predict the performance and efficiency of various engineering applications. The non-uniform flow within the manifold system occurs due to the development of vena-contracta at the inlet to the tubes. In order to reduce the flow mal-distribution in the header-lateral system, an approach is presented in this paper. In this approach, the inlet to the lateral pipe is arranged such that the flow enters the lateral pipe with a velocity vector inclined at a certain angle with respect to the cross section of the manifold. Two test sections representing two header structures were used in this study. The first test section is conventional manifold, the second is a modified manifold (the lateral pipes of manifold were tilted a certain angle with axis of manifold). In both test sections, the diameter of the main pipe was 101.6 mm and of the lateral pipe was 50.8 mm. The results of this study showed that the method of changing the angle of water entry to lateral pipes in order to obtain uniform flow has improved the flow distribution by 54% at entry angle of 60, that is a reduction in absolute stander deviation from (0.481) to (0.136) and the maximum ratio between highest and lowest flow is 26%. Also, the change in the total flow rate has a slight effect on flow uniformity.

Behavior of High Strength Concrete Containing Nano- Metakaolin Exposure to Fire Flame

Mohammed K. Al-Khafaji; Waleed A. Abbas; Shakir Al-Mishhadani

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 857-875

The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the effect of fire flame exposure with different intensities of firing on the mechanical properties of a high strength concrete (HSC). Many variables were encountered in this study. Two mixes of 80 MPa target compressive strength (1:1.22:2) with 3% Nano-Metakaolin and the other with 5% were used. Two types of coarse aggregate were used (natural crushed gravel and crushed dolomite rock with maximum size of 14mm). The specimens were moist cured for 28 days, air-dried in the laboratory to firing at ages 90 days at three temperature levels (400, 600, 800)oC and for three exposure periods (1, 1.5 and 2 hours). Different methods were used to cool specimens. The reduction values of compressive strength for all mixes ranged between (2-69.5)% at 400oC, (8-72)% at 600oC and (10-85)% at 800oC , the reduction values of splitting tensile strength were (9-43.2)%, (17-50)% and (39-76)%, and the reduction values of flexural strength were (51.7-84.8)%, (52.8-87) %, (53.6-87.8)%, respectively.

Estimation the Efficiency of Nano Particles Coating on Carbon Steel by Atomization

Rana Afif Anaee; Ahmed M. Al- Ghaban; Douaa A. Abdullah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 876-886

In this work, three nanoparticles were applied as coatings on carbon steel using atomization method (cold spraying) by airbrush.The coatings includednano Al2O3,nanoSiC and nanoZrO2 materials. The characterization of coated surfaces has been investigated by AFM and SEM. All these inspections indicated that the deposition of nanoparticles on carbon steel surface was uniform and homogeneous. Thethickness of coated layers was calculated using gravimetric method, while the particle size and roughness were measured from the analysis of atomic force microscopy.With constant conditions of coating, nano alumina coating gave the highest thickness (6.2216 nm) due to agglomeration of these particles compared with others as illustrated in SEM images. Corrosion test was performed to estimate the corrosion resistance, protection efficiency and porosity percentage which indicated the role of nano particle coating on corrosion control. These data showed that the nano alumina was better than other coatings and gave PE 99.69%.
Cyclic polarization was also estimated to show the probability of pitting corrosion. The coating with alumina gave the best data for decreasing the chance of pitting corrosion.

Arabic Text Encryption Using Artificial Neural Networks

Oday Kamil Hamid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 887-899

This research aims to build a cipher system using back propagation Algorithm with artificial neural network to encrypt any Arabic text and to prevent any data attack during the transition process.Encryption information holdsfour stages:
1)A neural network was trained by using back propagation algorithm to encrypt the whole input Arabic text and graspfinal weights and consider these weights as a public key.
2) Training a second neural network by using back propagation algorithm to decrypt the input Arabic text of first stage and graspweights and consider the weights as a private key.
3)Encrypt any Arabic text by using the weights obtained from first stage.
4)Decrypt the Arabic text from third stage by using the weights obtained from second stage.
The four stages are achieved prosperously for data encryption process and decryption.
This work is executed by using Matlab program version 7 and Notepad++ for writing text because it supports Arabic numbers under windows 7 as operating system.

Proposed Algorithm for Image Noise Detection Based on Recursive Matrix

Hassan Jaleel Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 900-911

The noise is any undesired signal that contaminates an image. This paper proposes an algorithm for color image noise detection of several types of noise, namely; Gaussian, Salt and Pepper and Speckle.
This algorithm uses a method of generating a square matrix from original image, called a Recursive Matrix (RM)
This RM was used successfully in detecting the noisy or noisy-free image. The first step is to analyze the three bands monochrome image (color image) to Red, Green and Blue images, then deal with each image as a grey-scale image which is represented as 2-Dimenssion matrix. The second Step is to construct the RM to each monochrome image, then to calculate the standard deviation (std.) for each RM to distinguish between noisy and pure image by using objective testdepending on Std. threshold. In the third step, the subjective test is used to the same image by plotting the image with its RM in 3-Dimensions, for both pure and noisy images. The proposed algorithm gives a perfect detection of noise in 50 color images as a case study used in this algorithm.

Experimental Comparison Between Conventional Coolants and (TiO2/Water) Nano fluid to select the best Coolant for Automobiles in Iraq's Summer Season

Abdulmunem R. Abdulmunem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 912-926

This work, presentsnanofluids as a new coolant technology in automobile engines compared with other conventional coolants (Ethylene glycol/water(antifreeze), distilled water) experimentally.The increase in thermal conductivity of the base fluid (water) by adding nanoparticles in certain ratios led to more absorption of heat from engine block. The experimental results indicated that the drooping in exit engine coolant temperatures was about(18.5%) by using (0.3%TiO2/water)nanofluid, and about (9%) by using distilled water comparative with Ethylene glycol/water(50/50) at the test end. The increasing in radiator(heat exchanger) effectiveness was about (51%) with using nanofluid, and about (29%) with using distilled water comparative with Ethylene glycol/water(50/50) at the test end. The results indicated also that the increasing in Nusselt’s number at entrance of radiator hose was about (42.8%) with usingnanofluid and about (30.5%) with using distilled water compared with Ethylene glycol/water(50/50).This led to increase convection heat transfer coefficient at entrance of radiator hoseby about (65%) with using nanofluidand about (49.5%) with using distilled water compared with Ethylene glycol/water (50/50).

Statistical Study to Support Integration of Engineering Graduates’ Career Decisions and Basic Engineering Programs

Lamyaa M.Dawood; May G. Amin; Dhuha K. Ismayyir

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 927-940

This research focuses on different aspects of engineering graduates’ career planning decisions as an important activity for their business and empowers continuous curriculum improvements to integrate academic programs outcomes and technical skills that conforms Iraqi job and employing requirements.
Data is collected according to questionnaire conducted for majority of “Production Engineering and Metallurgy department disciplines at the University of Technology” graduates’ as a case study that may be used later in human resources planning. Bar graphs are used as a statistical tool to display and analyze the results for three generations of grandaunts (80s, 90s, and above 2000s). Results revealed that despite private recruitment have been raised in Iraq at the last decade; governmental sector is still the main target for graduates employment through the three decades covered in this study. Also, results declare that leading role is dominated by male engineers for almost two out of the three decades covered in this research. The results also showed graduate’s tendency to additional sciences and practical skills beside general and basic engineering sciences that are already available in their academic program. Internet is generally their major resource of consultations for the engineers’ followed by other resources (academic professors, and books).

Properties Investigation of Washed Sawdust/UPE Composites

Mohammed H. Alzuhairi; Kadhum M. Shabbeb; edy; Sally A. Hussain Alsa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 941-949

In this study, sawdust filler from White Cham washed with distilled water in order to increase their compatibility with a polymeric matrix, and their properties were compared with unwashed sawdust used as filler forUnsaturated Polyester (UPE) resin used with three volume fractions (20, 30 and 40%). Samples of unwashed and washed sawdust were characterized by tensile and thermal conductivity. The treatment with water was effective in increasing the surface roughness, and crystallinity, thereby increasing the thermal conductivity of the washed sawdust/UPE composites. However, results showed that the addition of washed sawdust/UPE composite provided an improvement in mechanical properties of composites. The maximum percentage in improvement of tensile strength, toughness and elongation at break were (7.7, 23.1 and 4.4%) respectively at (Vf=20%) in comparison with unwashed sawdust/UPE composites. Also, the results showed an increase in volume fraction of sawdust decrease the mechanical properties and thermal conductivity.

A Study of the Chemical Resistance and Hardness of Epoxy Reinforced by Magnesium Oxide and Charcoall Activated Particles

Nabil KadhimTaieh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 950-958

In this research, some samples from Epoxy with Magnesium oxide and charcoal activated Particles as filler in different weight percent (1, 3, and 6) wt. % have been prepared. Chemical resistance test has been done using simple immersion test in different periods of time and the immersion done in different solutions (1N NaOH, 1N HCL and 25 g of NaCl per litter of distilled water). Shore (A) hardness tests were carried out on the prepared samples before and after the immersion into distilled water, (1N HCl) acid, (1N NaOH) and 25 g of NaCl per litter of distilled water with normality (1). The results exhibited increase in chemical resistance and hardnessvalues increase with increasing magnesium oxide and charcoal activated ratio. The maximum hardness was observed in the case of epoxy -6wt% MgOcomposites i.e. 108.8 and least chemical resistance in the case of pure epoxy being 4.885% in NaOH.

Computer Aided Flank Wear Measurement in End Milling Cutting Tool

Ali Abbar Khleif; Mostafa Adel Abdullah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 959-972

Flank wear width is generally recognized as the key indicator for tool life.In the experiments of this study, nine tools made of HSS and stainless steel 316L as work piecewiththreespindlespeeds(550,930 and 1100)rpm and three redial depth of cut (1.5,2 and 2.25)mm were used. The cutting tool wear was measured using optical microscope and vision system based on a proposed algorithm.Maximum and minimum percentage errors in the flank wear width were (8.250% and 0.645 %) respectively. The numerical method used was by a multiple linear and polynomial regression model and developed a polynomial model, especially to predict the flank wear using MATLAB software.Maximum and minimum percentage errors werefound (14% and 0.322 %) respectively.

Computer Reverse Engineering for Reproducing Spur Gears using Digital Image Processing (DIP) Technique

Mohanad Qusay Abbood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 973-982

Reverse Engineering (RE) is a technique that uses different approaches to obtain characteristic data of a physical object for which no drawings, documentations or computer models are available. This paper presents an experimental approach of reverse engineering for reconstructing the spur gears. 3D CAD model is made using digital image processing (DIP). Gears have been scanned using a single digital camera. The digitized data of spur gears was collected and processed using MATLAB package with Digital image processing (DIP) technique. It is worth mentioning that the accuracy of the modeling process of given piece depends on the number of points that are captured on the work piece surface. This proposed method is the best tool used in reverse engineering because it is faster and more accurate than the method used the coordinate measurement machines (CMMs). To confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method a comparison is madeusing image processing between the first data of spur gears and the data from the manufactured gears. The obtained results indicated that the proposed digital image processing system is an accurate and reliable reverse engineering for reproducing Spur gears using inexpensive equipment.

Surface Roughness Prediction Using Circular Interpolation Based on Artificial Neural Network in Milling Operation

Maan Aabid Tawfiq; Ahmed A.A. Duroobi; Safaa K. Ghazi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 983-998

This paper presents a method togenerate tool path and get G-codes for complex shapes depending on mathematical equations without using the package programs that use linear interpolation. Circular interpolation (G02, and G03) were used to generate tool path. This needs to define the tool radius and radius of curvature in addition to the cutting direction whether clockwise or counter clockwise. In addition many other factors had been considered in the machining process of the proposed surface to find the best tool path and G-code. Side step, feed rate and cutting speed had been studied as machining factors affecting tool path generation process. Artificial Neural Network technique had also been considered to find the best tool path depending on the cutting parameters proposed while surface roughness was the characteristic that the tool path process and G-code generation depend on. The impact of the machining parameters on the surface roughness was determined by the use of analysis of variance (ANOVA) that detects more influence for side step (85%, 53%, and 67%).From this study, it has been learned that less side step (0.2) mm and feed speed (1000) mm/min and high value for cutting speed (94.2) m/mingive better tool path to be used in machining operations. This study would help engineers and machinists to select the best tool path for their products.

Thermal Storage Efficiency Enhancement for Solar Air Heater Using a Combined SHSm and PCM Cylindrical Capsules System: Experimental Investigation

Akram H. Abed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 999-1011

Thepresent work aims to enhance the thermal storage efficiency and thermal behavior for solar air heater integrated with cylindrical capsulessystem. The cylindrical capsule has diameter 50 mm and length 600 mm, placed in the crossflow of airstream.In this experimental study, a high specific heat of latent heat storage materials (PCM-paraffin wax) wereinvestedto increase the stored ability for sensible heat storage materials (pure sand). Three cases are testedunderconstant incident irradiation 1000Wm-2, in the first case cylindrical capsules packed with pure sand, second case cylindrical capsules packed with compound (sand+10% PCM) and third case cylindrical capsules packed with compound (sand+20% PCM), for both natural convection and forced convection with different mass flow rates (0.5 , 1.132 kg/min). The experimental results indicated that the compound (sand+20%PCM) gives the best thermal storage duration (380 min),with increase in outlet air temperature by approximately 5.6 % in forced convection with (0.5 kg/min) compared with pure sand (240 min). For forced convection with (1.132 kg/min), compound (sand+20%PCM) gives (355 min) thermal storage duration with increase in outlet air temperature by approximately 9.2 % compared with pure sand (220 min).Increase of mass flow rate leads to decrease the outlet air temperature period time of the discharge process.

Dopant Effect on The Nonlinear Optical Properties of TiO2- PMMA Nano Composites for Optical Limiter Applications

Aya H. Makki; Ali H. AL-Hamadani; Mohammed Abdulridha Husien

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 1012-1016

In this paper theeffect of ZnO dopant on the nonlinearoptical behavior of TiO2-PMMA Nano composites films was studied. TiO2-PMMA Nano composites films were prepared using solution casting method then doped with different amounts of ZnO nanoparticles. Z-Scan measurements were performed to obtain the nonlinear optical response of these samples at 1064nm using CW Nd-YAG laser. The addition of ZnO nanoparticle into the Nano composites showed a great enhancement in the nonlinear optical response and decreasing in limiting threshold (10 mW)as the dopants concentration increased.

Thin Iris Region Recognition Using the RED Algorithm

Safaa S. Omran; Aqeel A. Al-Hilali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 1017-1028

Iris recognition system provides automatic identification of an individual based on a unique feature that located inside the iris. To detect these features Ridge Energy Detection (RED) algorithm, which is one of the most accurate and fast identification method to detect iris, features today. RED algorithm is applied to rectangle iris that generated from the normalization process. RED algorithm constructed a template contains the features of the iris by using two types of filter (horizontal and vertical). In this paper, two different rectangle iris templates were generated, the first rectangle iris template is generated as common way in this filed by taking rectangle iris template that contains full iris region, while the other is a novel rectangle iris template which contains a ring from the iris that near to the pupil. Bothrectangle iris templates were applied to the RED algorithm in order to compare the accuracy and time between them. The novel rectangle iris template has 0% fault in recognition and faster in extraction process by six times than the common rectangle iris template in extracting the features of iris when using RED algorithm and also three times faster in matching process when comparing with novel rectangle iris template than rectangle iris template that contains full iris region.

Distribution Pattern of theInternallyDisplaced Persons (IDPs) and Its Impact on the Educational Services in KarbalaUsing Geographic Information System

Hayder Mahdi Ali; Mohammed Mijbil Salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 152-162

The increase in the number of Internal displacedpersons (IDPs) in Iraq, especially afterthe10th of June 2014 is unprecedented in the modern history of Iraq. This has lasted for a long period without solving the problem fundamentally by returning these peopleto their original regions of residence after providing security and basic services. Their suffering increases daily in the provinces that displaced them for the lack of adequate services, the most important and appropriate housing, health and education despite the long time of displacement which exceeded the year. In addition to the problems resulting from the inability of the system services in these provinces to afford such large numbers of displaced people, been already suffering from many problems, exceeding significantly.
The geographical distribution study of the locations of the displaced and exceeding their numbers within each province is an important and essential step needed to prepare plans to provide basic services to those people in order to alleviate the suffering, and because the continuation of the education process forIDP students is one of the important things to ensure no loss of any year of education in order to preserve their scientific future.
Research began by creating geographic database using geographic information systems software (Arc GIS desktop 10), to represent the number and distribution of displaced in the holy province of Karbala and the number of displaced students in the schools in all stages, and indicates the distribution efficiency of displaced schools in terms of accessibility.
The study concluded that the displaced persons are distributed at rates (68%, 29%, and 3%) in governorate center, al-hindiya district, and ain al-tamur district respectively. The distribution of displaced people in governorate center was at rates (71%, 17%, and 12%) on the district center, Hussainia sub-district and al-Hur sub-district respectively. They were distributed in the al-hindiya district at rates (16%, 34%, and 50%) on the district center and al-jadwal al-Gharbi sub-district and al-khairat sub-district respectively.72% of the Enrolled displaced students joined 544 schoolsin the provincefor the academic year 2014-2015, while eight schools allocated for IDP students havereceived 28% of them only.

The Development of a Planning-mathematical Method to Achieve a Fair Population Density Using Population Distribution Methods (Case Study on Al-Najaf governorate)

Fadhaa Marouf M. Al-Chalabi; Atheer Marouf M. Al-Chalabi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 163-179

In this study, planning - mathematical methods (concerning the population distribution) were applied inorder to reachspecific numeric results which help to draw up a plan for a justified distribution of the population, and thus obtain spatially balanced development.Some of these methods are the: "Dynamical Radius", the "Concentration Ratio" and the "Rate of Population Growth" to predict the population distribution (as accomplished fact).Then, develop a mathematical method to achieve the justified population density over time, taking into consideration the natural growth of the population in each stage of distribution.