Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 34, Issue 13

Volume 34, Issue 13, October 2016, Page 536-2584


Phytoremediation of Cr and Pb from Soil Irrigated by Wastewater

Riyad Al-Anbari; Abdul Hameed M.J. Al-Obaidy; Tiba J. Al-Imari

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 13, Pages 2380-2386

In order to evaluate the effect of agricultural crops, such as kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus L.), corn (Zea Mays), and barley (Hordeum vulgare), in the removal of Cr and Pb from soil irrigated with wastewater, an experimental pot was conducted at Green House of University of Technology. Three levels of water were used for irrigation included tap water (control) (T1), 50% of wastewater+50% of tap water (50%WW) (T2) and 100% wastewater (100%WW) (T3). The obtained results, indicated that kenaf, and barley have been an effective plant in removal of Cr and Pb due to its high removal efficiency. Maximum values of removal efficiency were recorded in August 2015 for the (100%WW) and found 85.59%, 82.77, 93.27% of Pb and 85.67, 93.85, 87.24% of Cr for corn, kenaf and barley, respectively. Minimum removal efficiencies recorded at (50%WW) treatment for Pb were (5.66, 4.48, 0.99% ) and at control treatment for Cr were ( 0.99, 1.51, 2.37%) for Cr in May 2015 for corn, kenaf and barley, respectively. From the results obtained, kenaf, and barley were effective in removal of Cr and Pb due to its high removal efficiencies.

Design and Preparation of Stepwise Functionally Graded Materials Used for Internal Combustion Engine Piston Applications

Alaa Abdulhasan Atiyah; Mohammed H.Hafidh; Ahmed H.Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 13, Pages 2387-2397

This work includes the design and preparation of a(Low carbon steel / AL2O3) stepwise functionally graded crown part of an internal combustion engine piston. Powder technology technique, has been studied to improve engine thermal efficiency by creating semi adiabatic combustion chambers, where ceramic phase facing the hot combustion gases, while metallic phase assembling with other parts of the piston. Finite element method ABAQUS program had been used to minimize nucleated residual stresses generated under fabrication process and service work conditions by designing the compositional graded of stepwise FGM within specific dimensions, in addition to temperature distribution across FGM thickness. Then the fabricated specimens had SEM imaging, physical and mechanical property inspection. The results also show that linear transition from metal to ceramic structure can provide minimum residual stresses under all conditions, using stepwise FGM can improve engine heat efficiency by doubling the crown surface temperature,(622) ºC, comparing with steel crown, (322) ºC, under the same applied heat flux. Physical inspections show limited relative density, (48.5) %, with high total porosity structure, (53.3) %, can be performed by this fabrication method. Mechanical tests results show that the layers’ hardness increase with increasing ceramic content, and decrease with increasing pores percentage. Compression test shows the ability of suggested stepwise FGM to withstand service work stresses of combustion chamber without failure.

Effect of Nano TiO2 Additives on Some Properties of Out Door Building Unites

Alaa A. Abdul-Hamead; Shatha R. Ahmed Izzat

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 13, Pages 2398-2405

In this paper a lower ratio of two powders; nano and micro titanium dioxide (TiO2) powder were used as additive in fabrication of mortar. Particle size of TiO2 powder were (80nm,1.6µm). These powders were used as additive to the mortar material (0.05, 0.1, 0.15 %) by cement weight in order to be used in construction application include layering building, and studies its effect on the mortar.
Inspections of the mortar specimens including optical microscope, surface roughness, micro hardness as well as x-ray diffraction (XRD).
Results demonstrate that surface roughness was diminished with augmentation of Nano TiO2powder added more than micro TiO2powder substances, while micro hardness was increased by raising the option of Nano TiO2powder to the mortar more than micro TiO2powder. Also, the mortar microstructure with the Nano TiO2 powder has been enhanced more than micro TiO2powder, with increment in CSH phase, which make the development of mortar with TiO2 Nano material useful and have a promising future in cutting edge development application.

Motion Control of An Autonomous Mobile Robot using Modified Particle Swarm Optimization Based Fractional Order PID Controller

Ghusn A. Ibraheem; Ibraheem K. Ibraheem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 13, Pages 2406-2419

This paper presents a comparison between two nonlinear PID controllers, the first is the Neural based controller and the second is the nonlinear fractional order PID controller (FOPID) for a trajectory tracking control of a non-holonomic two wheeled mobile robots (2-WMR). A modified particle swarm optimization (MPSO) has been proposed in this work to tune the parameters of the nonlinear FOPID controller to design the controller so that the 2-WMR follows exactly a predefined continuous track. The kinematic model of a differential drive 2-WMR has been derived to simulate the behavior of the 2-WMR and it is used in the design and simulations of the proposed FOPID controller. From simulation and results, it can be seen that the efficiency of the proposed nonlinear FOPID controller outperforms the nonlinear integer order PID controller; this is proved by the minimized tracking error and the speed control signals obtained.

Edge Detection and Features Extraction for Dental X-Ray

Muayad Sadik Croock; Saja Dheyaa Khudhur; Ali Kamal Taqi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 13, Pages 2420-2432

Recently, the dental X-Ray images have been used in different applications, particularly in the forensic field. The researchers focuses on the separation of the underlying teeth individually to obtain their features. These features can be utilized as a key solution for the identifications. In this paper, an edge detection of the involved teeth is proposed using a three stages MATLAB algorithm based on different methods such as, CLAHE, Canny, Otsu's, and 8-Connectivity. In addition, the proposed algorithm extracts the features of the investigated teeth as an exported file. These features are Standard Deviation (STD), Euler number and Area which are extracted from the bite-wing images. The stages of the proposed algorithm are image segmentation, classification and features extraction. It is important to note that the missing teeth has been considered in case of appearance. The missing teeth are assumed to be a separated objects. This is to overtake the problem of missing teeth after registering the original ones in the stored database used for identifications. The obtained results show the clear outperformance of the proposed algorithm in terms of edge detection and features’ extraction. The missing teeth in an image are tested and the achieved results presents the detection and features of such teeth dramatically. The proposed system is implemented and tested in the MATLAB software environment using a personal computer of a Core(TM) i7 processor and 6 GB RAM over a 64-Windows 10 operating system.

Thermogravimetric Analysis on PVA / PVP Blend Under Air Atmosphere

Nadia Azeez Betti

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 13, Pages 2433-2442

Films of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) /poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) blends have been prepared by solution casting method with different ratios of each other (100/0 , 80/20 , 60/40 , 50/50 , 40/60 , 20/80 , 0/100) to investigate their thermal stability comparing to correspondent pure polymers by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under air atmosphere. It was found that PVA and PVP films show two decomposition steps while PVA/PVP blend films show three decomposition steps except the film of the ratio (20/80) that shows four decomposition steps .It was also found that blending decreases the temperature ranges at which the first and the second decomposition steps of PVA and PVP occur. It was found that blending PVA with PVP has significant effect on weight loss at first decomposition step of PVA by increasing it as the ratio of PVP increases. It was also found that blending PVA with PVP has significant effect on weight loss at second decomposition step of PVA by decreasing it as the ratio of PVP increases. It was found that the weight loss at third decomposition step of PVA/PVP blend films increases as the ratio of PVP increases . According to TGA thermograms under air atmosphere, PVA , PVP and PVA/PVP blend films show almost the same total weight loss which means of same thermal stability.

Synthesis of Ag –TiO2 Thin Films by Spin Coating process

Sinan Salman Hamdi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 13, Pages 2443-2449

In this research, Sol-gel technique prepared Ag–TiO2 nano-composite thin films, which were deposited onto a glass substrate by the spin coating process. The microstructures and chemical ingredients of the obtained thin films were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). It was discovered that the silver nano-particles completely joined to the TiO2 matrix, where those nanoparticles distributed uniformly. In this way, the molar percent of the silver nitrate watery solution dominated the morphology of the thin film. Ag-TiO2 Nano composite is very useful for expanding antibacterial of nanomaterials purpose.

Experimental and Numerical Study of Closed Loop Solar Chimney Assisted with PCM and CFM as Thermal Energy Storage Collector

Talib K. Murtadha; Hussien M. Salih; Ali D. Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 13, Pages 2450-2463

In this work, a test room was built in Baghdad city, with selective dimensions, while the solar chimneys (SC) where designed with aspect ratio (ar) bigger than 12 and setup to the oriented wall to the south. Collector of SC consist of paraffin wax as a phase change material (PCM) and supported by copper foam matrix (CFM), to enhance the combined of thermal energy storage material box (TESMB). Double transparent acrylic sheets covered the collector from outside. TESB supported by array of evacuated tubular collector with thermosyphon to sincere heat storage in the TESB. Results of experimental work that achieved in 25 January and 26 February refer to effectiveness using TESM in closed loop SC in day time and its effect cover the night time also. The heating system of test room is arrived to the biggest room temperature after sun set, at that moment the difference between indoor and outdoor approximately 15oC, and room temperature value still bigger after five hours from sun- set with a different in temperature by approximately 8 oC. Numerical solution done by employing CFD with solution the PDE’s that present continuity, momentum, energy equations, by using the FVM with algebraic forms of turbulent viscosity and diffusion coefficient and employing turbulent standard (k-ε)model. The comparison between numerical and experimental results indicated that the heat transfer inside test room is dominate by condition, also results shows acceptable convergence in velocity and temperature profile, while the experimental results for air flow inside SC gap appears the turbulent behavior in most duration time.

Preparation of Lead Free Piezoelectric Composite Based on Polyester Resin and (LKNN6-0.5%CeO2) Ceramic Particles

Fadhil A. Chyad; Saad B.H. Farid; Hamza M. Kamal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 13, Pages 2464-2471

For the sake of guarding the environment from the vital problems that results from the toxic effects of lead components, lead free (LKNN6-0.5%CeO2/polyester) piezoelectric composite are prepared in this work using cold press technique. Firstly, the lead free (LKNN6-0.5%CeO2) piezoceramics are prepared using normal sintering technique. The dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the composites were examined as a function of the volume fraction of ceramic particles, all composites showed well dispersion of the piezoceramic particles in the polyester matrix as shown in SEM images. The piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients were found to be improved as the concentration of ceramic particles increases. Although the procedure is simple, the composite prepared in this study exhibited better piezoelectric and dielectric constants with (d33=41 and Ԑr=157) at (80%) volume fraction.

Modeling and Simulation for Condensing and Cogeneration Steam Power Plants Operate at Constant and Sliding Live Steam Pressure

Moayed Razoki Hasan; Rahman Abdul Razzaq Talab

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 13, Pages 2472-2489

The present paper deals with a theoretical study of condensing and cogeneration plants operate at partial load with constant and sliding (variable) live steam pressure controls. In this work, two Iraqi condensing units as well as two cogeneration with steam back-pressure turbine were chosen. These units are K-66-87-0.07, K-55-58.8-0.083, R-100-130-15 and R-40-130-29 respectively. A computer program had been written to work under MathCad 15 software to simulate these units under design and off design regimes with both types of control at nozzle and throttling steam distribution. The performance of the different schemes is analyzed in view of the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The results show that the selection of control type mainly depends on type of steam distribution. So, the heat rate (k) increases in condensing units with sliding live steam control and nozzle distribution according to first law of thermodynamics. The value of increasing (k) is about (0-6%) depending on the operation regime. While, this type of control with throttling steam distribution causes decreasing (k) in about (0-1%). Cogeneration units with back-pressure steam turbine operate only with nozzle distribution. So, the results show that using sliding live steam pressure control is associated with increasing heat rate (k), especially when ratio of flow rate is ≤ 0.9. This type of control for cogeneration units also causes increasing heat process directed to heat consumer and decreasing power to heat process ratio (α). According to the second law of thermodynamics the irreversibility losses were redistributed depending on control type.

Intelligent Monitoring for DC Motor Performance Based on FPGA

Bilal Z. Ahmed; Abbas H. Issa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 13, Pages 2490-2499

This paper presents a fault monitoring of DC motors. A neural network is prepared to processes the inputs parameters “motor speed and current” collected from sensors and delivers condition states of the DC motors “good, fair or bad”. FPGA Spartan 3 kit board is used to implement the proposed monitoring network and the circuits are designed for data acquisition to makes an interface between motors analog collected data and FPGAs digitals inputs ports. The designed circuits are intended to gather analogs readings from the target motor and converting them into digitals to be compatibles with FPGAs inputs ports specifications. The neural networks which are designed based on backs propagation trainings are implemented using Xilinx Spartan-3A Starter FPGAs Kits boards.

Effect of Cycling Wetting and Drying on Suction Variation Under Axial Loading an Experimental Approach

Suhail A. A. Khattab; Asma Ahmed Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 13, Pages 2500-2506

Disregarded the unsaturated soil behavior, like changes in volume and soil collapsing has caused a lot of damage to the foundations of the buildings and other structures. These behaviors relate to drying and wetting phenomena. An experimental study was carried out to investigate the variations of suction and stress - settlement relations under axial static loading on fine grain unsaturated soil (CL-ML) after 3 cycles wetting and drying. A prototype foundation model (100×100×35mm) was used in the testing program. Tests were carried out in a specially designed bearing capacity box (900×900×850) mm with soil suction measurements. Results showed an increase in the applied failure stress of about 19%after an application of three wetting-drying cycles. On the other hand, the sense record slight variation in amount of suction about 2 kPa (both recorded sensors S1,S2) during increasing axial load after wetting-drying cycles repetition. While the variation coincide with first applied load increment (before moisturizing drying case), and sense readings showed continue change (from 12 to 15 at S1,from 7 to 0 kPa at S2) with increasing load limit till failure happened. This could be attributed to the change in physical soil properties such as soil densification and hysteresis effects, consequently affected its ability on retention water in pore space.

Design and Implementation of an Interface Unit Communicated by a Laser System Within Wireless Sensor Network

Azzad Bader Saeed; Aied K. AL-Samarrie; Hanan A. R. Akkar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 13, Pages 2507-2517

In this paper, an interface unit had been designed and implemented for a wireless sensor network, which used for adapting the sensor output with input of the artificial intelligent system using an electronic control circuit, in conjunction with a Laser communication system.
The proposed unit had used a new technique of analog-to-digital conversion based on a pulse period coding system, which had made the transferring of data and key signals between the interface unit and the intelligent system device more efficient, easer, and faster.
The pulse period coding system had used a new technique of coding , it constructed from two parts, they are: The first is the pulse period coder part, which converts the characters to pulses with specific periods, and the second is the pulse period decoder part, which converts these pulses to binary data.
This system had been simulated and tested using Multisim software package, and one can see that simulation results approach to the theoretical results, so for this reason, this system possesses acceptable design and performance.

The Effect of Thermo-Mechanical Treatment on Mechanical Properties & Microstructure for (Cu-Al-Ni )Shape Memory Alloy

Muna Khethier Abbass; Munther Mohamed Al-Kubaisy; Raad Suhail Ahmed Adnan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 13, Pages 2518-2526

This paper aims to study the effect of thermo mechanical treatment in different temperatures of (260 ,280& 300) ◦C on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Cu-14wt%Al-4.5wt%Ni shape memory alloy which prepared by casting method in induction furnace under argon atmosphere. Then thermo –mechanical treatment was performed upon the alloy by applying stress of 190MPa with heating upto 260◦C,280◦C,300◦C, then cooled to room temperature performingstrain recovery measurement. Many tests and inspections such as optical and SEM examinations , DSC Measurement ,XRD inspection , compression and Vickers hardness tests were investigated. The results showed that there is an increase in the transformation temperatures, shape memory limits at 300◦C .It was found that hardness increases and Young modulus decreases Also It was found that the thermo-mechanical treatment at 260 ◦C gave better properties , 2%in recovery strain , increase hardness due to the formation of martensitic phase and austenite phase in structure.

Enhancement Voltage Stability of the Iraqi Power Grid Using Shunt FACTs Devices

Inaam Ibrahim Ali; Mohammed Nasser Mohsen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 13, Pages 2527-2550

Due to raise in demand, the transmission system becomes more exhausted, which in turn, forces the system to be more susceptible to voltage instability. The aim of this research is to study the enhancement in voltage stability margin by installation the SVC which is represented as Static of VAR Compensator or STATCOM that is represented as Static of Synchronous Compensator. Voltage stabilization dilemma considers an essential issue in the electric networks which may lead to a voltage collapse in electric power networks.
L-index has been used to predict and identify points of breakdown voltages in the power system with sufficient accuracy. L -index has been employed due to its accuracy and effectiveness in the computing voltage collapse points for different load buses with sufficient precision at a short circuit and also at various loads situations. Voltage stability index has been tested on the 9-wscc test system and 14-IEEE test system .Then it has been applied to the Iraqi national grid 400 kV.
A shunt facts(SVC or STATCOM) devices are installed individually at the weak bus bar based on Voltage Stability Index(L indicator) detection, The simulation results are first obtained for an uncompensated system, and the voltage profiles are studied. The results so obtained are compared with the results obtained after compensating the system with SVC and STATCOM to show the voltage stability margin enhancement. The outcomes acquired after simulation demonstrate the performances of shunt fact devices (SVC and STATCOM) when connected to a system Subjected to 3-phase short circuit fault at different locations. All the simulation results have been carried out using MATLAB version 7.10 and Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) package.

Intelligent Controller for Robot Manipulator

Ivan I. G

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 13, Pages 2551-2565

This paper suggests an intelligent controller to control the manipulator movement in an environment of two and three – dimensional. The fuzzy logic controller of planning structure locally approach constructs of multi-unit. The aim is to transmit or guide the manipulator from the elected to a desired configuration. Modeling, scenarios and simulations are presented clearly in two dimensions and three dimensions together with their analysis which be done using MATLAB software. In addition, the results of the robot navigation in two-dimensional environments also compared with the results of the navigation in three-dimensional environments to clarify the strength of the suggested intelligent controller, where results (in rad) for the third link for both two and three- dimensional environments are minimum: 1.9548×〖10〗^(-4) and -7.452147499×〖10〗^(-4) in the scenario 1 also minimum results in scenario 2 as the following: -0.0061 and -0.0018. Simulation results indicate this manipulator successfully reached the desired goal configuration.

A Framework to Embed Sustainability Concepts into the Design Processof Construction Projects in Iraq

Zeyad S. M. Khaled; Afrah M. H.Kashkool; Azhar M. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 13, Pages 2566-2584

Unfortunately, sustainability is overlooked in the Iraqi design practice of construction projects. This is clear for it has led to the prevailing unsustainable built environment in Iraq. There is a great lack of attention paid to the environmental, economic and socialimpactsassessment,life-cycle assessment (LCA) and life-cycle cost assessment (LCCA) for the complete projects, components or materials used. The aim of this research is to build a framework to embed sustainability concepts into current design work phasesin Iraq based on (LEED) criteria for green building. The framework suggested in this research was subjected to evaluation by Iraqi consultants at three major engineering consultancy firms. Results of the importance (impact on performance)and applicabilityof the suggested frameworkshowed that it is highly reliablewith high Cronbach's Alpha values.This sustainable design frameworkis expected to be useful for the Iraqi Construction Sectorin enabling the utilization of greenbuildingcriteria in the design process.

Preparation and Characterization Some of the Mechanical Properties of Polymer Nano Composite Material Used in Structural Applications

Sihama Issa Salih; Wleed Bdaiwi Salih; Salam Obaid Abdulghani

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 13, Pages 536-545

Many polymeric materials are weak of direction in the mechanical properties, and which is one of the most important specifications required for structural applications. Therefore in this work, it was prepared two groups of composites nanomaterials, both of which contain the same matrix material, but they differ in terms of reinforcement materials. One of these groups consists of a poly ((methyl methacrylate (PMMA)) resin as a matrix material, which reinforced with magnesia (MgO) nano powder, with the average particles diameter (52.54) nm, which was prepared according to the ratios (PMMA: X% MgO) where (X = 0 , 0.5, 1 and 1.5) of the volume fraction ratio of nanoparticles in composites of material prepared, while the second group reinforced with alumina (AL2O3) nano powder, with a mean particles diameter (53.60) nm, according to the ratio (PMMA: X% AL2O3) where (X = 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5) of the volume fraction of nanoparticles in composites of the prepared materials. And through this work, effect of the addition nanoparticles powders, on the some mechanical properties of the prepared samples, has been studied. The results showed that the mechanical properties of (Tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, compressive strength and hardness) increase with the increase of the volume fraction ratio of the alumina and magnesia nanoparticle content in composites material. As well as the results showed, that the nanocomposite samples (PMMA: X% Al2O3) have mechanical properties higher than their counterparts of nanocomposites samples, which are reinforced with magnesia nanoparticle at the same ratio.

Study the Effect of Addition Different Amount Magnesium Hydroxide and Kaolin on Production of Refractory Magnesite Brick

Firas Farhan Sayyid; Shukry H. Aghdeab; Ali Mundher Mustafa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 13, Pages 546-553

This aim of this research is study the effect of adding different percentages of magnesium hydroxide, kaolin and water on the production of refractory magnesite brick by use transformer process. Firstly transformative process carried out on the magnesium hydroxide and kaolin to obtain fine particle, after that mixture fine particle Burn in electric furnace at temperature (1000 oC ) for (2 hr ). The mixture Formed by using semi dry pressing with (10)% water under pressure (500 Kg/cm2) to obtain forming sample we carried out drying process ,and we can many test from inspection for obtain porosity, density, Water absorption, specific weight and more properties compressive strength . We fined finish refractory brick from light type where the resulted density is equal to ( 1.33 gcm3 ) and suits applications that need to lightness weight with durability.

Design a System to Estimate the Road Construction Project Preliminary Equipment Requirements in the Design Stage

Raid S. Abd Ali; Tareq A. khaleel; Shealan H. Ameen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 13, Pages 554-565

Road construction projects in Iraq require a developmental study of the planning process toward building computerized management systems. In this thesis, a management system has been built, based on artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms. The proposed software estimates the optimal number of equipment, machineries, and relevance instruments required according to progress table of the work during the proposed implementation period of the project. Artificial neural network systems have been adopted to build models to predict the productivity of the equipment used in road construction projects, based on the factors that affecting the productivity of these mechanisms. By implementing the system and simulating at road project, several conclusions have been conducted. One of the most important conclusions is that the optimal distribution of the numbers and types of machineries used in road construction has a significant impact on the time of implementation of project.