Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 34, Issue 12

Volume 34, Issue 12, October 2016, Page 502-2379

Physical and Mechanical Properties Estimation of Ti/HAP Functionally Graded Material Using Artificial Neural Network

Jawad K. Oleiwi; Rana A. Anaee; Sura A. Muhsin

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 12, Pages 2174-2180

This study presents the effort in applying neural network-based system identification techniques by using Back- propagation algorithm to predict somephysical mechanical properties of functionally graded and compositesamples from Ti/HAP, these samples were fabricated by powder metallurgy method at various volume fraction of hydroxyapatite and at n equal (0.8, 1, and 1.2). Because of important of advanced materials such as FGMs as alternative industrial material, it is necessary to measure the physical properties of these materials such as porosity, density, hardness, compression …etc. Therefore the ANN will be used to estimate these properties and give a good performance to the network.

The Combined Effect of Attapulgite High Reactive Mineral Admixture and Superplastisizer on Compressive Strength of Attapulgite Lightweight Aggregate Concrete

Qais J. Frayyeh; Waleed A. Abbas; Ali K. Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 12, Pages 2181-2192

The goal of this study , mainly is to investigate thecombined effects of using both Attapulgite high reactive mineral admixture and superplastisizer on the compressive strength of Attapulgite lightweight aggregate concrete ALWAC and some properties of sconcrete . The used coarse lightweight aggregate was made from Attapulgite clays with maximum size of 19 mm , and the optimum percentages of addition for both mineral and chemical admixture was 6% partial replacement from cement for Attapulgite mineral admixture and 0.5 L/100 kg cement for the superplastisizer used .The gained percentages of enhancement for compressive strength was (12.2%,12.6% and 16.3%) for curing ages of 7, 28 and 56 respectively as compared with the referenced plane mix when only the Attapulgite mineral admixture to be added , while the combined effect of both admixtures was clear by the percentages of ( 19.3% , 15.5% and 25% ) for curing ages 7,28 and 56 respectively as compared to the plane referenced mix . The obtained equilibrium density of ALWAC was 1818 kg/m3 ( ACI 213r-03 , less than 1840 kg/ m3 for structural purposes)for the concrete mix containing the two admixtures . The water absorption of ALWAC was reduced by the addition of the Attapulgite mineral admixture by (4% , 4.85% and 4.9% ) at 7,28 and 56 days of curing respectively but, using the superplastisizer cause an increase in water absorption and the percentages above get lowered to (2% , 3% and 2.6% ) at the ages of 7,28 and 56 days respectively .

The Effect of Cesium Chloride on Thermal Properties of Poly (Vinyl Alcohol)

Nadia Azeez Betti

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 12, Pages 2193-2206

Poly (vinyl alcohol), PVA for short, films doped with different concentrations of cesium chloride(CsCl) (0% , 2% , 4% , 6% , 8% , 10% , 12% , 14% ,16% ) were prepared by solution casting method to study the effect of this salt on thermal properties of PVA by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) .It was found that the dopedPVA films with concentrations(14% and 16%) of CsCl aremore thermal stable than PVA while doped PVAfilms with concentrations ( 4% and 6%) of CsCl are less thermal stable than PVA and the dopedPVA films with concentration of ( 2% , 8% , 10% and 12%) are almost as thermal stable as PVA. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was also used to investigate complexation between CsCl and PVA and was foundthat the doped PVA films with concentration (2% , 4% , 6% and 8%) of CsClshowno significant shifts in wave numbers of the characteristic bands of PVA while doped PVA films with concentrations (10%, 12% ,14% and 16% ) of CsClshow a significant shifts to a higher values in wave number of stretching vibration of (-OH) comparing to PVA indicating well complexation between CsCl and PVA.

Optical Safety System

Ayad Z. Mohammed; Wadah Hatim Salim; Bushra R.Mhdi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 12, Pages 2207-2215

Laser fence is a mechanism used to detect objects that passes vision line between the laser source and optical detector. While, Motion detection theory is the operation of detecting a variation in the location of a body relative to its environment or a variation in the circumference relative to a body. Therefore,this work provides an intelligent link between those two methods using optical communication, by using a new method for detecting moving objects from static background based on different window frames,which achieves the most efficient security system based on high assessment. This assessment was achieved by using visual basic language to evaluate the system. The system program is by using c# as program language to detect a penetration.

Form usage and Meaning in Architectural Educational Projects

Ibrahim Jawad Kadhim Al Yousif

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 12, Pages 2216-2227

In architecture, there is a relationship between the forms and meanings. Causal relationship between the meaning of each other's perception, and the perception of the form with the designer. This relation resulted in what students' suffer the most throughout their architectural teaching process which is the difficulty of clarifying the relations during design process, i. e., difficulty of clarifying the relation during architectural design process as intellectual ability to generate design ideas; represented by producing highest number of ideas possible of forms related to a certain designing problem.
The method that has been employed the study of the form and meaning and their perceptions, associating form imagination with its meaning and usage nature to achieve association results. Disparity among architectural students has been distinguished through their tested performance on theoretical architectural design activities.
The phenomenon of associating the form with a certain meaning has been linked to achieving figurative usage through demonstrating the placement of form and meaning and their architectural relationship. Versus The actual usage of the meaning fulfills its role of leading receiver's mind to imagine the meaning unconditionally because of the causal language relationship between the form and its meaning is capable of achieving this purpose.

Application of Value Analysis Method in Service Problem

Sawsan Sabeeh Al-Zubaidy; Nawres Mahmood Mohsen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 12, Pages 2228-2238

Value analysis method is considered one of the best tools to decision making process and steps to be applied based on the nature of the problem.In this work, an approach to solve value analysis problem in services field has been suggested which consist of three stages, each stage has number of steps/phases that lead to analysis and improve the value of the problem. It has been used "analytical hierarchy process (AHP)" method as a support tool for decision making process and used "Expert Choice V.11" software which is designed based on AHP method and professional user interface. The suggested steps are applied on practically case taken from ministry of water resources. The problem is selecting the best alternative from a number of suggested alternatives for improving the irrigation method in areas of middle Tigris project. After applying the suggested steps and using "Expert Choice V.11" software, the result is: the irrigation by pumping is the best one based on its value.

High Biometric Recognition Based on Histogram and Semi-discrete Matrix Decomposition via Neural Network

Ekbal Hussein Ali; Sameir A. Azeiz; Suad Ali Eissa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 12, Pages 2239-2248

Iris recognition is regarded as the most reliable and accurate biometric identification system available highly protected and stable.Iris situating is the main focus in the procedure of iris recognition and verifies the precision of identification. In this work, a new algorithmfor iris localization is suggested based on the median filter and the histogram to determine an automated global threshold and the pupil centre. An algebraic based on semi-discrete matrix decomposition SDD is used to extract iris feature from iris image that decrease the difficultyininput layered neural network,thesizes of input patterns are enhanced. The iris recognition is developed by a neural network with differential adaptive learning rate to identify the iris features. This method is simple,effective and high speed recognition. The system is implemented by using Matlab. Experimental outcomes indicate that the suggested algorithm gives the accuracy of 100 % with time equal 1.4 sec is best than other methods for Daugman and Wildes.

Evaluation of the Operational Speed for Iraqi Railways Using Geomatics Techniques

Maysoon Mohamed Hamed; Ammar A.M. Shubber; Abudl Al Razzak T.Zboon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 12, Pages 2249-2257

Theresearch evaluation is the current operational speeds of Iraqi railway lines within Geomatics techniques . It aims improving operational speeds where fined the level of speeds in Iraq has reached in some places to (5 km/h) for the north line. Also determining the factors affecting the speed and causing the decline of the railway, such as soil, the old design of line, the large number of irregular crossings, bad maintenance of fences, means of communication is very bad and almost without safty fences , a single line, except some lines and some climate element which reflected negatively on the performance of the railway, the large number of accidents with operational speed of passenger trains ranged between (20-90) km/h at a time (10) hours for the south line, and (20-80) km/h for north line. it is improved by reducing the time on the orders of caution, time to enter and exit from the station, stop at the stations time, increasing operational speed up to (80-90) km/ h, these improvements one possibly achieved by raising the irregular crossings or convert regular crossings to overpass , treatment of soil, good maintenance (for the rail lines, the protective fence), and the use of modern communication and signals system. A proposal to reduce the trip time from Baghdad to Basrah to (5.13) hour at a percentage 23% to (98-110.7) km/h(because it’s the only working line) as in the case at India where a study for upgrading track standards of conventional track with diesel and electric traction which is close to the specifications of the reality case of the Iraqi railway nets .

Experimental and Theoretical Study for the Effect of Diesel Fuel Quality Produced in Iraq on Ignition Delay Period

Saadi Turied Kurdi; Hassan Abad al-wahab Anial; Hussein Ahmed Abd Yaqoob

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 12, Pages 2258-2271

An experimental and theoretical investigation to evaluate the effect of diesel fuel produced in Iraq and blended with ethanol of four stroke single cylinder direct injection diesel engine was conducted. This study focused on the development of an empirical ignition delay equations based on engine experimental data and to analyse the dependency of ignition delay on equivalence ratio, engine brake power fraction, effect of engine speed, and cetane number .The experimental measurements was performed at compression ratio of 22:1 at engine speed ranging from 1100 to 2600 rpm with an increment of 500 rpm, and engine torque ranging from 2 to 10 N.m with an increment of 2 N.m. The experimental data from engine during test have been saved on the computerized program (ECA 100, VDAS) connected to the unit.The results show that the empirical equations of delay period are resulted as a function of ignition pressure, ignition temperature, fraction brake power with better agreement with the experimental data than an empirical equations of delay period which are resulted as a function of ignition pressure, ignition temperature, equivalence for all fuels at all speeds. E0 Basra has the highest value of the cylinder pressure with low speed at variable torque. E10 blended fuel has recorded the lowest value of ignition delay period in all speeds. The experiments also show that the ignition delay period has been found to be decreased with increase of cetane number, ignition pressure, ignition temperature, equivalence ratio, and the fraction brake power.

Environmental and Urban Land Use Analysis by GIS in AL-Shaab of Baghdad as a Case Study

Zainab Th. Mohammed; Oday Zakariya; Riyad Al-Anbari

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 12, Pages 2272-2281

AL-Shaab municipality faces many problems in the distribution of services)health centers, police stations, kindergartens and local markets( since these services are sometime concentrated in some of its regions and nonexistent in others. Moreover, distribution systems of these services do not adhere to planning criteria that are made consistent with population concentration and population growth, urban expansion and other resident’s needs.
The subject of this study is environmental and urban land use analysis for AL-Shaab municipality in Baghdad city. The main purpose is knowing the strong and poor regions of distribution facilities in study area depending on a planning standard and trying to find out a planning solution for poor regions to comply the municipality with a planning standard.
The researchers of this work selected AL-Shaab municipality for this work, being one of the important parts in Baghdad city, because its location, its high density of population, large area of the city, faces large problems in its urban planning and residential areas should depend on planning standard to show the weak regions in AL-Shaab municipality.
In this work, kindergarten, primary schools, intermediate and secondary schools, green zones, religious facilities, local markets, police centers, health centers and garages were studied. The results showed that there are a weakness distribution of kindergartens, police centers, local markets and health centers in the municipality, especially in 348 and 346 neighborhoods and a some weakness in other of facilities distribution in the other neighborhoods centers.

Theoretical Temperature Distribution Investigation in Electrical Transformer by Using Nano-Technology

Ibtisam A. Ha san; Sahar R. Fafraj; Azhar K. Azeez

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 12, Pages 2282-2295

A proposed thermal model is examined for a distribution transformer. A 2d simulation by a transient analysis in light of the Finite Element Method (FEM) was done to obtain the temperature distribution in the three phase transformer (250 KVA 11/.416 KV core type, mineral oil) using "ANSYS PROGRAM". Meanwhile, the effects of type of oil on HOST are investigated using the proposed model. To test the effect of nanoparticles on heat transfer process, the insulation oil was changed with Nanofluid; it has been used two types of Nano particles (CuO and Al2O3) with 0.5% as a volume concentration, where themaximum temperature reduced about (5%).The core material also has been changed from silicon steel to amorphous steel and caused a reduction in maximum temperature about (9.9%) in HV winding and change the interior angles from 90o to 135o, where the temperature distribution transformer is improved. The present model successfully accomplished for expecting the temperature distribution at any locations in the transformer when compared with practical measurement.

High Performance Concrete Improvement by Styrene-Butadiene Rubber Addition

Alaa Abdulhasan Atiyah; Saad B. H. Farid; Ahmed Saad Kadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 12, Pages 2296-2309

In this paper, the properties of high performance concretes modified by polymer were studied. Liquid synthetic styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) was added (5%, 10% and 15%) by weight of cement to high performance concrete (HPC) to elucidate the effect of the polymer additive to their properties.The compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, porosity, dry density and total water absorption were measured.Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat of HPC isalso measured. In addition, SEM micrographs are compared reference and polymer modified HPC.The results show that there is an improvement in the workability for HPC after the addition of the polymer. Furthermore, the density of the set concrete was increased and both the porosity, total water absorption was decreased. Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and specific heat show improvement after polymer addition, which indicate better endurance.The SBR modified HPC, exhibits a significant improvement in splitting tensile strength and flexural strength, although it was at the expense of the compressive strength to some extent.The HPC has shown balanced microstructure before and after the addition of polymer, although they noticed improved on the ductile properties.

Structural Behavior of Self Compacting Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams Containing Openings

Nabeel A. AL-Bayati; Bassman R. Muhammad; Ahmed Salam Hasan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 12, Pages 2310-2317

Eleven simple span reinforced self-compacting concrete deep beams were tested under symmetrically two points top load to examine the influence of the transverse circular openings on their behavior. The variables investigated involve shear span to effective ratio a/d, opening sizes and locations and the amount of inclined reinforcement around the openings. All the beams had the same overall dimension, flexural reinforcement and concrete compressive strength. The test results showed that when the opening positioned at the center of the shear span significantly affects the behavior of the beams tested regardless of a/d ratio and size investigated. Also, it was found that when the opening of a large diameter positioned away from the load path either in thetopor bottom region of the beam reduces the cracking and ultimate load considerably. The inclined reinforcement around the opening was observed to be very efficient in improving the ultimate load capacities and deflection response.

Design of a Nonlinear Fractional Order PID Neural Controller for Mobile Robot based on Particle Swarm Optimization

Ahmed Sabah Al-Araji; Luay Thamir Rasheed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 12, Pages 2318-2333

The goal of this paper is to design a proposed non-linear fractional order proportional-integral-derivativeneural (NFOPIDN) controller by modifying and improving the performance of fractional order PID (FOPID) controller through employing the theory of neural network with optimization techniquesfor the differential wheeled mobile robotmulti-input multi-output (MIMO) systemin order to follow a desired trajectory. The simplicity and the ability of fast tuning are important features of the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) attracted us to use it to find and tune the proposed non-linear fractional order proportional-integral-derivative neural controller’s parameters and then find the best velocity control signals for the wheeled mobile robot. The simulation results show that the proposed controller can give excellent performance in terms of compared with other works (minimized mean square error equal to 0.131 for Eight-shaped trajectory and equal to 0.619 for Lissajous- curve trajectory as well as minimum number of memory units needed for the structure of the proposed NFOPIDN controller (M=2 for Eight-shaped trajectory and M=4 for Lissajous- curve trajectory) with smoothness of linear velocity signals obtained between (0 to 0.5) m/sec.

Effects of Process Parameters in Incremental Sheet Metal Forming Using Visioplasticity Method

Abdul Jabar Moqdad Abdul Jabar; Karem M.Younis

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 12, Pages 2334-2346

Single point incremental forming SPIF is a flexible manufacturing process that does not require a special die for each part and is conducted on CNC milling machine that control on the motion of the forming tool. The formability is very important in any forming process therefore this work is concentrated on the influence of some factors on formability during SPIF. The factors that were studied are: type of tool path, depth step, feed rate and tool rotational speed. Three factors (depth step, feed rate and tool rotational speed) are examined depending on three levels (low, medium and high levels) while the type of the tool path was examined depending on two levels (low and high levels). In this work the total number of experiments is 18 experiments except the screening experiments that were made beforethe main experimental tests. Response surface method is used to build the predictive model to predict the value of effective strain for experiments that are not experimentally conducted. The results show that the feed rate and interaction between step size and type of tool path have the largest effect on formability. It is found that the maximum value of formability in terms of effective strain was (ε ̅=0.5049) while the minimum value was (ε ̅=0.26456). It is also found that SPIF is affected by the friction at the interface between forming tool and sheet metal as in other metal forming processes.

Urban sustainability in Old City Centres, a Comparison Between the City of Najaf in Iraq and Italian Cities Experiences

Sabeeh Lafta Farhan; Ihsan Abbass Jasim; Ahmed Naji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 12, Pages 2347-2360

This paper discusses the current situationinold cities ofIraq, whichis not commensuratewiththe highprestige andsanctity ofwhatit containsandwhatit represents of rarityandtypicality. The aim of the research is tobuild a baseof knowledge about the urbansustainabilityin development ofthe historiccity centers and in particular city of Najaf,the center ofNajaf. The research also explores the possibilities of benefiting from theItalian citiesexperiences to reach a state ofconsistencyand harmonybetween the variousplanningdimensions, tokeep thefunctional, structural and spatialsustainabilityandcultural heritage, and tocreatea sustainable environmentfor theoccupants, visitors and workers.
Theoretical part of the paper includes definitions for methods of dealing with historic cities then displays the treaties and conventions, which are important as they represent the gist of schematic scientific thought on the global level, Iraq is committed to (such as Athens Conference, the Hague Act 1954, Gobineau Conference in 1960, UNESCO 1962, UNESCO in 1962, the Kyoto criteria in 1967, the Paris meeting in 1968, the Rome Conference in 1972, the Rome Declaration in 1983, etc.)
Then, second part studying Italian cities experiences of the historic centers, for example (Florence, Venice, Bologna), It is important to have a precise analysis according to the approved urban sustainability criteria.
In the third part, the paper presents the condition of the old city of Najaf through the available information and field work, which included obtaining information on the structural, demographic, economic, administrative, religious, cultural and environmental aspects and the infrastructure in the old city of Najaf to diagnose the strengths and weaknesses.
After comparing with the Italian cities experiences, the paper proposes plans for the restructuring of the old city of Najaf Ashraf and then recommendations.

Investigation of Material Removal Rate and Surface Roughness for AISI 1015 Steel Rack Gear in Wire EDM Process

Mostafa Adel Abdullah; Safaa Kadhim Ghazi; Mustafa Mohamed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 12, Pages 2361-2370

In this work an investigation of the effects of various process parameters of Wire-EDM like Servo Feed (SF), pulse off-time (TOFF), pulse on-time (TON), as inputs impact on surface roughness (Ra) and metal removal rate (MRR) as outputs on steel (AISI 1015) utilizing nine specimens. With servo feed (500, 600 and 700)mm/min, pulse-of time (10,30,50) μsec, pulse on-time (20,25,30) μsec.The characteristics of cutting variables were determined by implementing Taguchi experimental design method. The importance level of the cutting variables for metal removal rate and surface roughnessis determined by implementing the analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Effect of Al2O3 Powder on Some Mechanical and Physical Properties for Unsaturated Polyester Resin Hybrid Composites Materials Reinforced by Carbon and Glass Fibers

Reem Alaa Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 12, Pages 2371-2379

This research is a study of the effect of Al2O3 powder on physical and mechanical properties of the polymer hybrid composites based on unsaturated polyester resin reinforced with carbon and glass fibers. The samples were made by a hand lay-up method according to ASTM standard for various volume fractions of additives. The polymer composites materials reinforced with carbon and glass fibers are the most used in manufacture of components such as pip, part of aerospace, and leisure industries and automotive.The polyester resin matrixwas strengthened with 3% carbon and glass fibers with 1%, 3%, 5%, 7% Al2O3 powders. The water absorption, hardness (shore D), impact test, and flexural strength properties are studied. The results show the specimens (UP+3%C.F+7%Al2O3) and(UP+3%G.F+7%Al2O3) had the maximum hardness (shore D) and water absorptionwhen compared withunfilledpolyester resinspecimen, it can be observed that the specimens(UP+3%C.F+5%Al2O3) and (UP+3%G.F+5%Al2O3) have maximum impact strength and flexural strengthcompared with specimens (UP+3%C.F+7%Al2O3)and (UP+3%G.F+7%Al2O3) .

The Impact of Contemporary Monument Buildings on Urban Context Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf - Case Study

Wahda Shuker Al-Hinkawi; Hasanain Ali Saeed Karbol

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 12, Pages 502-518

The research concerned with monument buildings, which regarded as prominent urban landmarks in the city، since they are one of the main axes for city establishment throughout their history and for being the main motive in their transformations. These buildings were، and all still، renewed urban elements that keep up with the urban development، connected with them spiritually and physically.
The research depends on a basic hypothesis "the contemporary monument buildings affect their urban context through the visual properties، semantic meanings and urban activities". To test its validation، two buildings in Al-Najaf city، were chosen according to specific criteria .The research found that contemporary monument buildings have an effect on their urban context، whether those buildings were of historical symbolism related to the local or contemporary heritage of the city. This enhances the ability to blend the heritage with the contemporary buildings to strengthen the identity of the city and its culture، especially when its image goes beyond the local level

Capabilities and Dimensions of Sustainable Community Empowerments in Urban Design and planning Process for Iraqi Cities

Lubna R. Turkey Alazzawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 12, Pages 519-535

This research takes the capabilities of implicating sustainable community empowerment in the process of designing and planning Iraqi cities through the literature review that defined it, to get a final conclusion about the sustainable community empowerment definition that the research takes in its problem which is that there isn’t a theoretical frame for the community empowerment to take decisions in planning and designing cities aims for urban development for Iraqi cities. The research aims also to recognize the world implications of sustainable community empowerments to enrich the data background of the empowerment criteria and process, also the process of designing and planning the city. The research hypothesis is that the sustainable community empowerment is an urban strategy enrich the Iraqi situation in designing and planning cities also it could be implicated in Iraqi community to follow the developed countries around the world. The research methodology contains theoretical frame of elements extracted from examples around the world, the second is a practical frame depends on the theoretical frame elements with the questionnaire data and the personal interview with the expertise involved directly with the designing and planning process with the elements of the criteria and the process of empowerment. The research concluded number of conclusions due to recommendations of supporting the community role and develops it to get involved more seriously and clear in the planning and designing process,for being the true indicator for the success of the process.