Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 35, Issue 6

Volume 35, Issue 6, June 2017, Page 554-667

Enhancing of Crushed Brick Aggregate Concrete by Adding Alkalis

S.A. Hameed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 6, Pages 554-559
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.6A.1

The process of recycling the waste of construction materials increased in most countries in the world, because of the huge quantities of waste materials result from demolition that will effect of the environment and increase landfills. This research aims to examine the recycle clay bricks aggregate in concrete mix instead of coarse aggregate and to study the effect of alkalis on this kind of concrete by partial replacement of recycle clay bricks aggregate (RCBA) instead of natural coarse aggregate. A cubic, cylinder and prisms specimens were casted to estimate the mechanical properties like dry and wet density, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of rupture for this concrete. The results shows the increasing of RCBA will decrease the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of rupture but the addition of alkalis with 20% of mix water will increase the workability and reduce the mix water and increase the wet and dry densities, and reduce the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength and the modulus of rupture.

Simulation of Contaminants Transport and Groundwater Flow for Basrah Landfill Site

A.A. Al-Suraifi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 6, Pages 560-570
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.6A.2

groundwater aquifers is mostly effected from landfills due to intrusion of leachate from its base b. Active surface of landfills represents main source for leachate generation during rains or may be due to direct contact with groundwater, leading to the transport 5 pollutants from landfill which is intrudes to the aquifer under the landfill. In this research a 3-dimensional simulation models was constructed and calibrated to characterize groundwater flow and leachate pollution transport from Basrah province main landfill site. The selected study area is Al-Rafdhia landfill site, which is lie at Al-Zubair district (southern part of Iraq at Basrah). The model used in the simulation was Visual MODFLOW finite difference approach. All the required landfill and aquifer parameters, stressing and recharge estimates from field and laboratories works, Basrah climate data, observations, soil investigation reports and previous studies for the same region and then used in the model or adjusted by calibration. Six-month observation period was achieved to estimate the monthly state variables data such as heads and physical-chemical leachate and groundwater characteristics by measurement and sampling from the groundwater selected wells. Many soils and water samples were collected to know the aquifer characteristics and analyze the pollutants concentration values.
Accordingly, the calibrated model was used to simulate the flow and pollution transport at current year and then used for prediction of future changes in water levels and landfill contaminant transport in the aquifer for planning period of 15 future years. The final simulation and predication results show that the landfill represent main source of contamination and the pollution would occur in the aquifer at high levels and with approximate lateral transporting of 285 m/year if the current state of solid waste disposal continue with increase of pumping from the aquifer from its current rate with future. The groundwater flow and concentration profiles for pollutants with time and spaces from the pollution sources was predicated and a 3-D representation were done for pollutants spreading for specific pollutants.

Analysis of the Influence of Different EDM Parameters Using Taguchi Technique

S.H. Aghdeab; I.A. Qasim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 6, Pages 571-577
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.6A.3

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a non-traditional material removal process developed in late 1940s has now become the most important technology in manufacturing industries. Taguchi technique has been applied for design of experiments with three input factors and their trinity levels utilizing L9 orthogonal array. The nine specimens were machined with different electrodes material where AISI 304 stainless steel had been used as a workpiece with kerosene as dielectric fluid. The major aim of this study is the evaluation to choice the principle specifications of electrical discharge machining with the assist of Taguchi technique and utilizing Minitab program in condition of material removal rate and electrode wear rate. The variance conditions examined during production the research on electrical discharge machining would be the electrodes material, current and workpiece thickness. The effect of each parameters and excellent performance variables will be achieve by means of ANOVA examination and conformed by investigation to enhance method.

Investigation of Corrosion Behavior for Copper-Based Shape Memory Alloys in different Media

E.S. Al-Hassani; A.H. Ali; S.T. Hatem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 6, Pages 578-586
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.6A.4

Copper based shape memory materials was interesting group of metal alloys that have a widespread potential in medical and industrial application due to their characteristics ,the possibility of exhibiting shape memory behavior and lower cost. In this research the alloy (Cu-(15-40) wt%Zn-6wt.%Al) has been prepared by powder metallurgy technique Zn element (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 wt%Zn) and fixed percentage of Al content which is 6.wt%Al then aluminum replaced by (Si, Sn, Ni )element at fixed percentage of 6wt.%, in order to study the effect of these elements on SMA. After samples preparation examination were done by using XRD, SEM technique, DSC, Vickers hardness, Archimedes method to measure the porosity percentage and corrosion rate in different solutions (HCl, NaOH and SEAWATER).The XRD and microstructure results show that all samples with and without additives consist of two phases (β-phase) and (α-phase) at room temperature and the addition of alloying elements in these percentages does not have effect on present phases. the hardness increased with zinc content because the formation of intermetallic compound of CuZn that responsible to hardness while The addition of Si ,Sn and Ni leads to lower the hardness than aluminum. The bulk density increased with the alloys without addition alloying elements(Si, Ni and Sn ) while apparent porosity decreased with it the reason for this phenomenon due to the characterization of alloying elements that addition to the alloy. From the results of corrosion test can be show the alloy with 35wt% Zn have the higher corrosion resistance in all media (HCl, NaOH and sea water) and the addition of alloying element lead to improve the corrosion resistance. Finally, it is observed that the Copper base shape memory alloys with these types of additives are suitable for use in different application.

Effect of Friction on the Dynamical Analysis of Three-Link Planar Robot Arm by Using Lagrange Approach

R.M. Hussein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 6, Pages 587-592
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.6A.5

The dynamic analysis of Three-Link planar robot arm and control system with (PID) are presented and investigated. The dynamic analysis is very important in the design and control of the robot. The difference between the actual dynamic analysis and ideal dynamic analysis is the presence of friction in the robot joints. In this work, the frictional effect in the joints of three-link planar robot is inserting in the dynamic equations and that makes the dynamic analysis is more reality and difficult. The mathematical model that represent the friction consist of two types of friction (Coulomb and viscous friction). A Lagrange method is used and applied to evaluate the generalized forces in the two cases (without and with the effect of friction). Control system with (PID) controller is presented with Simulink block set to evaluate and show the dynamic response of each link in two cases (without and with friction). MATLAB software is used for programing and simulation the equations. In addition, with that, error signals are presented and analyzed for each link. It is concluded from the results that the values of generalized forces in case of presence of friction are more about (12%) than the values of the forces in case of without friction and the behaviors of the dynamic response is linear in case of without friction while the behavior become (non-linear) by inserting the frictional effect in the robot joints. The results indicate that the effect of friction is very important and must be not neglected.

Comparative Study of Bearing Loads for Open Ended Pipe and H-Piles in Sandy Soil

M.A.M. Al-Neami; M.H. Wasmi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 6, Pages 593-601
DOI: /10.30684/etj.35.6A.6

This paper clarifies the response of steel piles installed in sand under vertical static compression load. To evaluate the ultimate load capacity of both piles, the results were introduced in a comparison form. Pile capacity of open ends pipe pile is affected by degree of soil plugging and sometimes the removal of soil plug may decrease the friction between soil and inner shaft of pile and causes a reduction in the load capacity. Therefore, to avoid plugging phenomenon occurred during piles installation; H-piles sections are manufactured based on the equivalent area steel of open pipe piles and tested under the same conditions. 36 steel piles with lengths equal to (30, 40, and 50) cm are tested. The piles are embedded using jacking technique in sandy samples with two different relative densities; medium sand (60%) and dense sand (80%).The results showed that H-pile has a load capacity greater than open ended pipe pile and increases with the increase in both length and diameter (width of flange) of pile. When relative density increased, plugging phenomenon does not occur in H-pile therefore, it can be used instead of open-ended pipe pile to get rid of plugging phenomenon problems.

The Effect of Speed Smart Control System SSCS on the Performance of Hydropower System

T.Z. Farge; A.J. Owaid; M.A. Qasim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 6, Pages 602-608
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.6A.7

In this work, the speed smart control system is designed and implemented to improve and enhance the performance of hydropower system, where Arduino Uno R3 microcontroller is used for this propose. The speed smart control system is used to control the volume flow rate of water with respect to the load applied to the Pelton turbine shaft at optimum range of speed. Using nozzle outlet diameter of 8.87 mm. A water pump is used to generate the volume flow rate and pressure head. The results show that the maximum reduction in the hydraulic power was observed at zero torque, where the percentage reduction in the hydraulic power was equal to 87.33% when using speed smart control system. Also the optimum torque for maximum brake power and efficiency of Pelton turbine system have been increased when using a speed smart control system, where the percentage increasing was about 28.15%.Comparing result with and without using smart control system shows the percentage increased in the brake power and efficiency of Pelton turbine system were 26.3% and 35% respectively at the optimum torque for maximum brake power and efficiency of Pelton turbine system. Time response was four seconds to achieve a steady state for the rotational speed of Pelton turbine.

A Cognitive Nonlinear Trajectory Tracking Controller Design for Wheeled Mobile Robot based on Hybrid Bees-PSO Algorithm

A.S. Al-Araji; N.Q. Yousif

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 6, Pages 609-616
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.131978

The aim of the work for this paper is a comparative study of different types of on-line cognitive algorithms for the proposed nonlinear controller of the trajectory tracking for dynamic wheeled mobile robot that has a capability to track a continuous desired path. Three optimization algorithms are used (Bees, PSO and proposed hybrid Bees-PSO) in order to find and tune the values of the control gains of the neural controller as simple on-line with fast tuning techniques. The best torques control actions of the right wheel and left wheel for the cart mobile robot are generated on-line from the proposed controller. Simulation results (Matlab Package) show that the proposed nonlinear neural controller with hybrid Bees-PSO cognitive algorithm is more accurate in terms of fast on-line finding and tuning parameters of the controller; obtaining smoothness control action as well as minimizing tracking error of the wheeled mobile robot than PSO or Bees optimization algorithms.

The Influence of Area Ratio, Temperature and Rotational Speed on Galvanic corrosion between Law Alloy Steel–Copper couple in 4%NaCl Solution

S.A. Jafar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 6, Pages 617-623
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.6A.9

Galvanic corrosion between law alloy steel and copper couple in 4 % NaCl solution was studied and the effect of some variable were investigated. The effect of area ratio, temperature and rotational speed through the electrolyte have been investigated. An increase in galvanic current was observed when we increased the area ratio of law alloy steel to copper and the galvanic potential moved to extra negative direction. When the temperature of solution increase led to increase the galvanic current and shifting the galvanic potential to extra negative direction. The galvanic current rises clearly with increasing of rotational velocity of agitator with shifting the galvanic potential to extra positive due to mass transfer control the process. In addition, increase the diffusion of oxygen from bulk of electrolyte to the metals surface.

Digital Modulation Recognition in Noisy Environment Using a Learning Machine

M.A. Shakir; S.H. Haji; B.K. AL-Sulaifanie

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 6, Pages 624-633
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.6A.10

This paper proposes a method to identify the type of digitally modulated signals. The modulation classification process is performed using Support Vector Machines (SVMs) with one versus all approach. A multi-class recognition system is required. Consequently, the Radial Basis Function (RBF) kernel is proposed. The system is intended to classify three types of signals: ASK FSK, and PSK. Five features are extracted from amplitude, frequency and phase of each modulated signal to be the input of the SVM classifier. The system is simulated using MATLAB software. The system is tested against Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). The classification rate for all modulated signals is measured at different values of SNR. The overall performance of this classifier is around 83% at -5 dB. Furthermore, to enhance the performance of the classifier further, the data inputs to the SVMs for each modulated signal is reduced by eliminating some key features. These are the standard deviation of the direct value of the centered non-linear component of the instantaneous phase and the standard deviation of the absolute value of the normalized-centered of the instantaneous amplitude. The overall performance after input data reduction is greater than 84% at -5 dB.

Implementation of Mobile Robot’s Navigation using SLAM based on Cloud Computing

H.M. Hasan; T.H. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 6, Pages 634-639
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.6A.11

This paper is concerned with the implementation of EKF-SLAM (Extended Kalman Filter- Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) algorithm using a cloud computing architecture based on ROS (Robot Operating System). The localization and mapping is essential step to navigate a mobile robot in unknown environment. The implemented EKF-SLAM has used a landmark that sensed using IR Emitter sensor provided by the Kinect camera to update a map of the environment and simultaneously estimate the robot’s position and orientation within the map. The implementation was done using three parts. The first one was the TurleBot Mobile robot with the Kinect camera, which was simulated in Gazebo environment. The second part was the EKF-SLAM running under the MATLAB to generate the Map and Location data. The third part was the ROS Master node, which runs on the cloud to enable part one and two to communicate using topics. The scan data from Kinect camera and the location data from the odometer is transferred from the first part to the second part through ROS Master node after impaired with zero mean Gaussian noise . Then the second part performs EKF-SLAM and transmit the corrections to the first part through the ROS Master node as well.

Mechanical Properties of Unsaturated Polyester Filled With Silica Fume, Glass Powder and Carbon Black

A.H. Majeed; S.Q. Ibrahim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 6, Pages 640-647
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.6A.12

In this study a polymer matrix composites (PMCs) have been prepared with the aid of ultrasonic wave dispersion method for mixing , using of unsaturated polyester resin with Silica Fume(SF), Glass Powder (GP)and Carbon Black (CB). Moulds were prepared by hand-made from silicon rubber according to the ASTM standard table (4). The fillers added separately with different ratios as (0%,0.5%, 1%, 1.5 %, 2%,2.5% and 3%).The results show increase the hardness and impact strength when added GP, SF, and CB to polymer matrix. Flexural strength and maximum shear stress decrease when added silica fume , but when added glass powder and carbon black led to increase flexural strength and maximum shear stress to certain percent at ( 2%, 1.5% for GP and CB respectively) then dropped when increase weight fraction of GP, CB . Compressive strength decrease when added glass powder and carbon black, while it is increase when added silica fume to polymer matrix. Wear rate decrease when increase weight fraction of carbon black but it increases when added GP and SF.

Study the Effect of Multilayer Single Point Incremental Forming on Tool Path Mark for AA1050 bottom plates

A.H. Abed; A.S. Bedan; M.F. Noori

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 6, Pages 648-652
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.6A.13

Single Point Incremental Sheet Forming (SPIF) is an innovative forming approach for sheet materials. One of the most problems in products produced by incremental sheet metal forming process is the poor textures caused by the tool and tool path marks on the products, due to friction between the tool and blank material. In this study, a new method and procedures were proposed which is called (Multilayer single point incremental forming) to overcome this problem by using an insert blank beside the original one with the same material but change in thickness of top plate at 0.5, 0.7, 0.9 mm and change material or lubrication between two plates such as (polymer, grease, grease with graphite, mos2 (Molybdenum disulfide) and without lubricant). Results revealed improvement in surface quality of bottom plates when using Grease with graphite or polymer gives a better result and reduced tool path marks more than other lubricants or material, which have been used.

Experimental Study of the Performance Water Distillation Device by Using Solar Energy

T. Z. Farge; K. F.Sultan; A.M. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 6, Pages 653-659
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.6A.14

Evaluation and an experimental study of the performance of solar water distillation by using collector box with the aperture area of the water distillation of (1*0.6) m. The obtained results are shown that the amount of distilled water increased with increasing the solar radiation temperature. The highest solar water distillation efficiency was found equal to 11.4% for rainy and partially cloudy day between 8am to 10am for 12/4/2016. Also the second higher efficiency was found equal to 5.155 for a sunny day between 10am to 12 pm for 20/4/2016. The results indicated that the distilled water can be obtained on if even the weather condition very bad and the solar radiation very low as well as the higher amount of distilled water can be obtained at higher values of solar radiation intensity. Experimental results showed the higher ambient temperature lower the condensation, which lowering the amount of distilled water.

Adaptive Noise Cancellation Using Noise Dependent Affine Projection Algorithm

A.O. Abid Noor

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 6, Pages 660-667
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.6A.15

In this paper, an improved adaptive noise cancellation approach is proposed for voice communication signals. The method is based on using noise dependent affine projection algorithm ND-APA. A conditionally variable projection order affine projection algorithm APA is developed and tested. The order of the algorithm is changed according to the change in the characteristics of the noise. The eigenvalue spread of the noise autocorrelation matrix is used as a criterion for projection order change. The order of the algorithm is made to vary from 4 to 32 according the value of the spread which changes from less than 5 for white noise to more than 15 for colored noise. The proposed method showed a superior performance as compared to the classical APA, LMS and RLS noise cancelation methods. The technique presented here can be very useful in removing environmental noise in fixed and mobile communication.