Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 34, Issue 14

Volume 34, Issue 14, December 2016, Page 566-2783

Making Healthy place As Contemporary Urban Trend

Rawaa Fawzi Abbawi; Baneen Abdul-Kareem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 14, Pages 566-586
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.14A.1

The world experienced an increasing interest in the concept of place-making in accordance with the contemporary urban trends. The healthy trend was considered as the trend that combines most of the other trends properties. It represents a response to the challenges facing the society. These are environmental, economic, social, cultural, Urban and security. Most states and world countries focus on making a sustainable healthy place, achieving the dwelt desires and considered as a container for all human activities ; social, recreational, economic and cultural.
Local places continue suffer from neglect, extinction, random design and the lack of clarity of policy handled according to the contemporary healthy urban trend. To stand out the problem of the research thoroughly (Lack of comprehensive knowledge study describes the most important dimensions and features that contribute to the making of the healthy place within cities) and to address this research problem, a comprehensive knowledge framework was built relying on vocabulary extracted from the theoretical framework in the analysis of a number of global urban cities. It includes a range of healthy places designed according to this trend.
After reviewing a number of global studies, researches and experiments, it appeared that there are certain dimensions and features for making a healthy place. Then, some dimensions and features were neutralized. The environmental dimensions and features of the open spaces were chosen because they are more important, effective and influential than the rest of the dimensions and features.
After analyzing the results it appeared that the environmental dimension contributes in making a healthy place, achieve health, well-being and sustainability for the population.
The open space features had a great role in making a sustainable healthy place, that supports biological, cultural, social and intellectual diversity, improves the urban landscape of the city as a whole (environmentally and visually), enhances coherence and social interaction between individuals and achieves participation community. Then places will be healthy, social, aesthetic, functional, which Root urban identity of the city in general and the place in particular.

Performance Improvement of the Robotic Arm using Fractional Order PID

Abdelelah K. M; Rami Younus Fadhil

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 14, Pages 587-598
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.14A.2

This research is concerned with the study of Fractional order PID controller (FOPID). The fractional order controller (FOPID) is the generalization of the integer order PID controller. Which applied on robotic arm have 5Joints, practically and by simulation utilizing Matlab/Simulink. The Simulink by using tools fomcon version (1.0) has been added to the Matlab program. As well as the building and convert the robot arm of the type robotic arm edge. Practically the realization has been done using microcontroller Arduino which connection Matlab program by using tools box has been added to the Matlab program too. To control the arm joints of the positions that is the human arm simulator. Since the FOPID and PID controller has many parameters, which must be tuned to get the best performance for the robotic arm system so that the robotic arm system simulated in Matlab and interconnected with intelligent optimization method which called Bacterial Foraging Optimization to find the optimal parameter values that minimizing an objective function given as overshoot and Integral of time weighted absolute error (ITAE). The time domain and frequency domain performance for the closed loop the arm joints system compared for both FOPID with conventional PID controller. The obtained results show that the performance of the system with FOPID controller was better than the conventional PID controller.

Developing the Tenders Pricing In Iraq Building Sector Using Cost Activities Technique

Haider Hamid Al-salami; Raid Saleem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 14, Pages 599-615
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.14A.3

The world is seeing today the evolution of large technological development as a result of the growing role of indirect cost in construction projects in addition to the intense competition between construction companies to obtain lucrative contracts, this require the development of appropriate solutions to address deviations in determining the cost of projects through the development of bidding pricing process.
The research aims to demonstrate the three axes (definition of the characteristics and features (ABC) system and its importance , and fundamentals on which the steps to apply, the accuracy of information provided by (ABC) system, which contribute to addressing the lack of precision in the bidding pricing, and the application of (ABC) system on one of the construction companies in the private sector in line with the size and activity of the company researched contributes to the re-evaluation and to help in making real financial decisions). To achieve these goals we put three hypotheses are (traditional systems provide distorted results and inaccurate to allocate costs indirect, application (ABC) system to achieve optimization in the calculation and allocation Indirect costs, which lead to a bidding pricing accuracy, and the application of (ABC) system helps the companies manage to good planning and successful decisions, and granted their greater opportunities to win the bid).
This study applied to two of the company researched projects differ in the duration of their implementation, and was completion within a specific cost-period, where it was providing all the information necessary for the application of the system and data by the basic steps of the design of the system with putting of the impact of the implementation of the duration factor which is called (the time factor).
The study showed a difference in the cost of projects, where the results indicate that there is an increase in the cost of the first project and a decrease in the profit margin of the same amount, according to the system (ABC) compared with the traditional system, as noted the presence of a decrease in the cost of the second project with an increase in profit margin by the same amount according to the system (ABC) compared with the traditional system, which confirms that the application system (ABC) leads to the accurate pricing of the bids.
The most important recommendations of this study encourage construction companies in the private sector to implement the system (ABC) in the bidding pricing as it provides a large and accurate information gives companies greater chances to win tenders and make a profit instead of adopting the lowest prices method ,as in the traditional systems or personal judgments in estimating the cost of projects.

Development of Hydrodynamic and Heat Transfer Profiles for Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis in a Fixed Bed Reactor of Different Scales

Mohammed A. Atiya Al Saraj

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 14, Pages 2585-2596
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.14A.4

Comprehensive hydrodynamic and heat transfer study of Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (FTS) on a home-based cobalt catalyst, with the presence of water–gas shift (WGS), is conducted with a fixed bed reactor. Two different diameters have been used for the reactor, 4 and 7 inches. To meet the requirements of industrial applications, simulation has been used to scale up the effect on the commercial scale reactor. Synthetic gas was used as a feed stream and its conversion to H2 was considered. Temperature and velocity profiles were obtained for the different scales.

Frame-Relays Among the Private LANs of Iraqi Universities

Mohammed Shweesh Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 14, Pages 2597-2610
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.14A.5

Frame Relay (FR) was one of the most popular wide area networks (WANs) services deployed over the past few decades. FR is a high-performance WAN protocol that operates at the data link layer. FR is an example of a packet-switched technology, where the end stations are enabled to dynamically share the network medium and the allocated bandwidth. In a sequel, due to such attributes further to the lower cost and privacy (security), it is deployed widely in various organizations, companies, banks, or institutions as a main backbone technology to connect their local area networks (LANs) over different sites. In this work, the utilisation of FR technology among the LANs of some Iraqi universities is presented. Consequently, bandwidth-on-demand will be provided for the end and intermediate systems of each individual LANs. In addition, ports and expensive communications facilities that are required to interconnect the devices of these LANs are reduced. The configuration of frame relay among routers has been simulated using a Packet tracer, which is one of the professional software that can be utilized to implement networks along with their technologies.

Perovskite Thin Film Preparation and Energy Band-Gap Determination for Solar Cell Applicatiosn

Thaira Z. Altayyar; Shubhra Gangopadhyay

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 14, Pages 2611-2620
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.14A.6

Using Perovskite is a promising approach for upgrading the performance of an established low-bandgap Si photo voltaic (PV) solar technology because Perovskite is a high bandgap polycrystalline semiconductor compared with bulk Si and other semiconductors such as GaAs. In this work, Perovskite-structured methyl ammonium lead triiodide CH3NH3PbI3 uniform one-step planar thin films nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed from the reaction process of methylammonium iodide with PbI2 and deposited on a glass substrate by Aerosol Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (AACVD) to minimize the size of the solar cell and to reduce the cost and increase efficiency. This aims at the study and investigation of the energy bandgap (Eg) of nano-architectured solar cells absorber film as light harvesters. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of a CH3NH3PbI3 film on glass substrates are recorded by X' Pert Ultima IV X-ray diffractometer. Optical band gap of CH3NH3PbI3 is estimated by UV−Vis absorption spectroscopy and extracted from the absorption spectrum of the Tauc plot to be 1.63 eV. The Perovskite deposited on glass appears efficient to absorb most of the light with wavelength below 800 nm with a refractive index (n): 2.75. The film thickness was measured by an optical profile-meter to be about 200 nm, giving small reflectivity of 0.23 and resulting in efficiency enhancement of 15.7 %.

FPGA Design and Implementation of Data Covering Based on MD5 Algorithm

Thamir R. Saeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 14, Pages 2621-2630
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.14A.7

The protection of information leads to protection of individual privacy for everyone. This protection is performed using encryption. Many types of encryption may be utilized while the simplest one is the covering of information. In this paper, three novel algorithms have been presented for covering the information and for increasing the security. The degree of these security algorithms depends on three keys; MD5 core code, MD5 iteration, and mode of data hashing. The strengths of this work are the simplicity of the design and taken a long time for attack recovering the hashing data. Where, the sequence length for our proposed algorithms related to the MD5 output sequence length will be increased from 100% for 8-bit core code to 256% for scenarios E and F, while 1024% for scenario G with processing time is 20 nsec and 60 nsec depend on the scenarios. While the bit rate of the information data in transmitted data stream bits are different from 64-to- 32 bits for each transmitted stream bits depending on the scenario that selected. In this context, the maximum expected throughput is 806.596 Mbps. The implementation of algorithm circuits is built by using Xilinx Spartan 3-xc3s1400a-4fg484.

Fatigue Performance of 2017-T4 AL. alloy Under sub-zero Temperature by Using Electromechanical Freezing System

Hussain J.M. Alalkawi; Fikrat Abdulkareem Fattah; Duaa Amer Kadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 14, Pages 2631-2641
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.14A.8

The effects of sub-zero(-22Co) cyclic rotating bending on the S-N behavior and cumulative damage are reported for 207-T4 aluminum alloy .Experimental characterization of fatigue behavior showed that the S-N curves behavior may described by the following Basquin's formulas:
σ_f=1230〖(N_f)〗^(-0.15) At room temperature (RT)
σ_f=1563〖(N_f)〗^(-0.17) At sub-zero temperature (-22Co)
From the above equation, the fatigue behavior can be change at σ_f=204 MPa and N_f=159475 cycles .
Slightly increase in fatigue life results above 204 MPa and slightly decrease in fatigue below the 204 MPa stress level. A non-linear experimental law is introduced for the accumulation of damage at sub-zero temperature variable fatigue. This law gave conservative and safe fatigue life time prediction when applying to the data of variable fatigue at low temperature (-22 Co).

Tensile and Buckling of Prosthetic Pylon made from Hybrid Composite Materials

Jawad Kadhim Oleiwi; Shaymaa Jumaah Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 14, Pages 2642-2653
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.14A.9

Compared to traditional prosthetic pylon materials (Aluminum, Titanium, or Stainless steel.), composite prosthetic pylon materials are used instead of metals. Vacuum bagging technique was adopted for the preparation of specimens made of Poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) as matrix with constant Perlon layers and different number of Hybrid (Carbon + Glass) fibers layers as reinforcement materials at (±45º&0º/90º) orientation relative to applied load. Also the finite element method (ANSYS-15) were used by create a model of prosthetic pylon and applied compressive load at heel strike step from gait cycle to known the critical buckling stress. The experimental and numerical results shown that the tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and critical buckling stress increases with increasing number of Hybrid fibers layers, that equal to (145 MPa, 6.25 GPa, and 670 MPa) respectively, and the percentage of increase in tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and critical buckling stress for specimen with three Hybrid (Carbon + Glass) layers and Perlon layers in PMMA resin compared with pure PMMA specimen was (302.7% , 300% & 257.22%) respectively, at (0º/90º) fibers orientation relative to tensile force.

Effect of Water Absorption on the Compressive Strength for PMMA Nano Composites and PMMA Hybrids Nano Composites Reinforced by Different Nanoparticles Used in Dental Applications

Sihama E. Salih; Jawad K. Oleiwi; Alaa Mohammed.T

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 14, Pages 2654-2669
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.14A.10

Poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA), are widely used as a prosthodontic denture base, the denture base materials should exhibit good mechanical properties and dimensional stability in moist environment. In the present research, efforts were made to develop the properties of PMMA resin that used for upper and lower prosthesis complete denture, by addition four different types of nanoparticles, which are fly ash, fly dust, zirconia and aluminum that added with different ratios of volume fractions of (1%, 2% and 3%) to poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA), cold cured resin (castavaria) is the new fluid resin (pour type) as a matrix. In this work, the Nano composite and hybrid Nano composite for prosthetic dentures specimens, preparation was done by using (Hand Lay-Up) method as six groups which includes: the first three groups consists of PMMA resin reinforced by fly ash , fly dust and ZrO2 nanoparticles respectively, the second three groups consists of three types of hybrid Nano composites, which includes ((PMMA:X% fly ash)+ (1%Al + 3% ZrO2 )), ((PMMA:X% fly dust)+ (1%Al + 3% ZrO2)) and ((PMMA:X%nZrO2)+(1%fly ash+3%fly dust)) respectively. As well as, the effect of water absorption was taking into consideration in this study. The compression test results show that the values of the compressive strength with and without the effect of water absorption increased with the addition of Nano powders (fly ash, fly dust, zirconia, and aluminum). Also, the results showed that the maximum values of compressive strength reach to 286.25MPa for (PMMA: 2%nZrO2) Nano composite. Whereas the maximum values of compressive strength for hybrid Nano composite reach to 270MPa for ((PMMA: 2%fly ash) + (1%Al + 3% ZrO2)) hybrid Nano composite. Moreover, the results showed that the maximum value of compressive strength under the effect of water absorption reach to 335MPa in the Nano composite material (PMMA+2% fly dust), whereas the maximum value of compressive strength under the effect of water absorption for hybrid Nano composite reach to 362MPa for ((PMMA: 2% fly dust) + (1%Al + 3% ZrO2)) hybrid Nano composite.

Developing of Integrated Process Planning System for Flexible Manufacturing Environment

Mithal A. Albassam; Amjad B. Alhadeethi; Husam A. Abd Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 14, Pages 2670-2684
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.14A.11

Recently, manufacturing systems are striving for an integrated manufacturing environment. The main aim of this research is to propose methodology and develop a system for generating flexible process plan according to Non-linear process planning approach (NLPP) which is based on a shop floor condition named flexible process plans for all parts before entering the shop floor. Four types of flexibility have been considered which can be related with the part manufacturing. Firstly, sequencing flexibility indicate to the possibility of the sequence interchanging in which required manufacturing operations are performed. Secondly, processing flexibility is refers to the possibility of producing the same manufacturing feature with alternative processes. Thirdly, machine tools flexibility is determined by the possibility of performing an operation on more than one machine and the last is cutting tools flexibility which refers to the possibility of producing the manufacturing feature with alternative cutting tool, the researcher creates mathematical model for each activity of process planning to provide mathematical solution for each one. The developed system basically consists of two modules; firstly, Product design module adopted to define design; secondly process planning module divided into five sub-modules: machining sequence, process selection, machine tools selection, cutting tools selection and machining time sub-modules.

Effect of Glass Wool Addition on Some Properties of Cement Mortar

Hussein Alaa Jaber

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 14, Pages 2685-2691
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.14A.12

This work presents an investigation of possible incorporation of the glass wool (fiberglass insulation) in cement mortar as an insulating building material. Mortar of ordinary Portland cement of (1:3) cement to sand ratio was mixed with glass wool at different weight percentages ranged between (0 – 0.24) wt%. Density, water absorption, thermal conductivity, compressive strength and flexural strength experimentally were investigated for mortar specimens after curing for (28 days). The results showed that the incorporation of glass wool decreases the density, thermal conductivity and compressive strength, but the flexural strength of cement mortar enhances. Thermal conductivity of the cement mortar has decreased by about 44 % by increasing of glass wool content up to 0.24 wt%. Thus, utilization of glass wool as constituents in cement mortar appears to be a promising opportunity that enables applying as thermal insulation materials in constructions.

Evaluation The Quality of Wells Water in Greenbelt Area North of AL-Najaf Al Ashraf City

Sataa AL-Bayati; Salih Albakeri; Mohend M.Salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 14, Pages 2692-2704
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.14A.13

The present study focuses on evaluating the quality of groundwater in Green – Belt project in Al- Najaf Governorate area for human drinking and irrigation. The samples have been collected from five wells, which, have been used to irrigate the plants in the project. Thirteen parameters has been selected for assessment quality of ground water: temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, sulfate ion, turbidity, oil & grease, cadmium, lead, chromium, iron, copper, zinc. In addition, the values parameters have been submitted as spatial distribution on map by using GIS. In addition, water quality index for irrigation and human drinking were calculated. Almost all samples have high salinity, which represented as EC., TDS and SO4-2. In addition, the results exceed the standard limits for irrigation and human drinking. O&G was very high concentration in wells GWF4 and five due to upstream AL-Najaf refinery and they are no recommend for drinking or irrigation. Heavy metals in samples were exceeding the limit of human drinking for lead and iron but other metals were within limits except few samples. For irrigation, almost all samples were within limits, but not recommended for fruits. Calculation of IWQI showed that wells GWF1, two, and three located in fair category, which, regarded as moderate restriction and possibility using for irrigation in Green-Belt project and no side effect on human except palms and olive. The values of IWQI in wells GWF4 and 5 are poor and regards as severe restriction which, can not be used due to contain of O&G in water from AL-Najaf refinery. WQI calculation showed GWF1, two and three were categorized poor and may be used as human drinking water with treatment units. Nevertheless, GWF4 and five were unfit for human drinking.

Enhancement in the Load-Carrying Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Corbels Strengthened with CFRP Strips under Monotonic or Repeated Loads

Eyad K. Sayhood; Qais Abdul Majeed Hassan; Layla A. Gh. Yassin

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 14, Pages 2705-2719
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.14A.14

The present research investigates the effectiveness of using unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced polymer as an external strengthening technique to increase the load carrying capacity of existing reinforced concrete corbels subjected to monotonic or non-reversed repeated loads.
20 normal weight reinforced concrete double-sided corbels were cast for this purpose, 15 of them were strengthened with carbon fiber strips. The variables studied were: the width and orientation of carbon strips and the load history schemes used to apply the non-reversed repeated loading. It was found that the external strengthening with carbon strips improved the capacity of corbels. The enhancement in the load carrying capacity for the corbels strengthened with 50 mm strips and tested under monotonically loads were 11%, 15% and 27% for the horizontal, inclined and mixed orientations respectively. While for the non-reversed repeated loaded corbels, the enhancement in the load carrying capacity was about 11%, 18% and 21% for the horizontal, inclined and mixed orientations respectively.

Effect of Heat Treatment on Corrosion Behavior of Al-4Ti/MgO-SiC Composite

Rana A. Anaee; Wafaa Mahdi Salih; Ban Farhan Dawood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 14, Pages 2720-2726
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.14A.15

This work focuses on the effect of annealing, normalizing and tempering on corrosion behavior of Al-4Ti/1 wt% MgO-2 wt% SiC composite fabricated by stir casting method. The XRD analysis and optical examination indicate that the heat treatments lead to breaking up the main phase (Al3Ti) in Al-4Ti alloy and form many oxides that cover the composite surface.
Linear and cyclic polarizations have been investigated in seawater at room temperature by Potentiostat. The corrosion data showed that the corrosion potential became more negative for heat treated composites compared with untreated once. Corrosion current density decreased after heat treatments. The normalized composite has lowest corrosion rate due to expose the specimen to atmosphere for quenching which leads to form SiO2 in addition to MgO and Al2O3. The breakdown of passive layer in composite decreased by heat treatments which assessed by cyclic polarization test.

Theoretical Study of Refrigerant Injection Technology Effect on Heat Pump Cycle Performance

Abdul Hadi N. Khalifa; Johain J. Faraj; Hayder K. Hasan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 14, Pages 2727-2738
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.14A.16

A 5 ton heat pump system with R22 was improved by Liquid Pressure Amplification (LPA) and refrigerant injection technologies. Three approaches for refrigerant injection were used. The first one was by mixture injection in suction line through accumulator; the second one was by liquid refrigerant injection through discharge line, while the third was a hybrid injection, in which vapour and liquid refrigerant were injected both simultaneously. For both approaches two and three LPA technique was used. The range of volume ratio of injected mixture and liquid was 1 to 7%, and 1 to 10% respectively, and in the hybrid injection, the volume ratio of injected mixture was 1 to 3% and for injected liquid was as mentioned above. The following improvement in cycle performance factors were achieved, for mixture injection 5.33%, for liquid injection 29.4%, and 33.45% for hybrid injection. The effect of condensing pressure on the cycle performance was studied also in this work.

Accuracy Assessment of Analytical Orientation Process in Close range Photogrammetry

Abbas Zedan Khalaf; Nisreen S. Mohammed; Farah Saad A. Al-hasoon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 14, Pages 2739-2753
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.14A.17

This paper studies data manipulation using analytical relative orientation process to determine the exterior orientation parameters. This process can be accomplished by two scenarios; the first one is implemented using collinearity condition while the second one is implemented using coplanarity condition. The final results of both scenarios will be a three dimensional (3D) model and in order to specify the more precise scenario in reconstruction of (3D) models Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) for each scenario was computed. Absolute orientation process was used to transform coordinates of the model system into coordinates of the ground system then (RMSE) for each was computed. The difficulty of obtaining Ground Control Points (GCPs) that covers the photogrammetric project had been overcome by establishing a Portable Control System (PCS) .This (PCS) is a block made of an Aluminum alloy that had been shaped by a (TNC) milling machine to produce plane surfaces on it. The points of intersection of the produced surfaces on the block was labeled or coded and the distances between these points were measured manually by the digital vernier caliper 150mm and micrometer. These points represented control points in the captured images also a specific point within the block was chosen to be the center of this control system and all the remaining points was calculated with reference to it. The calculated (RMSE) for collinearity condition was 1.0212 mm. while for coplanarity condition was 1.0230 mm. So the precision of both models is nearly identical moreover coplanarity condition was more feasible for the requirements of close range photogrammetry.

Mechanical Performance of CO2 and Autoclave Cured Date Palm Fiber Reinforced eco-mortar Composites

Maan Salman Hassan; Wahad Marwan Salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 14, Pages 2754-2765
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.14A.18

Using nature waste fibers in construction industries had shown important character "environmental friendly" which paid a great interest around the world. The aim of this paper was to investigate the suitability of agriculture waste date palm fibers as lignocellulosic materials for the production of wood-cement composite, in addition to enhance their compatibility with cement using accelerated curing like carbonation or autoclave.
Three percentages of date palm fibers were used (2, 6, and 10)% by weight of cement in cement composites specimens. Compressive, flexural and direct tension strengths were examined as strength properties and X-ray diffraction (XRD) as microstructure properties. The results show that carbonation curing was the most effective curing for compressive strength property while autoclave curing leads to better performance in flexural strengths. Curing type effects on direct tension property were fluctuated. This could be attributed to the variation in cellulose fiber roles with respect to each property evaluated. X-ray diffraction confirmed that CO2-curing led to increased CaCO3 content compared with autoclaved composites.

Improving the Metal Removal Rate (MRR) in Electro Discharge Machining by Additives Powder

Saad Kariem Shather; Ruaa Amer salim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 14, Pages 2766-2774
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.14A.19

Electro discharge machining (EDM) is one of non-traditional machining processes which is used in important application. This paper has focused on improving material removal rate by adding powders (Al2O3 particle size 15-35m) and (SiO2 particle size 20-30m) to kerosene solution through EDM process with different ratios (0.1, 0.14, 0.18 to 0.25 g) particle size for each liter using different values of currents (8, 16 and 30 Amp) and (140 Volt) and (Toff, Ton 25 and 37 μSec),
Medium carbon steel is used as a workpeice and copper as electrode, the material removal rate (MRR). It has been found that maximum MRR was (0.2969) g/min when adding SiO2 powder (0.25)g/l and maximum MRR was (0.2781)g/min when adding Al2O3 powder (0.25)g/l, the Minitab model program was used to predict the MRR which gives a good result and agreement with experiments 99%.

An Experimental Approach and Constructing a New Non-Linear Regression Model for Prediction the Anisotropy Parameters of Annealing Treated Commercially Pure Aluminum Sheets

Jabbar H. Mohmmed; Ali A. Mohsen; Bassam A. Ahmed; Najmuldeen Yousif Mahmood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 14, Pages 2775-2783
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.14A.20

Earing is a common phenomenon in deep drawing process that increases the waste of metal. This phenomena is affected by material anisotropy, thus, it is important to study the effects of material parameters on this material behavior. This paper focuses on identify the optimal condition of annealing treatment which result in higher value of normal anisotropy and lower value of planar anisotropy which lead to reduce the waste material in subsequent forming processes. Therefore, in this study, anisotropic behavior and formability of commercially pure aluminum thin sheets was investigated after annealing the samples at different temperatures (350, 400, and 450) °C. Uniaxial tensile tests were carried out at room temperature (25°C) to evaluate formability parameters. For this purpose different tensile test samples in the directions of 0°, 45° and 90° in respect to the rolling direction were prepared. In addition to, metallographic test was carried out to as-received and annealed samples to observe the changes in microstructure.
Plastic strain ratio and planar anisotropy of samples were calculated from the tensile test data. Based on the tensile test results of samples, the earing phenomenon due to planar anisotropy in commercially pure aluminum sheet was analyzed. The results indicate that the annealing at 400°C brought the optimum conditions.
Moreover, new regressions model for prediction the anisotropy parameters of sheet metal using statistical techniques (SPSS software) were constructed in this work. The experimental data were compared to those predicting values. A comparison clearly indicates that there are good identification between measured and predicted values with multiple correlation coefficients R of 0.932 and accuracy of about 87 %. The results reveal that the proposed model is effective and reliable tool to obtain accurate prediction of the anisotropy behavior of metal sheets.