Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 35, Issue 1A

Volume 35, Issue 1A, January 2017, Page 1-96

Solar Photocatalytic of Reactive Blue Dye in Aqueous Suspension of V2O5

A.H. Al-Obaidy; R.H. Al-Anbari; E.A. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 1A, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.1A.1

Decolorization of blue azo dye (Cibacron Blue FN-R) in simulated wastewater has been investigated as a function of solar photocatalytic process. Different parameters that affected on the removal efficiency, such as initial concentration of dye, pH of the solution, catalysis dosage, and H2O2 concentration, were evaluated to find the optimal operation conditions. From the experimental results, the desired pH value for solar photocatalytic V2O5 was 2 and the best catalysis dosage was 500mg/L. In addition, the most efficient H2O2 concentration was 100 mg/L for V2O5. The mathematical models that describe the photocatalytic process have been predicted by using response surface methodology (RSM). The decolorization efficiency by using V2O5 as solar photocatalytic can be reached to 97%.

Design and Analysis of Printed Square Loop Antenna and Solenoidal Loop Antenna for Pill Shaped Bio-implants Object

S. Mutashar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 1A, Pages 9-15
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.127305

This paper deals to design and investigated two proposed loop antenna for pill shaped bio-implants objects such as wireless capsule endoscopy. In additional it’s help in developing an understanding of how the fields decay with distance. The first proposed loop antenna is the planar printed square loop antenna with outer dimensions 9 mm and inner dimension 0.45 mm, 6 turns, width 0.5 mm and 0.25 mm of space which can be easily integrated with a system-on-chip technology. The second proposed loop antenna is the solenoidal loop antenna where the solenoid had 9 turns, a pitch of 1 mm and a radius of 5 mm and can be easily wound in the form of a coil and encased within the pill shaped object. For both antennas the electromagnetic field was solved at 1MHz. From the radiation patterns results it can be observe that the surrounding pattern gain around the antennas is constant and conform the omnidirectional pattern associated to such loop antennas that fit the capsule endoscopy randomly movement within the human body in different directions. The design simulations and results are performed and validated by using commercial High Frequency Structure HFSS software.

Design of Fractal- Based Bandstop Filter for Microwave Radiation Leakage Reduction

Ali J. Salim; J.K. Ali; H.S. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 1A, Pages 16-23
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.127306

There is a continuing concern over the risks associated with the use of microwave ovens because of the probable effects of the radiation leakage on the health of the individuals. In this paper, a new microstrip bandstop filter BSF is presented, designed and measured as an attempt to reduce the radiation leakage from the domestic microwave ovens operating at 2.45 GHz. The proposed BSF is composed of fractal based open-loop resonators coupled with an open-stub transmission line. The open-loop resonators are in the form of modified Minkowski fractal geometry of the 1st iteration. The open stubs have been adopted to increase the selectivity of the filter stopband response. The suggested filter is designed at 2.45 GHz. Modeling and performance assessments of the proposed filter have been evaluated by means of the computer software technique CST Microwave Studio and the Sonnet EM simulator. Simulation results reveal that the modeled filter offers stopband response with high selectivity. A prototype of the proposed filter is fabricated. The size limitations of the microwave oven opening width have been taken into account. Good agreement has been found between measured and simulated results. Four arrays of such a filter have been implemented to cover the microwave oven door frame taking into consideration the opening dimensions such that it well fit it. Measured radiated electric fields from the oven show that it considerably reduces the leaked radiation. By suitable choice of substrate material and carrying out the required dimension scaling, the proposed design idea is flexible and can be generalized for use with a wide variety of microwave equipment in which microwave leakage represents a serious issue.

Design and Simulation of Microstrip Bandpass Filter with Regular Slots

D.A. Hammood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 1A, Pages 24-28
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.127307

This paper presents new microstrip slotted patch resonator bandpass filter with two transmission zeros of output frequency response around design frequency. The proposed filter uses dual-mode (doubly tuned) patch microstrip resonator with regular slots. It has a small surface area and narrower frequency response as compared with single-mode resonators. The filter is simulated by Microwave office 2015 software package at a center frequency of 2.009 GHz. The adopted substrate constant and thickness specification are 10.8 and 1.27 mm, respectively using RT/ Duroid 6010.8 material. Simulation results show that the suggested filter presents interesting frequency responses in addition to smallness properties due its high dielectric constant selection and its miniature surface area. These features represent the appealing features of the latest wireless applications.

Numerical Study of the Effects of Aneurysm and Stenosis in the Left Coronary Artery on the Human Blood Stream

A.A. Al-allaq; N. S. Mahmoud

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 1A, Pages 29-40
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.127308

The heart is the most important muscular organ in human's body, which pumps blood through the arteries to supply the body with oxygen and nutrients. The heart is supplied by the coronary blood vessel; therefore, the effect of aneurysm and stenosis in left coronary artery on the velocity of blood, wall shear stress of artery and mass flow rate of blood have been investigated in this study. The simulation program (ANSYS Fluent) was used to execute the numerical study. Typical geometry of left coronary artery and physiological parameters of human blood values were obtained from measured values reported in literature. The problem of the effect of the aneurysm and stenosis on the human blood stream has been solved numerically under three conditions, healthy artery and two infected cases (30%, 50%) percentage of aneurysm in left main stem (LMS) and stenosis in left anterior descending (LAD). It has been shown, in stenosis region that the velocity of blood will suffer fast flowing and an increase in the shear stress on the artery wall, in contrast with the aneurysm case, blood velocity becomes slow and low wall shear stress. Also irregularity was shown in mass flow rate of blood in the left coronary artery which suffers from aneurysm and stenosis compared with healthy artery.

The Effects of Process Parameters on Residual Stresses in Single Point Incremental Forming of A1050 Aluminum Using ANOVA Model

M. Kamal; S. Mohammed; A.S. Bedan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 1A, Pages 41-48
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.127309

Incremental sheet metal forming is a modern technique of sheet metal forming in which a uniform sheet is locally deformed during the progressive action of a forming tool. The tool movement is governed by a CNC milling machine. The tool locally deforms and by this way the sheet with pure deformation stretching. The aim of the present work is to inspect, experimentally, the state of the residual stresses induced in SPIF parts made by A1050 aluminum. The forming surface was measured at four different angles using a ORIONRKS 6000 test (the X-ray diffraction technology was used to detect the residual stress) measuring instrument with the angles (0o, 15o, 30o and 45o) and the average residual stress value is recorded in (MPa), the residual stress in original blanks is (-6.29MPa). This specialized stress analysis system using the side-inclination method includes stress analysis software, the stress analysis sample stand and X-ray tube. A comparison study is made for tabulated values and experimental values for residual stress by using ANOVA model with the contribution of rotational speed, feed rate and forming depth with respect to residual stress is (63.7, 4.3 and 32)% respectively..

Dental X-Ray Based Human Identification System for Forensic

M.S. Croock; S. Dh. Khudhur

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 1A, Pages 49-60
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.127310

Forensic dentistry is an important branch of the forensic science. It is based on the dental characteristic. This method uses the dental features as a biometric tool to identify persons, who their bodies have been affected badly. In the other meaning, the dental biometrics are considered at the absence of tools, such as, DNA, fingerprint, iris etc. for different reasons. This paper presented a biometric system for forensic human identification based on dental X-ray. The aim of this system is to build a database, which contain ante-mortem dental radiograph features (AM), used later for matching with the post-mortem dental radiograph features (PM). These features are Standard Deviation (STD), Euler number and Area extracted from X-ray image of type bite-wing. The investigated X-Ray image goes through three stages algorithm which are: image segmentation, classification and features extraction. The obtained features represents the records of the system database for each tooth individually in distinct person. The proposed system utilizes the Graphical User Interface (GUI) provided from the Visual Studio with the usage of MATLAB software for feature extraction and the SQL Server 2012 environment for database building. The Achieved results show the outperformance of the proposed system in terms of matching and searching accuracy as well as the finding time. In addition the editing and insertion processes are performed in high accuracy and efficiency.

Multibiometric Identification System based on SVD and Wavelet Decomposition

R.A. Hussein; H.A. Jeiad; M.N. Abdullah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 1A, Pages 61-67
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.127311

Biometric systems refer to the systems used for human recognition based on their characteristics. These systems are widely used in security institutions and access control. In this work three biometric sources were used for identification purposes. Singular value decomposition (SVD) was employed as a tool for feature extraction and artificial neural network (ANN) was used as pattern recognition for the model. High accuracy was obtained from this work with 95% recognition rate.

Welding procedures of Turbine Blades by Using ER 309L Austenitic Filler Wire

H. A. Olaa; K.H. Abbas; S. A. Emad; A.H. Fadhil

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 1A, Pages 68-75
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.127312

In the present work it has been investigated the repair of LP-blades steam turbine made of AISI 410 martensitic stainless steels (MSS) by GTAW welding, the repair welding carried out by using ER 309L as consumable filler wire. PWHT was carried out at 1100ᵒC for 1h. The structure-property relationships of the weldments were established based on the current modes employed by utilizing combined techniques of optical microscopy, line/point and EDS analysis. Results showed that Micro-hardness along the base and HAZ regions increased after PWHT as compared to in state of as-welded. After welding process, microstructure photographs of weld-metal region revealed two phase the vermicular δ-Ferrite and γ-austenite matrix. HAZ region consisted of tempered lath martensite with carbides. Line/Point analysis revealed the direction of segregation, whereas chromium was increased in core and depleted in boundary, while nickel was depleted in core and increased in boundary, this support the δ – ferrite was primarily solidified.

Effect of Polypropylene Fibers on Thermal and Some Mechanical Properties of No-fines Concrete

B. H. Amanah; O. A. Eedan; B. S. Al-Shathr

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 1A, Pages 76-82
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.127313

This research aims to find the optimum percentage of polypropylene fibers that can be added to no-fines concrete. The fibers added to the (1:5, 1:6, and 1:7 mix proportions) concrete with volumetric percentages of (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5%), together with suitable amounts of superplasticizer to keep the flow percentage at (65-75%) using constant w/c ratio of 0.4. The results indicated that the optimum volumetric percentage of the added polypropylene fibers is 0.3% which needs small amount of superplasticizer of 0.5% by cement weight, to keep its flow equivalent to the reference mix. This percentage of fibers cause an increase in compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and modulus of rupture of 22.5, 56.1, and 67.8% respectively when using 1:5 and 1:6 of concrete mixture. But this percentage decrease when using concrete mix proportion of 1:7 to be 8.8, 23.8, and 24% respectively. Also, results indicated that concrete density and thermal conductivity didn’t affect significantly by fibers addition.

Effect of Particle Size Distribution of Cohesionless Soil and Pile Diameter on the Behavior of Open Ended Pipe Piles

S.J. Abdullah; M.R. Mahmood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 1A, Pages 83-90
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.127314

Pipe piles are normally used in deep foundations to transfer the structure load to stronger layer beneath the ground or to rock formations. More popular applications of pipe piles are marine construction (offshore structures), bridge piers construction and building construction. This research is conducted to study the effect of grain size distribution of cohesionless soil (i.e. fine, medium and coarse sand) on the ultimate load capacity of pipe piles with different diameters under dry and fully saturated state through an experimental model. Also, Degree of soil plugging behaviors for different pipe pile diameters and saturation conditions (i.e. dry, fully saturated conditions) for different particle size distribution was studied. Karbala sand, were used as a natural soil in the present study, it is poorly graded clean sand of rounded particles. The sandy soil is sieved to obtain a fine, medium and coarse graded according to (ASTM D 422-02). The experimental model tests conducted on four open-ended steel pipe piles models with diameters of (25, 30, 35 and 41mm) embedded within different grain size distribution of sand prepared under dry and fully saturated conditions with relative density of 65%. The results shows that, the ultimate load capacity of open-ended pipe piles embedded within medium grain size exerted higher bearing capacity than the other grain size distribution and increased with increasing piles diameters. The increasing values of the ultimate load carrying capacity for different pipe pile diameters under dry conditions are almost greater than that of saturated conditions by about (1.95-2.4) times for fine sand, (2.36-3.04) times for medium sand and (1.62-1.97) times for coarse sand. Furthermore, Plug Length Ratio PLR (which is the proportion of a soil plug length to the pile penetration depth) was measured for different pile diameters, and it was found that the length of soil column increases gradually with the increasing of a piles diameter

Neural Network Model predictive control for diary Falling Film Evaporators

N.H. Kadhum; G.A. Ahmed; S.A. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 1A, Pages 91-96
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.127315

A nonlinear neural network model predictive control (NNMPC) is proposed for an industrial evaporator system. This research is conducted in the Abo-Greeb state enterprise of dairy products. Evaporation process and its prediction model is used in the controller design. In this paper, a nonlinear model of the evaporator system components are described, thepresentedmodel of the evaporator system is done with MatLab Simulink 2014b.NNMPC based technique for developing nonlinear dynamic models is carried out from empirical data. Results shows that MPC can be used efficiently in control such systems.