Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 35, Issue 1

Volume 35, Issue 1, January 2017, Page 1-84

Radon Level Measurements in Soil and Sediments at Oil Field Area and Its Impact on the Environment

S.A. Amin; A.H. Al-Obiady; A. Alwan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 1-7

Radon concentration, radium content, uranium concentration and rates of radon exhalation as a function of mass and area in 10 soil and 5 water sediment samples collected from one of the oil fields in Basrah governorate southern Iraq using CR-39 SSNTD were measured. Obtained results of radon concentrations range from 434.67 Bq.m-3 to 1947.99 Bq.m-3 with mean value of 985.26 Bq.m-3 and from 61.18 Bq.m-3 to of 2237.77 Bq.m-3 with mean value of 1215.16 Bq.m-3 in sediment and soil samples, respectively. The values of radium content for sediment and soil samples extended from 1.96 to 9.75, with an average value of 4.45 and from 0.28 Bqkg-1 to 10.11 with mean value of 5.49 Bqkg-1, respectively. Uranium concentration in ppm was calculated and its values were found to range from 0.36 to 13.07 ppm, which are comparable with different places around the world. The mass and surface radon exhalation rates vary from 0.079 Bqkg-1h-1 to 2.88 Bqkg-1h-1 with a mean value of 1.41 Bqkg-1h-1, and from 1.37 Bqm-2h-1 to 49.98 Bqm-2h-1 with a mean value of 24.47 Bqm-2h-1, respectively. Radium content is observed to be positively correlated with uranium concentration and with rates of radon exhalation in the study area, respectively.

Preparation and Characterization Study of Porous Silicon Doped with Cu and Ag

U. M. Nayef; A.M. Abdul Hussein; A. J. Kata

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 8-12

In this paper, porous silicon was prepared by using electrochemical etching technique of p-type silicon acceptor, with a resistivity of, using hydrochloric acid with concentration of 24%. The etching current density effect 4, 12, 20mA/cm2 was carried out at constant etching time of 15min. The structural characteristics of the porous silicon and the doped porous silicon were studied and found an expansion in the spectrum of the X-rays and a simple shift in the diffraction angles while maintaining the surface direction (111). The morphological properties were studied using the atomic force microscope which showed pores formation and gives the pore diameter within the range of 19.08 to 44.73nm for the prepared samples. It was also noted that the rate of pore diameter and the thickness of the porous silicon layer increased with increasing etching current density. Electrical characteristics of the nanoscale porous silicon layer and the doped porous silicon with silver and copper showed that Current-Voltage (I-V) characteristics of the prepared samples to be a rectifying behavior. An improvement in the electrical characteristics of the doped porous silicon samples was observed

E–Voting System based on Secret Sharing Scheme

N. M. G. Al-Saidi; M. M. Abdulhadi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 13-18

The electoral process is considered as one of the important and sensitive operations that take place from time to time in all countries of the world and need to be protected. The importance of the electronic voting came because, it provides a maintaining for the secrecy of the vote, as well as, the speed, accuracy and credibility of the vote counts. This is due to the growing of the technology that always needs for electronic process and for new approaches to achieve high security. In this paper, a new E-voting system is designed based on secret sharing scheme. The new protocol is implemented to show its efficiency in terms of computational time and cost.

Enhancement of Silicon Solar Cell’s Performance using Plasmonic Ag Nps

N.R. Abdulhameed; H.A. Salih; K.I. Hassoon; A.K. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 19-24

In this paper, Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were prepared by laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) technique for different laser energy in water. Then the Ag NPs were deposited on the surface of Si solar cells to enhance their plasmonic absorption. The UV-VIS, FTIR spectrometer, and the Atomic force microscope were used to study the optical properties, composition, and the surface morphology of the NPs, respectively. The atomic absorption spectroscopy was also used to find the amount of ablated material. It is found that after the thermal deposition of the water drops containing Ag NPs on the surface of Silicon solar cells, the short circuit current and the overall conversion efficiency (η) have been improved. The short circuit current density (Jsc) has been increased by 14% after the drop overcasting of Ag NPs (about 92 nm in size) on the surface of silicon solar cells. The relative increase in Jsc may be attributed to the enhance plasmonic absorption for the incident light due to the forward scattering of Ag NPs.

On Generalized Permuting Left 3-Derivations of Prime Rings

A. K. Faraj; S. J. Shareef

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 25-28

-Let R be an associative ring. Park and Jung introduced the concept of permuting 3-derivation and they are studied this concept as centralizing and commuting. The main intent of this work is to generalize Park and Jung's results by introducing the concept of generalized permuting left 3-derivation on Lie ideal.

Study the Effect of Addition Silver Nanoparticle on Structure and Morphological Properties for PVDF Hollow Fiber

K.S. Shaker; S.S. Shaker

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 33-36

In this research was the study of the impact of silver nanoparticles solution on the structure and properties of the morphological membrane fibrous hollow PVDF through a dip PVDF Hollow fiber membrane in silver nanoparticle solution preparation via using laser ablation method. The characteristics of membrane and silver Nano particle solution and was examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD)and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) also using laser particle size analyzer for Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs ) to measurement particle size to AgNPs.

The Effect of Nanoparticles Additives on Impact Strength of Metal Matrix Composites

N.J. Abdul kader; R.H. Mohammed; M.M. Hanoos

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 37-40

The impact strength of Al6061/SiC metal matrix composites reinforced with nanoparticles of weight percentage (3%, 6%, 9% & 12%) was studied. The composites were fabricated using liquid metallurgy technique. The results revealed that the Al6061/SiC metal matrix composites exhibited better hardness and impact strength than the Al 6061 alloy. Such improvement in the mechanical properties was observed with increasing the weight percentage of SiC nanoparticles and this increase both the hardness and impact strengths of the composites. The impact strength of 12 wt% nano SiCp aluminum composites showed the maximum strength. The effect of the nanoparticles was acted as barriers to dislocation motion. It is seen that the impact energy of the composites increase gradually with filler content increasing from 3 to 12 wt%. SEM were carried out to identify the uniform distribution of nanoparticles in composites.

Numerical Solution for A Special Class of optimal Control Problem by using Hermite polynomial

S.S. Hasen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 41-45

In this paper, a numerical solution for solving a special class of optimal control problems is considered. The main idea of the solution is to parameterize the state space by approximating the state function using a linear combination of Hermite polynomial with unknown coefficients an iterative method is proposed in order to facilitate the computation of unknown coefficients. Some illustrated examples are included to test the efficiency of algorithm.

Radium Isotopes Levels in Drinking-Water Samples

S.A. Amin; A.A. Jassim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 46-49

Water is one of the most necessary substances on earth. In order to survive, all plants, animals and humans must drink water, and there is no life on earth if there is no water. Hence, water should be uncontaminated with any type of carcinogenic materials such as heavy metals, radioactivity or other pollutants and must be clear. In this work, drinking-water samples were examined and analyzed for radionuclide levels using NaI gamma spectrometer, as well as, estimated annual effective dose (AED) has been calculated. The values of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K levels range from (0.12-0.35)Bq.L-1, (0.09-0.16)Bq.L-1 and (31.66-49.25)Bq.L-1, with mean values 0.29, 0.12 and 43.39 Bq.L-1, respectively. The total estimated annual effective dose gained from the combined ingestion of radium isotopes is found to start from 0.07 mSv.y-1 to 0.14 mSv.y-1 with an average value of 0.12 mSv.y-1. Therefore, the total (AED) for all samples is below the world standard value of 1mSv.y-1. Hence, drinking water is considered safe from the radiological point view and does not cause any significant health hazard for Baghdadi inhabitants.

Synthesis, Structural and Spectroscopic Study of Complexes of Tetradentate Schiff Base Derived from MalonylDihydrazide with Cr(III), Mn(II), Co(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) Ions

S.M. Al-Bayati

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 50-56

This paper describes the synthesis of a new derivative dihydro-3H-indol-3-ylidene propane dihydrazide [L], which have been obtained from the reaction between malonyl di-hydrazide and an ethanollic solution of isatin. Tetradentatemacrocyclic ligand [L] was characterized by (C.H.N), (FT-IR), (UV-Vis), and 1H.NMR.A series of the used metal complexes have been synthesized by the prepared ligand [L] reaction with some transition metal ions. The isolated complexes were Cr(III), Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) also characterized using different techniques such as (FT-IR), and (UV-Vis) spectroscopies, (C.H.N), flam atomic absorption in addition to the magnetic susceptibility and molar conductivity measurement. Al complexes were octahedral in geometry except for Zn (II) complex, which was tetrahedral.

Study of Characterization of Cupper Ferrites Thin Film Prepared by Pulse Laser

G.K. Salman; S.S. Shaker; A.H. Abd alsalam

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 57-62

In this work, it has been used two methods to prepare ferrite thin film: festival “Auto combustion “and secondly “Pulse laser deposition” to synthesis copper ferrite as powder and thin film respectively. Different physical properties have been studied. XRD results indicated that synthesized ferrite as powder and thin film with two different energy (700-800) mJ prepared, where single cubic phase with spinel structure have. SEM photographs showed the spherical shape of particles with average size in range (88-109µm) and how these particles would create a uniform shape of film via laser with energy 800 mJ. Transmittance results showed that thin films prepared with low energy (i.e. 700 mJ) has higher transmittance as compared with that prepared via high energy. Furthermore more thin films band gap recorded increment from 3.8eV - 3.97 eV as laser energy increased from 700 mJ to 800mJ.

Mobile Base Program for Drug-Drug Interactions (MBPDDIs)

N. L. Mohammed; Sh. M. Saied; A. H. Maray

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 63-67

A mobile application program was used in performing a drug-drug interactions (DDIs) for drugs used in Iraq, depending on the drug-drug interactions chart (DDIsC) originated by Ninava Drug Industry (NDI). Two programs were used for designing this work; the first is Microsoft office access which is used to design the form which included the list of drugs and ten registers under it contain different drugs names (Access of drug was available through browsing therapeutic groups or searching for a brand name). If the drug in combo list interacts with more than ten drugs, the combo contains the same name of drug but with number 2, 3 and so on.
The design which includes in mobile contains android system.
In the second design of the drugs interaction a visual basic program is used. Two lists of drugs were used in this program. When a drug from the first list is selected with another drug from the second list, the symbol offer at text box.

Domination and Independence on Square Chessboard

A.A. Omran

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 68-75

In this paper, new idea for the problems of independence and domination on chessboard is introduced. Two classical chessboard problems of independence and domination on square chessboard with square cells of size

Synthesis Nano Zinc Oxide Materials and Their Activity on Fungus Growth

A. J. Bohan; E.D. Alhtheal; Kh. S. Shaker

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 76-84

In this study Zinc oxide Nano particles was synthesized by employing sol-gel technique to explore novel antifungal agents to beat the developed of fungi resistance to many conventional fungicides .Prepared of Zinc oxide Nano particles were investigated via using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, the VEGA Easy Probe), X ray powder diffraction (XRD) , FTIR spectrum, The antifungal properties of ZnO nanoparticles were tested against Fussarium spp., Alternaria spp. , Penicillium spp. , and Aspergillus spp. by using agar diffusion method. The percentage of growth was lowest comparison with control for all types of fungi when used zinc oxide Nano in different concentration.