Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 35, Issue 8

Volume 35, Issue 8, August 2017, Page 788-871

Corrosion Resistance Enhancement in Acidic solution for Austenitic Stainless Steel by Gas-Phase Hybrid Deposition Process

A.D. Thamir; F.Q. Mohammed; A.S. Hasan; A.L. Abid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 8, Pages 788-794
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.8A.1

In acidic environments the corrosion rate of stainless steels is considered high, this is due to pitting occurrence in concentrated chloride environments. The Austenitic steels such as type 316 stainless steel generally not recommended for Hydrochloric acid storage in petroleum planets except when solutions are very dilute and at room temperature, otherwise pitting may occur. In this work, a multicomponent coating (Ti-B-N-C) was deposited on the austenitic stainless steels (AISI 316) that used in petroleum industry. The coating process has been achieved by mixed vapor deposition technique; this was done in attempt to improve the resistance to pitting corrosion for austenitic stainless steels surface. The structural characterization for the deposited Ti-Base coating was done by using XRD technique, and the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Electrochemical corrosion tests have been performed by using electrochemical test in 0.25M hydrochloric acid (HCl) as an aqueous solution at 22˚C to obtain the anodic polarization curves for the coated surfaces. Several interesting observations have been made During the test. As expected, the surface of the AISI 316 suffers from a sudden increase in the current density at the potential above 1500 mV due to the occurrence of pitting corrosion. In addition, the Ti-B-C-N coating surfaces show great future in reducing the current density of the steel surface in the anodic region, indicating improved pitting resistance for all Ti-based coating samples. No evidence for pitting corrosion was observed in the coated surfaces during electrochemical test even at potentials up to 2000 mV, instead, general corrosion was observed for the samples that was deposited at 750˚C since low potential values was observed for these samples .

Design of Nano-Inhibitor of Dichlorobenzene and It's Adduct and Study of Its Structural and Electronic Properties: DFT Calculations

A.D. Thamir; A.S. Hasan; A.L. Abed; F.Q. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 8, Pages 795-800
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.8A.2

Corrosion in oil pipelines is one of the biggest problems in the oil sector companies because of the high cost resulted from repairing the corroded parts, or replace it with another non-corroded ones, so, in this research, we study the design of nano-inhibitor and study of its structural and electronic properties of dichlorobenzene molecule (C6H4Cl2) and the effect of adding groups of Hydroxy on those properties, density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP level with (6-31G) basis sets. The study included four new molecules, which are including monohydroxy dichlorobenzene molecule, dihydroxy dichlorobenzene, trihydroxy dichlorobenzene, and tetrhydroxy dichlorobenzene. The structural and electronic calculations have been done by using Gaussian 09 program and Gaussian View in DFT calculations. The geometry optimization using both methods for dichlorobenzene (nano-inhibitor) and group’s Hydroxy molecules has been found in good agreement with experimental data. While the electronic properties included calculate total energy, ionization potential, electron affinity, chemical potential, electronegativity, electrochemical hardness and electronic softness for molecules under study. These results show that the energy gap reduced with the increase of the number of groups; also, the electron affinity and electronegativity for dichlorobenzene molecule Ben-Cl-2OH are the lowest, while the chemical potential be the highest for the same inhibitor. Nano-inhibitor result reduces corrosion of internal surfaces of tubes that used for transporting oil and gas to the importance of these molecules in terms of their high ability for interaction. Those dichlorobenzene can restrain corrosion from claiming steel toward framing an inactive layer for this molecule on the metal's surface.

Hydraulically Fractured Formations: Parameters Controlling Performance and Maximum Number of Fractures

S. Al Rbeawi; F.S. Kadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 8, Pages 801-810
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.8A.3

Horizontal wells essentially increase the area of contact between wellbores and reservoir fluids to some extent. Hydraulic fractures increase this area significantly and develop the vertical permeability. Because of these two techniques, well deliverability or productivity index can be increased to the limit required by the worldwide needs. Several models have been derived for the productivity index of fractured formations and the maximum number of fractures for both finite and infinite reservoirs. The models were developed based on the idea that the total pressure drop in the wellbore can be estimated as the sum of different pressure drops caused by different flow regimes. This pressure drop is necessary for the fluid to flow from the reservoir toward the wellbore. It is well known that the developed flow regimes in the area around the horizontal wells or the hydraulic fractures are not the same as the flow regimes at far distance from wellbores, which is close to the outer boundaries. Therefore, four flow regimes were expected to develop in infinite acting reservoir: pseudo radial flow at the outer boundaries, elliptical flow in the area between wellbores and the regions close to the outer boundaries, formation linear flow in the area between fractures toward wellbores and fractures, and finally fractures linear flow, while pseudo-steady state flow was the expected flow regime for the case of limited reservoirs. Each one of these flow regimes contributes to the total pressure drop necessary for producing certain flow rate in addition to the pressure drop caused by the damage zones resulted from horizontal well drilling and completion, hydraulic fracturing process, and fluid flow chocking effect. In this study, the effects of the anisotropy, fracture dimensions, radius of drainage area, number of fractures and fracture conductivity on productivity index had been investigated. A novel approach for the maximum number of fractures necessary for a specific productivity index was introduced in this paper. The model had been examined for two field cases taken from literatures. The calculated flow rates by this model showed good agreement with the measured flow rates.

Study of the Influence of Incorporation of Gold Nanoparticles on the Modified Porous Silicon Sensor for Petroleum Gas Detection

A.M. Alwan; A.B. Dheyab; A.J. Allaa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 8, Pages 811-815
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.8A.4

In this work, the influence of alloying the porous surface with uniform distributed gold nanoparticles on the characteristic porous silicon gas sensors for petroleum gas detection has been fabricated and studied extensively. Well-controlled gold nanoparticles were prepared by employing the simple dipping process of the macro porous silicon surface in diluted concentrations of HAuCl4 salt aqueous solution. The sensing properties of the prepared porous silicon-based sensors, sensitivity response and recovery times at room temperature operating in CO gas were studied. The sensitivity of alloyed porous silicon increased from 38% to about 82% incorporation of gold nanoparticles. The lowest gas pressure detection process of CO molecules was improved from 1 mbar to 0.5 mbar. The surface alloying with rounded gold nanoparticles improved the integrated specific surface area of the alloyed porous silicon/gold nanoparticles structure, so efficient gas developed with the low-cost process.

Fabrication of High Purity Copper Nanopowder via Wires Explosion Technique

N.M. Hadi; S.H. Sabeeh; M.M.R. Sabhan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 8, Pages 816-820
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.8A.5

In this research a high purity copper powder was fabricated via wires explosion technique using copper wire with (99%) purity by the following dimensions (300 mm length, 0.2 mm diameter) on glass substrate inside vacuum chamber and under ambient argon gas, with the utilization of 2.2 KV of explosion voltage and 100 J of storage energy. The used wire purity and structural and morphology properties of the powder surface were diagnosed via X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-RayqDiffraction (XRD), ScanningqElectron Microscopy (SEM) and AtomicqForce Microscope (AFM). Experimental results showed that the average particle.size of the prepared copper powder was in the rangeqof (20-40 nm) and the samples have high purity and no impurities were observed which makes this nanopowder suitable for many applications especially as additives in lubricating oil for tribological characteristics improvement and suitable catalyst in the heat exchanger systems in the industrial installations.

Corrosion Protection of Carbon Steel by Zn/PPY mCoating as Layers in 3.5% NaCl

S.I. Salih; A.H. Ataiwi; G.A. Mahdi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 8, Pages 821-830
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.8A.6

Plate from low carbon steel was took from oil pipelines, and coated with two layers, the first layer was done by sherardizing process at 400oC for variable periods (15, 30, 60, 120, 240)min, the second layer was applied by polypyrrole (PPY). The results showed that the thickness of sherardizing layer paint is increased when increasing treatment time (15, 30, 60, 120, 240 min). The corrosion performance was evaluated by using polarization method. In addition, it was examined morphological surface of paint layers by using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the presence of polypyrrole layer with sherardized coatings, showned significantly increase in corrosion resistance, and coating of low carbon steel by using polypyrrole the conductive polymer with sherardizing process, drastically reduced from the corrosion current density values, as well as the corrosion rate of low carbon steel. The corrosion rate of the the polymer conductive coatings (PPY) on low carbon steel without sherardizing coating (as received) is 19.5 mpy while incorporation of PPY and sherardizing gives corrosion rate of 0.00371 mpy.

Nano ZnO Catalyst for Chemical Recycling of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET)

M.A.H Alzuhairi; B.I. Khalil; R.S. Hadi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 8, Pages 831-837
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.8A.7

This paper is focused firstly on production of monomers bis (2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate (BHET) and oligomers by using Nano zinc oxide with different particle size (55&94) nm with different weight ratio (0.05, 0.15 and 0.5) by using chemical recycling glass condenser at 190˚C. The second purpose is to study the effect of catalyst ratio, time of reaction and yield of products of the product. Elemental analysis for Carbon –Hydrogen and Nitrogen (CHN), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) have been investigated. Results indicated the catalytic activity was found to correlate with surface area; however, Nano ZnO (55) nm has shown an exceptional activity, still it is higher than Nano ZnO (94) nm in order to reduce the reaction time until 60 minutes instead of 7 hours without catalyst. The analysis of the thermograms has indicated the presence of various kinds of monomer, dimer and oligomers that are formed during the recycling; this is particularly evident due to new peaks indicating the formation of BHET monomer and oligomer of lower molecular masses.

Synthesis of Magnetic MWCNTs Nanohybrids and Application in Remediation of Chromium Ions in Refinery Wastewater


Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 8, Pages 838-841
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.8A.8

This study presents the preparation of Magnetic - Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (M-MWCNTs) as adsorbents, MWCNTs/Fe3O4 nanocomposite, in which multiwall carbon nanotubes were coated to magnetic Fe3O4 particles by simplistic sol-gel techniques. The synthesized MWCNTs/Fe3O4 nano-composites were measured via Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X -Ray Diffraction spectrometry (XRD), and Scanning -electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption behaviors of the MWCNTs/Fe3O4 nanocomposites will be evaluated intended for the elimination of chromium ions in diluted refinery wastewater.

Synthesis of Dopant Zno Thin Films with Al Using Dip Coating for Gas Sensors

S.H. Sabeeh; R.H. Jassam

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 8, Pages 842-844
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.8A.9

The sol-gel technique (dip coating method) used to synthesize pure Zinc Oxide and Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide thin films on glass substrate for gas sensing application. Zinc acetate dehydrate was used as source of Zinc ions. The influence of annealing temperature of pure ZnO thin films with three different temperatures (300,400,and 500 ) °C, Aluminum dopant concentration with two different concentration (3wt% and 5wt% ) and annealing temperature for AZO thin films with three different temperatures (300,400,and 500 ) °C on gas sensing properties was studied. The results show that ZnO was to be sensitive toward CO gas and its sensitivity decrease with increase in annealing temperature of pure ZnO and (5wt.%) AZO thin films. It is found that the sensitivity of pure ZnO thin films decrease from 67% at 300 °C to 54% and 38% at 400 and 500 °C respectively. Likewise, for 5wt. % AZO thin film the sensitivity improved by increase the Aluminum dopant concentration with fixed annealing temperature 500 °C. It is found that the sensitivity increase form 49% to 57% when doped with Al at (3 wt. %) and (5 wt. %) respectively.

Improvement, the Performance of Polyurethane (PUR), Y-290 Resin as Coating of Oil Pipeline by Using Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs)

S.A. Awad; E.M. Khalaf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 8, Pages 845-848
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.8A.10

In this study, polyurethane epoxy-Y290 (PUR-Y290) as a matrix material was reinforced by 1%MWCNTs. Polyurethane is a thermoset polymer and using for several applications particularly as coatings of gas and oil pipeline. Polyurethane uses as a liquid coating against the corrosion, and that is caused by the direct exposure for long periods of UV irradiation and humidity. The nanocomposites were prepared by adding 1wt% MWCNTs to polyurethane and mixed by using an ultrasound mixer. Polyueethane-1%MWCNTs composite sample was exposed to accelerate weathering (UV irradiation coming from sunlight, moisture, and salt water spray) during the exposure to different durations 6 months, 12 months and 24 months. Exposed and unexposed samples were investigated and evaluated by thermal and mechanical tests.It was found that the incorporation 1.0%wt of MWCNTs filler, enhanced the thermal stability and improved the mechanical properties during the exposure for long-term life to accelerated weathering conditions, compared with polyurethane coating without MWCNTs filler. These results indicated that polyurethane (liquid coating) nanocomposites have a higher resistance to environmental condition and give more protective against corrosion of oil pipelines and applied as coatings by spray method to protect the oil pipeline surfaces from environmental conditions.

Nano Ferrites as Corrosion Inhibitors for Carbon Steel in Local Iraqi Bentonite Mud

N.A. Al-Rubaiey; F.S. Kadhim; A.A. Ati

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 8, Pages 849-855
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.8A.11

Corrosion processes are accountable for serious losses in the oil industry. Although organic and inorganic materials and mixed materials inhibitors have been used for a long time to control or reduce corrosion. Using nano-materials as inhibitors has gained an increasing applications role because of their exceptional properties. Nano materials are good corrosion inhibitors because they possess many advantages such as high efficiency of inhibition, low cost, minimum toxicity and effortless production. This work examines the use of nano-materials as inhibitors to prevent corrosion of carbon steel in drilling mud. Anti-corrosion properties of zinc and nickel ferrite nano materials (ZnFe2O4, Zn0.6Ni0.4Fe2O4) have been investigated over carbon steel in local Iraqi bentonite mud as a source of the corrosion. It has been found that under the given conditions, ferrites act as efficient corrosion inhibitors of carbon steel.

Adsorptive Desulfurization of Gas Oil Over Cu2O/AC, ZnO/AC and NiO/AC Adsorbents

S.H. Ammar; S.A. Jaffar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 8, Pages 856-863
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.8A.12

In the present work, Iraqi gasoil fraction was treated by using three prepared metal-impregnated activated carbon adsorbents for sulfur removal using adsorptive desulfurization method. In the first experimental section, commercial activated carbon was loaded individually with copper, zinc and nickel oxides and reaches the form of Cu2O, ZnO and NiO respectively. XRD, BET, surface area and metal content were determined for the three prepared adsorbents. The three prepared metal loaded adsorbents were tested for sulfur removal from Iraqi gasoil fuel via batch mode and continuous mode. In continuous operation, fixed bed adsorber packed individually with the three prepared adsorbents was used and breakthrough curves were generated. The results of the present study indicate that the desulfurization enhanced when metals zinc, copper and nickel were loaded onto activated carbon surface. Sulfur adsorption uptake by the three adsorbents followed the order Cu2O > ZnO > NiO (the highest desulfurization percent obtained via continuous mode for Cu2O, ZnO and NiO were 69.7%, 67.47% and 60.7% respectively). Moreover, it was exhibited that for batch mode experiments by increasing the adsorbent's concentration enhanced the sulfur removal by a noticeable amount. Whilst for the continuous mode experiments, it dealt mainly with contact time; thereby the maximum desulfurization percentage was obtained at the first 15 minutes.

Manufacturing of Bi-functional Nano-sensor of Nobel Metal for Hydrocarbon Gas Detection in Petroleum Sector Using Pulse Laser Deposition Technique

K.A. Sukkar; S.M. Kadhim; A.S. Falih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 8, Pages 864-871
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.8A.13

In the present investigation bi-functional nano-gas-sensor was manufactured from two types of metals: ZnO metal oxide and Pt noble metal. The nano-gas-sensors were designed for monitoring and control the environmental pollution in petroleum sector. The preparation technique was carried out by design and construction of a pulse laser deposition unit (PLD) with Nd: YAG laser (λ=532nm, laser fluence 2 J/cm2, repetition rate 6 Hz and the pulse duration 7ns). The target was pure ZnO and Pt:ZnO that containing 4%wt Pt. The hexachloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6) was used as Pt source. The PLD films were deposited at three different temperatures 200, 250, and 300oC. Many characterization tests are used to study the influence of temperature on surface morphology of prepared films: Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), x-ray Diffraction (XRD) and (UV) visible. The results pointed to a direct relationship between the deposition temperature and the grain sizes of the nanoparticles formed on the substrate. On the other hand, the results of RMS roughness of AFM showed an increased value with increasing of deposition temperature. The best value of RMS roughness was 10.3nm for thin films deposited at 250ºC. The x-ray results shows formation of nanostructure on the substrate at deposition temperature of 250ºC, in which represent high surface area of gas sensor and especially with Pt. In addition, the UV-VIS transmittance measurements have shown that the films are highly transparent in the Visb-NIR wavelength region, with an average transmittance of about 90%. These results pointed to that the manufactured bi-metals nano-gas-sensor (Pt:ZnO) at 250oC is more suitable for LPG hydrocarbons detection application in petroleum positions.