Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 6,

Issue 6


An Enhancement Method Based on Modifying CFB Mode for Key Generation in AES Algorithm

Dalal N.Hammod; MahaA.Hamood Al-Rawi; Hasanen S. Abdulah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 6, Pages 759-768

There are two very important characteristics in the block cipher, the amount of time for encryption process and key complexity which caused increasing the complexity of encryption process. This research aims to enhance the key generation of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm with high efficiency. The proposed enhancement method architecture based on modifying cipher feedback (MCFB) mode which produce key block from each key generation step in addition to represent current output that is repeated lyre used as input to produce next key block. In the block cipher encryption step, two processes are implemented: Substitution bytes process and Shift rows process. This proposed method improves the performance, efficiency, and speed of the encryption algorithm.

Thermo-Chemical Behavior of Epoxy Composite (EP/PVC) Reinforced by Addition of Scrap Tires

Raghad U.Abass

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 6, Pages 769-776

The high performance and unique utilization properties applied by designers according to improvement of thermal and mechanical products were reinforced by particulate materials. The present study deals with the preparation of a composite system (EP/PVC). afterward the estimation of thermo-chemical behaviour of epoxy composite (EP/PVC) reinforced by addition of micro-fillers particulate of waste scrap tires (WST). Three different sets of epoxy-PVC composites are fabricated with addition of 0, 0.25, and 0.4 wt% of WST particulates. These composites have been prepared and both chemical reactivity absorbance and thermal conductivities are achieved. From results it appeared that a decreasing in thermal conductivity values about 55 % for 0.25wt % for a micro-WST of epoxy composite system, of 0.4wt. %recorded decreasing of thermal conductivity at88 %when compared to epoxy composite system (EP/PVC). The results show that the (WST) micro-fillers particles show an insulation polar behaviour at 0.4 wt. % at which a random behaviour in thermal conductivity is recorded .In addition to an experimental examination of chemical activity absorbance for both composite system before and after additive of micro-filler particulate of waste scrap tires (WST) in different soaking medium (normal and acidic solutions) and different residence times (0-120 hrs) respectively. The results proved that an improvement chemical activity occurred for optimum sample no. 3 of (2.5/ .4 + .4 (EP/PVC + WST) that have minimum loss in weight as (0.001) under both soaking medium (100% H2O, 10% H2SO4) rather than base composite system (EP/PVC) and other improved one of .25 wt. % from WST of (0.01 – 0.05) respectively.

A Proposal of an Efficient Feature Extracting Method for Content-Based Image Retrieval

Batool Hussein Farhan; Israa Tahseen Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 6, Pages 777-785

Searching a required image from the World Wide Web (WWW) is very difficult because the WWW contains a huge number of images. To solve such a problem, an efficient system is needed to retrieve images that are required by the user. The content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system has been used to solve this problem. In this paper, a new combination of three techniques is used for visual features extracting. Color histogram was used to extract color feature from the image. Multi wavelet transform was chosen to represent the information of the texture and the edge histogram was used to represent the shape feature. Object scaling and translation in an image can be got robustly by the combination of these techniques. Furthermore, to speed up retrieval and similarity computation of the proposed system, the data set images are clustered using k-mean clustering algorithm according to the weighted feature vectors. The system evaluation experimentally carried out on800Wang color image dataset, and showed that proposed system performed significantly better and faster than other existing systems by using the proposed features.

Implement Interactive E-Learning System Based on Cloud Computing

Raheem Abdul Sahib Ogla; Mohammed Jasim Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 6, Pages 786-796

Due to the urgent need for the development of higher education system in Iraq and move it from the traditional learning system to an interactive e-learning system, There is a need to find essential applicable solutions to fit with the technical and scientific development taking place in the field of e-education and e-learning nowadays.
In this research, a set of solutions that are faced in education in Iraq has been studied and processed to make them applicable electronically; the most important problems facing the transformation of higher education in Iraq from the traditional case to the electronic case have been studied and analyzed.All issues related to the traditional education (education administration, educational content, learning curricula, examinations, registration, distribution of professors and all interactive processes) have been studied and analyzed. These issues are converted to electronic case.
In this research, a dynamic integrated centralized relational database operating under the Web environment using (SQL), e-learning management system (LMS) and content management system (CMS) using the environment of (VS.net version 2015), all interfaces and interactive communication necessary for the learning process electronically, have been analyzed and designed.
All possibilities, techniques, facilities and characteristics offered by cloud computing are invested. The research applicable results were examined and published on cloud computing through the allocated account on private cloud computing. In order to present a practical solution we have been designing and implementing e-learning system interactively to be served as a basis used in all Iraqi universities. This system provides immediate and interactive solutions to students who live in cities and rural and remote areas.

Influence of Rrapid Cooling of Copper Oxide Nanostructures Synthesized Via Thermal Oxidation of Copper Foil

Abdulqader D. Faisal; Wafaa Khalid Khalef; Haitham Talib Hussein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 6, Pages 797-807

The influence of rapid cooling on the morphology and structures of CuO nanostructures synthesized via oxidation process was investigated. Two suggested approaches were used in this study. First and second oxidation approaches of Cu foil were conducted with single zone tube furnace and muffle furnace respectively. The copper oxide product was characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform –infrared spectrometer (FTIR), ultra violate- visible (UV-VIS) spectrophotometer. XRD patterns showed that there are two copper oxide phases of Cu2O and CuO always coexists and their intensity proportion varying with oxidation temperatures. These results were confirmed by SEM and FTIR analysis. High energy band gap about 3.6eV was calculated at different temperatures for copper oxide nanostructure.

Effect of Hydrothermal Reaction Temperatures on Structural and Optical Properties of ZnS Nanoparticles

Selma M .H. Al-Jawad; Mukhlis M .Ismail; Sora Emad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 6, Pages 808-819

A ZnS nanoparticle was prepared using hydrothermal interaction of zinc acetate with Thiourea in different reaction temperatures (170oC, 180oC, 185oC, 190oC). The structural characterization of synthesized nanoparticle was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) which showed a hexagonal structural of ZnS. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) analysis were confirmed that the morphology and elemental analysis was formed ZnS nanoparticle. Absorption study has been carried out using UV-VIS spectrophotometer to determine the band gap of ZnS nanoparticle. The optical energy band gap was changed at values equal to (4.16, 4.46, 4.1 and 4.35eV) with different hydrothermal temperatures at (170oC, 180oC, 185oC and 190oC) respectively. However, these values of energy gaps for ZnS nanoparticles are blue shift and larger than that bulk value due to quantum confinement. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra (FTIR) is recorded in an FTIR spectrometer to verify the presence of ZnS powder. The particle size of ZnS calculated was ranged between 3.5 to 3.9 nm according to Sherrer's equation and the results were compatible when using Effective Mass Approximation (EMA).

Proposed Method to Encrypt Images to Mobile Device Based on the Principles of Shannon

Hanna M .A .Salman; Anwar Abbas Hattab

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 6, Pages 820-830

In the proposed research, it has been proposed image encryption method in the mobile device based on the principles of Shannon (diffusion and confusion). Where: a large group of keys is used. The process of entering the keys by the user is a very difficult In the proposed method; all the keys are extracted from the mathematical image properties, by a process of summation operation and the value of the mean. Image processing passes in to two phases, the first phase by using the output of the process of summation as a key to achieve the diffusion. In the second phase, the value of the mean is used as a seed to LFSR (Linear feedback register) to generate akey equal to the block of the image. Then process of the x or-operation (XOR) between the key and the block of image should be treated the output of these two phases is an image with the same of the original image size. Then by applying calculated time of encryption and decrypted are found the proposed method is simple, fast, and sensitive to the key. The suggested method meets the performance analysis examinations such as histogram, correlation, power spectrum, NPCR, UACI, Entropy and acceptable encryption speed; and it is resistant to statistical, brute force, and differential attacks.

A Proposed Registration Method Using Tracking Interest Features for Augmented Reality

Abdul Ameer Abdulla; Yossra Hussain Ali; Ikhlas Watan Ghindawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 6, Pages 831-841

An Augmented Reality (AR) incorporates a mix of genuine and PC created scene segments. AR frameworks enhance a client's impression of this present reality with information that is not entirely of the scene. A key test for making an expanded the truth is to keep up precise arrangement amongst genuine and virtual thing.This exploration delineates a method to build up the enlistment extent of a dream based enlarged reality (AR) framework, also explores a simple method for detecting and tracking natural features in video stream. In this method, a reference image has been used as a tool to find the a proper position of an object. This method first uses Harris Corner Detector to detect the interest features and find the correspondences using cross-correlation method then it used the Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) algorithm to find the Homography matrix .After acquiring keypoints in the video frame, a Kanade–Lucas–Tomasi (KLT) feature tracker optical flow tracking algorithm has been used to track the motion of these keypoints frame-by-frame. By maintaining the correspondence between the tracked keypoints and those on the clean marker image, a new homography for every frame has been computed. This allows tracking the orientation of the marker as it moves in the video frames.
Experiments for assessing the possibility of the technique are implemented in order to illustrate the potential benefits of the method, in which result's that to the target registration error ( TRE) reach 0.0020 , root mean square error (RMSE ) is 0.003 and average time for whole dataset is 2.5 s

Synthesis of Biocompatible Polymer Blend for Drug Delivery in Biomedical Applications

Shemaa Abdul Sattar Saood; Ghassan M. Sulaiman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 6, Pages 842-851

Chrysin (CH) and Caffeic acid (CA) loaded polymer films are designed as antibacterial polymer films with the advantages of a sustained release. Polymer blend film was prepared by solution casting method of (polyvinyl alcohol) (PVA) blend with Poly (vinylpyrrolidone) PVP and glycerine (GL) as plasticizer in addition to glutaraldehydeas cross linker. The surface characteristics of film were assessed by scanning electron microscopy .Furthermore, the swelling behavior was followed in DSMO and PBS. PVA/PVP films were loaded with 1, 10 and 50% for either CH or CA. Release kinetics was followed for 24 hr in PBS at 37◦C. The cumulative amount released from the polymeric PVA/PVP film loaded with 1, 10 and 50% of CH over the entire period 24 h was found to be 0.087, 0.127 and 0.146 gm, respectively .While the cumulative amount of CA released in same condition was found to be 0.875, 0.766 and 1.13 gm respectively. Antibacterial activity for both CH and CA released from the film was tested against two type of bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureuas and Escherichia coli.

Remove Logos from Video Using Linear and Fast Fourier Interpolation Methods

Abdulameer A. Kareem; Sura Hameed Mahdi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 6, Pages 852-859

The object removal from video is sometimes necessary in some application. The process of removing object includes remove text, logo, watermark or a particular object. These objects may be static or dynamic in the video. The removed object are detected by binary mask and try to fill the background of removed object that in a non-noticeable visually. A completion is the process of rebuilding lost or degraded parts from frames of the video. In this paper an efficient technique are proposed to fill the missing parts of the frames within the video. This work include two algorithms: The first algorithm is Vertical, Horizontal and 4Neighbors algorithm (VH4NA) that contain three stages for filling process (vertical, horizontal and 4neighbors interpolation). The second algorithm is Fast Fourier interpolation algorithm (FFIA) depends on the Fast Fourier Transform for filling lost areas. The results showed that the proposed algorithms to fill the missing or damage parts of the video frames are in a visually pleasing way. The First algorithm is used to fill the missing parts with simple background, while the second algorithm used to fill the missing parts with complex background. The time consumed for the implementation of the first algorithm is less than time for implementation of the second”

E-Passport Recognition System Based on ANNs

Lobna Anwar Mohammed; Muzhir Shaban Al-Ani; Ali Jbaeer Dawood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 6, Pages 860-870

Nowadays it is more necessary to perform the identity check of passengers quickly and reliably to prevent unauthorized border crossing, and limit the use of forger passport. This paper concentrated on the design E-passport using two main technologies which are biometric and RFID technologies. Biometric features are used to identify passport holder and the RFID is used to store andtransmit these features as required. This paper proposes a new approach to design and implement a robust biometric recognition system that could be used in e-passport system to identify and recognize person that own the identical e-passport. The ANN is used for recognition persons in this proposed system which was able to recognize persons registered in database in rate up to 81% and the percentage of fail in recognition was 19%.

A Security System Using Curve Fitting

Abdul-Mohssen J. Abdul-Hossen; Khaldoun L. Hameed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 6, Pages 871-881

Recently, information hiding has become the main focus of the researchers in the last two decades because of its benefits in document security and image protection versus copyright. In fact, this research paper proposed a modified authentication method based on the curve fitting technique with curves hiding in the images in the way that is sturdy for printing and scanning. Apparently, the introduced method proceeds by inserting a secure imprint designed by curves interpolated using cubic spline interpolation technique within the printed imagpe. Mainly, by using the proposed modified methods, several secures imprints can be embedded into images with a perfect recovery against the print-scan operation. In conclusion, the proposed models have been tested by producing samples with some image samples; the samples were printed on the traditional papers using traditional inks and printers.

Effect of Zn Substation on Structural and Magnetic Properties of Cu-Ferrites Nanoparticles

Ghaed. k. Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 6, Pages 882-893

In this research prepared samples of CuZn-ferrites were substation of copper ions by zinc ions as a composition formula Cu1-x ZnxFe2O4 ferrite (with x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) and studying the properties of composition using FTIR spectroscopy established creation of spinel ferrite and presented the features of absorption bands around 561.29-405 cm−1. X-ray diffraction (XRD) exposed that the structure of these nano particles is spinel and crystallite size lies in the range (12.22–23.9) nm. observed when added zinc ions, found increase in particle size and lattice constant while decrease in Xrd-density, and also have been identified the behavior of material Ferrite in low frequencies permeability magnetic used LCR meter , found when increasing the frequency (1-200) KHz decries in magnetic permeability (μ′) this usual behavior in ferrites and observed a significant increase in magnetic permeability when increasing zinc ions due to the effect of zinc on the internal structure of copper ferrite. At Low frequency institute that the permeability raises with Zn contented rise from (0 - 0.3) in Cu-ferrites.

Encrypted Image Watermark in Audio Files Using Homogenous Deffie-Hellman with Chebyshev Polynomial

Hala B. Abdul Wahab; Abdul-Mohssen J. Abdul-Hossen; Sana Ahmed Kadhom

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 6, Pages 894-900

Due to the expanding utilization of advanced media, the assurance of protected innovation rights issue has turned into an essential issue. Digital watermarking is currently drawing consideration as another technique for shielding media content from unapproved duplicating. In this paper, watermarking image (logo) will be encrypted using a key constructed by a proposed homogenous method of Diffie-Hellman and chebyshev polynomial. The encrypted watermark will be embedded in different samples from the transformed file (DCT) of audio. The embedding process will depend on binary similarity between the audio and watermark bits which reduces the effect of embedded data. The proposed method for the key generation is more secure and complicated since it combines the strength factors of both Diffie-Hellman and Chebyshev polynomial. The effect of the embedding is nonperceptibile and nondetectable.

CQTRU: A Commutative Quaternions Rings Based Public Key Cryptosystem

Nadia M.G. Alsaidi; Ahmad T. Sadiq; Ali A. Majid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 6, Pages 901-911

In this paper, we propose a new version of the NTRU public key cryptosystem called CQTRU. It is a four-dimensional cryptosystem based on the commutative quaternion ring. This public key system has an ability to encrypt four sets of data in each session. Therefore, it gains the positive points and the strength of NTRU cryptosystems. The definition of the ring of CQTRU is introduced with the definition of its operations. The three phases of the new proposed system (key generation, encryption and decryption) are discussed in details, in addition to the decryption failure probability, key security and message security. Finally, the resistance of CQTRU's against lattice attack is investigated.

Proposal New Cache Coherence Protocol to Optimize CPU Time through Simulation Caches

Luma Fayeq Jalil; Maha Abdulkareem .H. Al-Rawi; Abeer Diaa Al-Nakshabandi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 6, Pages 912-924

The cache coherence is the most important issue that rapidly affected the performance of a multicore processor as a result of increasing the number of cores on chip multiprocessors and the shared memory program that will be run on these processors. "Snoopy protocols" and "directory based protocols" are two types of protocols that are used to achieve coherence between caches. The main objective of these Protocols is to achieve consistency and validation of the data value in the caches of a multi core processor so that any reading of a memory address via any caches will returns the latest data written to that address.
In this paper, a new protocol has been designed to solve a problem of a cache coherence that combines the two schemes of coherency: snooping and directory depending on the states of MESI protocol. The MESI protocol is a version of the snooping cache protocol which based on four (Modified, Exclusive, Shared, Invalid) states that a block in the cache memory can have. The proposed protocol has the same states of MESI protocol but the difference is in laying the directory inside a shared cache instead of main memory to make the processor more efficient by reducing the gap between fast CPU and slow main memory.

Study of the Antibacterial Activity by using Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

Kareem Hussian AL Shibaib

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 6, Pages 198-203

The study was the effectiveness of the microbial activity by using titanium dioxide nanoparticles which are prepared by using laser ablation of titanium pellet immersed in de-ionzed water. Palsed Nd: YAG laser with 1064nm wavelength and laser energy 250 mJ was used to irradiate the target for ablation time 15 min, 200 pulses. Where studied synthetic characteristics of the sample prepared using the X-ray diffraction pattern of nanoparticles proved the presence Alatanas planes. A scanning electron microscope measurement appearance Tio2 nanoparticle of structures with cube shapes , while the results of Zeta potential was the values being equal to (34) are located within the range of suspension potential Stability. The results of antimicrobial activity of Tio2 nanoparticle against bacterial stratin S.aureus, C .albicans, and E.coli with antibiotic at concentration .1000 mg/ml (AMC, DO10 and CN10) using well diffusion assay showed. The best concentration of 1000 mg /ml of antibiotics give us with dioxide nanoparticles to inhibition bacterial growth .The results showed that the nanoparticles with antibiotics inhibition the growth of S.aureus then C.albicans which is more sensitive than E.coli .Our results showed that dioxide nanoparticles have synergistic effect with (CN10& DO10) .And there is no any synergistic effect with (AMC).

Detection of Active Compounds in the Aqueous Extract of the Plant Leaves for Eriobotrya Japonica and Study the Effect of the Extract as an Antioxidant

Majid Sakhi Jaber; Aya Ali Hussien; Nahi Yossef yaseen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 6, Pages 204-208

This study was done for the purpose of detecting the active compounds in the aqueous extract of the plant leaves for Eriobotrya japonica that is one of evergreen plants and medicinal plants, which has the advantage, that possess therapeutic properties and pharmacological effects which are beneficial for human body. These plants are found naturally produces secondary metabolites, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, resins and ect. Effective compounds have been detected by the use of chemical reagents and solvents such as Benedict's reagent and Mayer's reagent, mercuric chloride solution and 1% ferric chloride solution, ect. Also, the effect of the extract as an antioxidation factors has been studied by using the experience of aqueous extract of the leaves Eriobotrya japonica plant that effect on the molecule of DNA in vitro. The results showed that the aqueous extract of the plant leaves for Eriobotrya japonica contains compounds such as Alkaloids, Phenols, Flavonoids, Terpenes, Steroids, Saponins, Resins and Glycosids. Therefore, it can be concluded that the plant of Eriobotrya japonica is one of medicinal plants because it contains the active compounds with medical property, especially, phenols, flavonoids and alkaloids as antioxidant compounds.

Characterization of the Structural and Electrical Properties of Transparent Conductive Oxides Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

Ali J Addie; Azhar I Hassan; Saleema S Saad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 6, Pages 209-216

Nano crystalline powder of the System Cu-Al-O have been prepared by Sol-Gel technique, copper nitrate and aluminum nitrate have adopted as raw materials for the reaction, and subsequently solid state reactions have used to synthesize different compounds and phases at the calcination stage. Effects of calcination temperature and time in the range 800-1100oC and 1hr-6hr respectively have been investigated. XRD results show that the system have a multiphase and it depends on the calcination time and temperature, the higher the temperature and time the higher the percentage of the compound CuAlO2, whereas the SEM microscopy show that the Nano powder have particle size of 40nm, and Raman spectroscopy reveals the presence of Eg and A1g modes which belong to the structure CuAlO2. The work emphasize that the control of the technique parameters could provide high degree of control on the final required phases and structures.

The Detection of Active Compounds in the Methanolic Crude Extract of Euphorbia Tirucalli Stems

Reyam J. Mahmood; Abbas A. mohammed Al- Janabi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 6, Pages 217-222

This study was carried out to detect the active compounds existing in the methanolic crude extract of Euphorbia tirucalli stems by chemical reagents and solutions. The results revealed that the methanolic extract of E.tirucallistems contains Alkaloids, Phenols, Tannins, Flavonoids, Terpens, Steroids, Saponins, Resins, Saccharides, Coumarins, and volatile oils. From this, it could be concluded that E.tirucalli should be considered as a promising medicinal plant, because of its content of active compounds especially phenols and flavonoids which are known by their medicinal properties, especially the antioxidant property.