Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 34, Issue 5

Volume 34, Issue 5, May 2016, Page 157-758

Image Categorization Based Color Detector

Hayder Ayad; Nidaa Flaih Hassan; Suhad Mallallah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 621-628

Due to the investigation of the images in several parts of the life and the arising of the fast technology make the management of these images an open research area. Basically, the color feature considered as informative information that can be extracted from the image and help in improve the application performance. Based on the literature, this research found that there are several datasets that content images considered as a colorful images but some of these images content poor color information. For that, it’s unfair to treat all the dataset images as colorful images and this may lead to unsuccessful classification due to unfair color features that extracted from these images. To overcome this problem, this paper has proposed a color detector that can be used as a pre-processing stage to separate the dataset images into two classes colorful and colorless. The experiments have been carried out by using Caltech 101 dataset and the proposed method shows high level of discriminative power.

Arabic Language Text Steganography Based on Singular Value Decomposition (SVD)

Hanaa M. Ahmed; a A. A. Khohder; Maisa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 629-637

With the fast development of internet innocent over communication in the network environment has become an important research direction. Steganography means that secret information is embedded into cover data imperceptibly for transmission. Linguistic Steganography covers all the techniques that deal with using written natural language to hide the secret message. This paper, presents a linguistic steganography for Arabic language texts, using Kashida and Fast Fourier Transform on the basis of using a new technique entitled Random Singular Value Decomposition Image as a location to hide a secret message. The proposed approach is an attempt to present a transform linguistic steganography using levels for hiding to improve implementation of kashida, and improve the security of the secret message by using Random Singular Value Decomposition Image. The proposed algorithm achieves typical steganography properties such as capacity, security, transparency, and robustness.

A General Formula for Characteristic Polynomials of Some Special Graphs

Nawras A. Alwan; Nadia M. G. Al-Saidi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 638-650

The calculation of characteristic polynomials (Ch. Poly.) of graphs of any size, especially for the large number of vertices n is an extremely tedious problem if used the traditional methods, so in this paper, the general formulas of the characteristic polynomial of some graphs, such as, path, complete, circle and star graphs are introduced. It is constructed based on adjacency and Laplacian matrices. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated in terms of complexity to show an improvement over traditional methods.

Gabor-based Fingerprint Authentication for Anti-phishing System

Soukaena H. Hashem; Rehab F. Hasan; Rajaa K. Hasoun

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 651-665

E-banking is banking system in which the customers conduct transactions electronically via the Internet. Most of these sites are prone to a phishing attack. The usual fears with phishing attack are that the user may be an attacker and impersonating the identity of the authorized user, but the most dangerous in E-bank that the website which is to be hacker (phisher website), and this will lead to steal sensitive information of customers. The trend of this research is to introduce proposed security system represent "E-bank website anti-phishing attack". The proposal tries to prevent that the security concerns remain on the attacker impersonating an authenticateduser. In traditional authentication techniques, such as use of username and password is not sufficient for securing E-banking system. The reason of using fingerprint in authentication is based on fingerprint individuality. The proposal introduces a suggested treatment of pattern recognition of fingerprint with lowest False Acceptance Rate "FAR" and False Rejection Rate "FRR" among all traditional fingerprint authentication mechanism. The proposal enhances the traditional recognition system by applying Gabor filter during the preprocessing stage which makes our proposal able to recognize the rotated impression, so the accuracy of fingerprint matching is improved.

Using Chebyshev Polynomial and Quadratic Bezier Curve for Secure Information Exchange

Hala Bahjet Abdul Wahab; Tanya AbdulSattar Jaber

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 666-674

Information exchange approaches are still an important research issue in the network security, generation and sharing the secret session key is the important factor during the group key transfer protocols. In this paper, we propose a new approach for information exchange based on PGP protocol as behavior. The proposed approach aims to combine chaotic techniques and curve security features based on chebyshev polynomial and quadratic Bezier curve, respectively to improve NTRU algorithm to increase the security features in the session key transfer process and improve DES algorithm in the encryption process. The proposed approach adds more security levels In the case of confidentiality and authentication with acceptable results.

Optimal Conditions for Bromelain Extraction from Pineapple Fruit (Ananas comosus)

Ali J. R. AL-Sa; ady; Wedean G. A. Al-Hadban; Maysaa A. A. Al-Zubaidy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 675-682

Bromelain is a cysteine protease which is found in the tissues of Bromeliacea plant family of which pineapple Ananas cosmossus is best known. The investigated parameters for optimal Brome-lain extraction are optimum buffers, pH, Molarity, time, and amounts of husk free pineapple fruit to volume (ml) of buffer ratio. Sodium phosphate was best buffer for bromelain extraction from pine-apple fruit because its showed high activity, with casein as a substrate. Subsequent experiments, using sodium phosphate as an optimal buffer for extraction and casein as a substrate, reviled that the optimal bromelain extraction conditions were achieved at pH 7.0, 0.1 M of sodium phosphate, 2.5 min of extraction time, 1:0.5 (gm of pineapple fruit/ v of sodium phosphate buffer) extraction per-centage, and 30 min of incubation time. Additionally, Bromelain extracted from pineapple fruit showed a maximum enzyme activity at pH 7and at 30 min of incubation with casein as substrate.

Text Hiding in 3D Object

Luma Fayeq Jalil; Muna M. Laftah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 683-690

In this research was to propose a new way to hide data from the text in the tri-dimensional images type depending on the geometric style is proposed, this can be done via the manipulation of the location of the (vertex) in most areas of softness in the triangular object dimensions of any of the many details areas so we make sure not to detect the presence of the data eye human. The experimental results showed, a high rate of failure note the presence of hidden data depending on the scale "RMS" Tripartite-dimensional images, and the way showed good resistance to the types of geometric attack such as "translation"," rotation" and "scaling" and out where he was retrieving a full hidden data without any destruction and this is what boosted "BER".

Effect of Solvents on the Photophysical Properties of the Polystyrene Solutions

Esam A. Tawfi; Mohammed M. Rasheed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 691-696

The aim of this work was to investigate the photophysical behavior of polystyrene solutions under the effect of different solvents at different concentrations .Testband at 262 nm. There was no effect of solvents and concentration on the position of the maximum absorption wavelength. The data show that a strong dependence between absorbance intensity and concentration. Polystyrene in chloroform, cyclohexane and dichloromethane showed fluorescence monomer emission at 296nm. Excimer emissions were recorded for polystyrene in chloroform, cyclohexane, dichloromethane and tetrahydrofuran at 307nm, 325nm, 327nm and 330nm respectively. Solvents have effect on the fluorescence quantum yield magnitude, where highest value of it had been recorded in cyclohexane (55%)

Manufacturing of Aluminum Foam as a Light Weight Structural Material

Safa Hasan Mohammed; Ali A. Aljubouri

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 697-702

In this study, aluminum foam was fabricated using sintering and dissolution process (SDP). Aluminum powder with a particle size (3.63μm) as a raw material was mixed with NaCl with a particle size between (212-400μm) as a space holderat different ratio (30, 40, 50 ,60, 70 and 80) wt. % and compacted at 200 MPa followed by sintering at 650° C for 2 hrs. The sintered samples were placed into hot water for 10 hrs to dissolve NaCl particles. Uniaxial compression test was carried out to determine the foam structure influence on plastic deformation and damage in the Al foam. The foam porosity increased from 28% to 81% for 30wt. % and 80wt. % of NaCl content respectively. The mechanical properties (compressive strength, yield stress and young’s modulus) decrease with increasing NaCl content.

Preparation and Characteristics Study of Diamond - Like Carbon (DLC) Film onn-Si Substrates by Electrolysis of Methanol

Ali M. Mousa; Raid A. Ismail; Mustafa A. Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 703-710

The electrolysis of methanol was used to deposit diamond-like carbon (DLC) film on an-type Si (100) substrate under constant voltage (1200V) at ambient pressure and temperature40oC. The surface morphology and composition of the synthesized film was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Raman spectroscopy.Deposited DLC film has a compact structure of dense grains, and the film contained irregular shape particles (clusters) of DLC. Raman spectraconfirmed that the DLC film contains carbon atoms with sp3hybridization.

Unification of Multiple Treebanks and Testing Them With Statistical Parser With Support of Large Corpus as a Lexical Resource

Ahmed Hussein Aliwy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 711-720

There are many Treebanks, texts with the parse tree, available for the researcher in the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP). All these Treebanks are limited in size, and each one used private Context Free Grammar (CFG) production rules (private formalism) because its construction is time consuming and need to experts in the field of linguistics. These Treebanks, as we know, can be used for statistical parsing and machine translation tests and other fields in NLP applications. We propose, in this paper, to build large Treebank from multiple Treebanks for the same language. Also, we propose to use an annotated corpus as a lexical resource. Three English Treebanks are taken for our study which arePenn Treebank (PTB), GENIA Treebank (GTB) and British National Corpus (BNC). Brown corpus is used as a lexical resource which contains approximately one million tokens annotated with part of speech tags for each.
Our work start by the unification of POS tagsets of the three Treebank then the mapping process between Brown Corpus tagset and the unified tagset is done. This is done manually according to our experience in this field. Also, all the non-terminals in the CFG production are unified.All the three Treebanks and the Brown corpus are rebuilt according to the new modification.
Our test for the proposed unification are made in three types: (i) statistical parsing test for each Treebank alone without modification, (ii) statistical parsing test for each Treebank alone after the modification, (iii) statistical parsing test for the collection of the three Treebanks after modification without support of lexical resource, and (iv) statistical parsing test for the collection of the three Treebanks after modification with support of lexical resource. The unknown words are processed using a very simple suggested method.
We can show, simply in our work, that (a) the unification of multiple Treebanks can be done and will increase the accuracy. (b) A large annotated corpus as Brown corpus can be used for (i) decreasing the unknown words and (ii) we can extract the probabilities nearest to the reality. (c) The mapping between the unified tagset and the lexical tagset (used in Brown corpus) can be done straightforward.

Speech Encryption Based on Wavelet Transformation and Chaotic Map

Hala B.Abdul Wahab; Sundus I. Mahdi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 721-729

In this paper a new algorithm is presented for speech encryption. It includes dividing the speech signal into overlapped blocks then shuffling those blocks in the time domain. A second permutation is done for the coefficients of the block which generated from wavelet transform by using chaotic key based on Hénon map, and partially encrypting the shuffled online speech signal in a transform domain. The security for the proposed system will depend on different parameters, including secret block sizes, the amount for overlapping along the x-axes and y-axes, permutation key and dynamic encrypted key. By having a new level of security the eavesdropper has to choose the amount of overlapping correctly. Many online speech signal tests demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm. The results show that it provides secure approach to real-time speech encryption and at the same time gives high intelligibility for the recovered speech.

Effect of Antibiotics, Anesthetics, Sugars and Saltson The Oxidation Activity of Human Ceruloplasmin in vitro

Ali J.Al - Sa; ady; Dalal S. Bedan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 730-737

The optimum conditions for Ceruloplasmin (CP) activity have been measured in serum samples of a healthy individual without any detectable diseases. CP activity was evaluated by measurement of its p-phenylenediamine oxidase activity. This study showed the optimum pHforCP activity of a healthy human serum was 6.0 and the optimal temperature for CP activity was 45°C using in vitro conditions. The maximum value of oxidation activity was in incubation period70 min using optimal substrate concentration 60 mmol/l.
Several types of antibiotics were experimented in order to detect their effect on ceruloplasmin oxidation activity; these are consisted of Cephalexin, Amoxicillin, Erythromycin, Ampicillin, Ampicillin & Cloxacillin, Streptomycin Sulfate, Chloramphenicol, Cefrtriaxone, Benzathine, Pencilline and Aspegic. Results showed that Ampicillin and Streptomycin Sulfate had maximum influence on ceruloplasmin activity. Different types of sugars, salts and anesthetics were used to evaluate their effect on p-phenylenediamine oxidation by serum ceruloplasmin. Results appeared that starch, FeSo4 and lidocaine 4% were activator for oxidation process. This study aimed to measure the optimal conditions of ceruloplasmin activity and to evaluate effect of different antibiotics and anesthetics onproteins from the serum of a healthy individual using in vitro conditions.

A new Approach for Detection and ExtractionTables in Scanned Document Image using Improved Hough Transform

Hasanen S. Abdullah; Ammar H. Jasim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 738-753

In this paper, an improvement approach of Hough transform for tables detection and extraction from scanned document images is achieved as one of the main stages in document recognition to recognize between original and faked documents. The improvements fundamentally originate from the modulation of the standard Hough transform (SHT)parameter selection, peak threshold and voting scheme. Peakvalues formed by noise edges are thus lowered compared with those formed by clear edges. Experimental results show the proposed method leads to significant suppression of false peaks in Hough space and is thus effective. The parameters can be determined empirically in advance, which their advantage to use the proposed method in fully automated lines detection applications.

SAR Images Watermarking Based on Multiwavelet and Curvelet Transforms

Rabab Farhan Abbas; Matheel Emaduldeen Abdulmunim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 754-758

Protect the digital media and provide the copyright is a very important process to confirm their owners, digital watermarking play a vital role which is used to check the copyright contravention. In this paper, a new mixing watermarking algorithm is proposed by using discrete multiwavelet transform and curvelet transform on SAR images. The results showed that the proposed algorithm offers good performance in both subjective and objective tests. When the PSNR values equal to (19.1446, 20.7941, 19.4537 and 19.8802), they were increased in the proposed method to (22.8046, 23.7941, 22.5031 and 22.9106) respectively.

Selective Dissociation of Boron Isotop 11B by TEA CO2 Laser

Ali A. Aljubouri; Faleh Hassan Hamza; Hassan Hommadi Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 157-162

The infrared multiphoton dissociation of Boron Trichloride (BCl3) gas molecules by transfersly excited atmospheric (TEA) CO2 laser has been studied. BCl3 molecules irradiated with different lines of TEA CO2 laser which coincided with the frequency of the absorption
spectrum of 10BCl3 and 11BCl3 compounds at a 3  vibrational mode. The mixture of of 10BCl3 and 11BCl3 has been studied in the presence of oxygen (O2) gas, where O2 gas used as a scavenger gas of the dissociation products. The TEA CO2 laser used was tuned to the 10P(20)line of the 10.6 μm, which is in resonance with the 3  mode of 11BCl3. The mass spectrometer used in isotope ratio analysis of the compounds befor and after irradiation. The enrichment
coefficient of 10B isotop obtained was about 1.1729.

The Cytogenetic Effects of Dexamethazone Drug Sperm on Musmusculus

Abbas A. Mohammad; Amer H. Abbas; Safa S. Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 163-168

The aim of this study was to detect the cytogenetic effects of Dexamethazone drug by using head sperm abnormalities test on white mice (Musmusculus) fivety five male mice were used in this study, these animals were divided into five groups. The first was the negative control group while the second was treated with MMC as positive control, and the three groups (45 mice) treated with three doses (0.02, 0.04 ,0.08mg/ from dexamethasone drug.The result refer that the dexamethasone cause increasing in many kind of head sperm abnormality (p<0.01).Which indicate the high side effect of this drug on germ cells so we can conclude that this drug may permanently sterilize in the mice.

Antimicrobial Activity of Populous Euphratica Leaves Extract on Growth of Some Gram Negative Bacteria

Mustafa M.Abd Al razak; Arkan M.Majeed; Hassan M.Resen; Jameel M. Badi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 169-175

Three kinds of extracts (hot , boil water and ethanolic extracts) had been prepared from populous euphratica leaves .Known chemical reagent was applied to different various function groups( flavonoid , alkaloid , polyphenoles , Tannins, Saponions and Proteins) present in the plant leaves. Different concentration of these extract (120, 180 and 240 mg/ml) were used against various bacterial spp.( Escherichia coli ، Klebsiella pneumonae ، Salmonella typhi , Shigella sonei and Protus mirabilus ) to detect the antibacterial activity. The result of the antibacterial activity of populous euphratica leaves extract has been varied according to the kind of extract used and bacterial spp. applied. The results clear that the mean diameter of inhibition zone increased with increasing concentration of the extract used and The results showed that the mean diameter of inhibition zone in the range 4-26 mm for hot water extract , 4-22 mm for boiling water and 2-14 mm for ethanolic extract .Finally , the results of hot water extract plant leaves has shown of the higher biological activity (26 mm) for E.coli among other extract of the same concentration(120 , 180 and 240 mg/ml) and 22 mm to extract boiling water in Shigella soni The alcoholic extract higher inhibition zone 14 mm recorded in each of the (Salmonella typhi Shigella soni, Protus mirabilus).Statistical analysis of the results of all kinds of extracts was showed significant different(p<0.01).

Preparation of NanoPorous Alumina by Anodization Method and Study of Their Structural Properties

Ali J Addie

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 176-185

Highly ordered nanoporous alumina structures have been prepared by electrochemical anodization for high purity Al-foils, electrolyte cell parameters have controlled to obtain optimum preparation conditions. Anodization potential, current density and electrolyte concentration effects on the prepared porous layer, surface morphology have been studied by scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy have used to analyze chemical composition of the samples.
Results of the SEM show that the pore size was about 20-80 nm and it depends strongly on the anodization potential & electrolyte concentration, the higher anodization potential can destroy the barrier layer & cause a hi-dissolution rate of aluminum in the electrolyte, while with low potential a porous layer cannot be obtained. The highest degree of order and hexagonal distribution of pores was obtained with anodization potential of 20 volts and 0.2M of the electrolyte concentration. Results of EDS confirm the formation of the aluminum oxide layer with traces of sulfur which belong to the electrolyte.

Doping Effect on Structure, Optical, & Sensing Properties of Nanocrystalline (SnO2) Thin Films Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) Technique

Abdulhussain K. Elttayef; Amel S. Sabr; Selma M.H. AL-Jawad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 186-197

Thin films of Nanocrystalline Tin Oxide SnO2 and SnO2: Cu have been prepared on glass substrates using Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique, The thickness of the deposited film was of the order of (300) nm . The films annealing in air at temperature 500◦C for 60 min .Structural, optical and sensing properties were studied under different preparation conditions like Cu-doping concentration (2%, 4% and 6%). These prepared films are polycrystalline with a tetragonal & orthorhombic crystal structure. The crystallinity and the particle size of the prepared samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), the results indicated the particle size of the prepared samples decreased with the increase of Cu doping concentrations some of the structure properties are changed by the addition Cu concentrations as dopants. The films are preferentially oriented along the (110) direction. We have got some surface morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), the results show decreasing of particle size with increasing doping concentration. The films have moderate optical transmission from (65% up to 88% at 800 nm), and the transmittance, absorption coefficient and energy gap were measured and calculated with Cu doping concentration. The results show that the doping caused to decreased the transmittance and energy gap from (3.55 to 3.8) eV while it caused to increase the absorption coefficient. It has also been found that Cu doped nanocrystalline SnO2 thin films gas sensing & recovery time material was presented a better sensitivity to CO gas compared to the pure SnO2.