Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 0,

Issue 0

Barometric Trend in Contemporary Design A Study in Bricks Facades

A.M.H. Al-Moqaram; S. R.H. Majed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 0, Pages 1-17

Recently appeared many trends in architecture design, one of theme is “Barometric Design”, especially
after the emergence of digital-oriented modeling programs within Construction, which needs high
accuracy, and Craft. Although this concept has been notice in previous ancients like pyramids and
ziggurats, the most of studies constrain on general aspects of Barometric design-on over all building and
the mechanisms and digital programs related to it - ,and little studies cares about the relationship of this
concept with specific material like brick. The aim of the research: clarify the role of barometric design in
dealing with bricks in contemporary building facades. The research problem was Lack of clarity of the
role of barometric design in contemporary buildings facades that use bricks as essential material. This was
based on assumption: barometric attitude helps to give the bricks high expression ability and quality in
contemporary facades. The brick assume as parameter part of parametric integration .Research
methodology is analytical descriptive consist of three steps, first: exploring research problem, second:
establishing theoretical framework, about parametric design concept within brick facades (its expressive
ability, goals, dimension, its function and mechanics), third: practical study (building measurement,
identify case study samples), drive findings and conclusions. The main conclusion was, the design with
barometric attitude using brick material in facades helps to display emotion and visual contribute, as well
as decrease cost and support environmental solutions (climate and sound).

Allegation in Architecture (Modernism Villa Savoy as a Model)

H.A.H. Alshammari; H.H. Sabti

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 0, Pages 18-31

All theories have basic claims that represent their ideas and principles and are announced through their written texts or speeches (discourses). They may be lead to many movements and applications, as in the architecture field, like “the architectural modernism movement" which is emanating from the modernism theory. The research problems are the weakness of testing methods and the weakness of checking the ideas credibility compared to the nature of the embodied product and its connection to the philosophical origin of the movement to which it belongs, (the gap between application and theory). Therefore, the research aims to add a mechanism to test the credibility of allegations and assesses the power of representation. its hypotheses assumes the mechanism depends on "making a comparison between what the architectural idea claims and the level of its embodiment with the mother movement claims, on the other hand, any architectural product has claim that belongs to theory or an architectural movement and it must have an internal agenda to represent that identity.

Immunity in Architecture (Analytical study of the design of the environment surrounding the university buildings as an entry point to achieve the security and safety)

Basim Hasan Hashim Al-Majidi; Rasha Noori Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 0, Pages 32-47

The immunity constitutes a prerequisite to achieving security and feeling of safety, in the lives of
the people from risks and disasters which the individual and the society he belongs faced them.
Securing human from risks is one of the architecture goals since its existence. By its side the immunity
can be matched with durability، which confirmed by Vitruvius as a requirement to achieve a sense of
comfort and safety inside the building or the surrounding environment. Also the interactive between
the human and the environment surrounding him cannot be verified when there is lacking of security
which affects human role in the evolution of society. The research discusses the concept of immunity
in the environment which surrounding building ، and the general problem states (absence the clear
vision of the immunity concept and the mechanisms to achieve it) down to the aim of research as an
analytical study of the environment surrounding the building as general and the university in particular
and verification of their immunity which has become an important thing in the last time to protect
these buildings and their occupants from possible risks. As a research problem states (absence the
clear vision about the concept of immunity and its relationship with the environment surrounding the
university). The major hypothesis represented as (the defense levels of surrounding environment of
the university buildings make to increase their immunity), when the secondary hypothesizes
represented: the first one as (the physical elements around the building make increasing the immunity
of those buildings), while the second one as (Building location impacts within the surrounding
environment to increase immunity). Finally, the study concluded to the importance of the surrounding
environment of buildings and site, which consisted of natural or industrial physical elements to
achieve the immunity of those buildings, and the needs of integration between these buildings
environment surrounding deliberately.

The Role of New Technology in Inquiry Media Architecture

A.M. Jaafar; E.S. AbdulAhadd

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 0, Pages 48-63

The late twentieth century saw clear sophisticated in information and multimedia technology, which
becoming a bigger influential in daily human life and also in the built environment posed by the need and
shape, so architecture Included all achievements that were produced by this technology, that’s current
research focus, Thus the emergence of the research problem of the "absence of a clear vision about the
nature of the relationship formulated by the media as the media surfaces of architecture with the receiver".
The goal of research Represent with trying to define what the media and media architecture clarify new
relationship with the receiver drafted by the type of sensory and behavioral impact through the formulation
of the surfaces of architecture. To achieve the objective search mode method of literature review of previous
dealt to define multimedia architecture such as offering in Search explains the meaning of a new type of
architecture witnessed by the architectural arena specific dimensions and goals, To move in the private
segment to illustrate the specificity and tools design represented-media and smart materials responsive
invented and achieved a new version of the architecture is different facads and its impact sensory behavioral
traditional and reach conclusions have been put through practical models (international, Arab and) were

Use of IT Photographic and GIS in the Analysis of Complex Intersection of University of Baghdad

O.Z. Jasim; N.M. Alhayani

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 0, Pages 64-74

When planning to do a port or a new road or when determine the turning traffic movements for any road,
we must know the traffic movement on the road to determine the distribution and direction of the turning
traffic, and we must know pedestrian traffic, parking and land uses adjacent because this will help to
forecasting the magnitude of the changes in the movement of turning traffic in the future, which helps to
determine the priorities of sustainable development required. The increasing population and the preparation
of private vehicles of the most important factors that have helped to increase traffic congestion and transport
problems and the growing proportion of traffic, causing accidents and pollution as well as large losses of
the national economy. Pushing to put these problems to be addressed to search for the best possible means
to be diagnosed and treated as soon as what can be achieved through the use of modern technology as a
way analytical. It is no doubt that a GIS is one of the most important of these methods adopted in the world
in support of the decision and personalized sites imbalance through adoption in identifying problems of
traffic intersections and traffic streams through them and their sizes especially in the intersections of the
main streets in large cities and neighboring land uses task scope regional service, such as universities and
ministries. It also we can take advantage of modern technology through the use of Photographic technique
and application of computer programs in the survey and analysis of turning traffic for these nodes to ease
the pressure on those whom in charge of research to get the data for the streams of traffic and employ this
technique along the style of GIS in the analysis and treatment, and this would save a lot of time, cost and
effort with more accurate data. In addition, that is what this research will try to focus it through analytical
situ study for the problem of the mother Baghdad university intersection in the city of Baghdad, with the
two methods of modern technology.

Natural Dimension in Ecological Aesthetic of Riverside Landscape

M. Karam; R.F. Abbawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 0, Pages 75-94

Due to the local conditions that prevailed in the riverside landscape, the landscapers should be aware of the
natural role of the ecological aesthetic, which has its importance in attracting the attention of the community
and directed it towards the ecological environment, and from the discussion we have the problem which is,
“the absence of studies to clarify the natural dimension of riverside ecological landscape”. Thereby
determining the target put forward is to provide a database for the designers of riverside landscape, and
through theoretical studies emerged the importance of the natural dimension. Also, there are three
ecological components emerged in to achieve this dimension, and the component are (patch, edge, path) in
riverside, thus the research began to test the hypothesis through analysis of riverside projects, and the
results confirmed what referred to the hypothesis. The study then moved to test what had been reached on
the results of local development projects to the riverside of the Tigris River in Baghdad. In addition, the
result called for providing a proposal and come up with a summary of recommendations on how to achieve
natural dimension in ecological aesthetic of the Tigris riverside landscape.

Fractal Rhythm in Architecture Study in Baghdad Traditional Houses

A.M.H Al-Moqaram; A. J. Al; Akkam

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 0, Pages 95-113

Rhythm is one of the important principles in analyze and synthesis of forms. This concept in its association
with attritions produces simple, interval hidden rhythm within Euclidean geometry. In non- Euclidean
geometry and Chaos theory with their properties like self-similarity, scaling and fractal dimension the
concept of Rhythm was describe as relaying between order and surprise. Previous literature interpreted
fractal Rhythm in respect to famous Paintings and some of pioneer architects works but this concept remain
unknown in Traditional building. The research problem constrain on the lake of information about
Fractal Rhythm in Traditional Houses in particular. The research objective is to explore the main
aspects and principles of Fractal Rhythm in traditional building in Baghdad (in Al-Kadhimiya district).
Research methodology depended on :First, develop theoretical framework second, determine measurement
by adapting music as a Source of Fractal Rhythms as well as determine the main variables and case study
,Third: drive finding and conclusion . The main conclusion is the order and Fractal rhythm of traditional
houses more close to nature fractal structure, it is active more than statics, this activeness and changeability
will not lead the whole structure to the creation of a state of confusion mess or disorder.

Interaction between learners within Self-Organized Learning Environments-Spaces of Architectural Engineering Department Case study

A.M.H. Al-Moqaram; R.R.F. Al-Amara

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 0, Pages 114-132

Self-organized learning environment considered as a contemporary concept that directed toward
transform the education system from traditional environment architecture to scalable
environment which could be formed by students and teachers. Descriptions components of this
environment are varied in previous studies, constraining some time on intellectual side or on
physical side or on behavioral side. Most of them describe teaching approaches between
traditional and contemporary one, but there is lake in determining the nature on interaction
between learner and teacher within specific physical learning spaces. The research problem is
"Lack of knowledge about interactive relationship between self-organized learning
environments components-intellectual, physical and social- and in particular physical role
in promoting interaction between the learners within these environments". Research
methodology consists of three steps. first establish theoretical framework about characteristics of
self-organized learning environment and identify the items if interaction between learner .Second
applied these items on case study consist of two different learning environments in department of
architecture in technological university, traditional and non-traditional and using questioners
methods, third, analyze finding and draw conclusions .main conclude is self-organized learning
environment is a scalable interactive environment compering with traditional one according to
learning approaches that applied in them.

Diffusion Study of Different Types of Water in Polymer Composite Reinforced with Chicken Feathers Fibers Abstract

B.H. Musa; B.A. Yousif

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 0, Pages 133-139

This study concerns on investigation of diffusion mechanism of polymer composite reinforced by waste bio-fibers from chicken fiber in different kinds of water such as (Dead Sea water, river water and distilled water). The prepared samples were immersed in water mentioned above for equal time at room temperature and it was measured by weight before and after immersion. The values of diffusion coefficient (D) are evaluated for each type of water. It was found that the distilled water has higher value of (D) (low absorption resistant) ( 41.28* 10 -13 m2/s , 44.67 x 10-13 m2/s), it is followed by the river water (15.54 10 -13 m2/s , 21.18 10 -13 m2/s) then dead sea water (low absorption resistant) (6.34 * 10 -13 m2/s , 6.05 * 10 -13 m2/s) of treated and untreated sample with alkaline solution (NaOH)

Design, manufacture and test of seismic shear (transverse) wave’s source for engineering purposes

M.M. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 0, Pages 140-148

This research finds touches to the design and manufacture of generating seismic shear (transverse) waves
polarized source system. The system consists of a source of surface horizontal movement (horizontal
traction source) using a piece of wood (wooden plank). A series of field tests were conducting in order to
demonstrate the efficiency of the system and the quality of the generated seismic shear wave. Through the
obtained recordings and the quality of the received waves and its directional characteristics, which clearly
show the system's success in achieving the aim of this study .In addition to the importance of the shear
wave velocities in computing the elastic modulus to be used for engineering purposes of any intended

Study of Cytogenetic Effects of Cimetidine Drug in White mice (Mus musculus)

T.G. Mohamed; A.A. Mohamed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 0, Pages 149-156

This study aimed to detect the cytogenetic effects of Cimetidine drug, which used in the treatment of gastric
ulceration, reflux oesophagitis through the tests (mitotic index of Somatic cells in bone marrow and spleen,
frequency of micronuclei, chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells and sperm head abnormalities.
By choosing three doses (0.8,1.6 ,3.2)mg/kg B.W on lab. mice Mus musculus.
The results showed that the drug made the following changes:
1. Induced inhibition of cellular division in Somatic cells Bone marrow and Spleen.
2. Increased in frequency of micronuclei.
3. Increased significantly spontaneous frequency of chromosomal aberration in bone marrow.
4. Has the ability to induce head sperm abnormalities as compared with controls.
In conclusion, the Cimetidine has cytogenetic effects (mutagenic potential against carcinogens).

Detection of active compounds in the crude aqueous extract of Annona muricata plant peels and used as an anti-oxidant

M.S. Jabir; Y.M. Saleh; N.Y. Yaseen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 0, Pages 157-160

This study was amid to detect the active compounds in the aqueous extract of the plant Annona muricata
peel by chemical reagents and solutions. The results related that the aqueous extract of A. muricata
containing alkaloids, phenols, Flavanoids, terpenes, steroids, Saponins, glycosides. Thus, it could be
concluded that A. muricata should be considered as a promising medicinal plant, because of its contents of
active compounds, which are known by their medicinal properties, especially the antioxidant property. A.
muricata as antioxidant agents has been studies in different concentration (0.0, 10, 50, 100, 200, and 300)
μg/ml. Our result showed that ability of A. muricata extract to block H2O2 in destroys of DNA molecule.

Manufacturing of Refractory Bricks from Iraqi Flint

E.M. Hadi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 0, Pages 161-171

It was done in this study the preparation of bricks refractory from Iraqi Flint and adding Iraqi white kaolin as a binding material in ratio (25, 30, 35, 40, 45)%. The samples were formed by dry pressing, dried at room temperature for 24hr then at (110)̊C for 6hr then fired at (1200)˚C with soking time for 2hr. Linear shrinkage, Apparent density, Porosity, water absorption and microstructure by (SEM) as physical properties, diametrical strength and surface roughness as mechanical testing, and thermal conductivity, linear thermal expansion and thermal shock resistance as thermal properties were studied in this study. According to (SEM) and (XRD) results, the refractories consist of mullite phase and glass phase. The results show the increase of linear shrinkage and decrease of apparent porosity and water absorption with the increasing of kaolin adding because of the increasing of ceramic raw material, which mean increasing of glass phase. For the same reason linear thermal expansion increase with the kaolin adding increasing.

Manufacturing of Thermal and Acoustic Insulating from (White Cement and Hemp Short Fibers) by using Recycled Paper

W.M. Salih; E.M. Hadi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 0, Pages 172-182

Thermal and acoustic insulation samples were prepared from white Portland cement. The paste of recycled paper and water was suitable to form secondary roofs, walls, and use as a non-traditional construction materials. The paste made by (paper: water) with different weight ratios) 4:1( )2:1) )1:1). These samples were reinforced by hemp as a natural fibers with weight ratios (10% and 30%), both Physical, thermal, and acoustic insulation properties was studied for the insulation samples. There results reveal decreasing thermal conductivity and increasing acoustic insulation. When the paste (paper: water) at ratio (1:1). At last, the addition of Hemp fibers at ratio (30%) to insulation samples effect on some properties, Thermal conductivity decrease to (0.2W/Mk). While the acoustic insulation increase when the acoustic level decrease to (90dB), bending and diametrical strengths increase with this addition, Finally these composites materials have a combustion resistance, no emitted toxic gas led this material can be an eco-friendly materials.

Study Using Different Adsorbents Materials in Purification of Waste Lubricating Oil

T.M. Hameed; M.M. Khudhair; A.T. Jafar; A. Asaad; W. Nifal; J. Huseen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 0, Pages 183-190

The ash and residues of carbon materials, asphalt, water and dust are the main pollutants that result from the use of lubricating oils, which have serious effects on human health and the environment. The research aims to study the effect of various adsorption materials at different amount in purification of wastes lubricating oil, where the waste oil was treated with alumina, silica gel, Iraqi Attapulgite clay, where the results show that the last best in removing the ash materials from waste lubricating oil .The research focus in study the optimum conditions for adsorption by using Iraqi Attapulgite clay which include the amount of adsorbent temperature time of adsorption ,and speed of stirring during adsorption reaction. The results showed that the optimum conditions for adsorption 4g of adsorpant to 10 g of oil, at 60°C temperature for 60 min, with 600 rpm speed of stirring. The treated oil was viscosity, density, pour point, ash content, and total acid number were tested for treated oil and compared the results with the waste oil and fresh oil Viscosity(21.484),density(0.8740),pour point ( -17),flash point(192), acid number (0.448).

Study of the Diffusion Coefficient and Hardness for a Composite Material when Immersed in Different Solutions Polymer

S.H. Aleabi; H.G. Attiya; A.W. Watan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 0, Pages 191-196

In this research, a hybrid composite material was prepared of epoxy as a matrix, and reinforced by iron (Fe) powder and iron oxide (Fe2O3) powder with a weight fraction 30%.
The composite material was prepared by the Iay-up method .It was studied may tests involves absorption test to find diffusion coefficient for the composite material after the immersion it in sometime specific time (3) weeks in different chemical solution as (H2O,HNO3,NaOH) concentration (0.1N) and the hardness test measure before and after immersion .
When increase the immersion time and the result showed the high diffusion in the water (0.839) and (0.288) in the solution (HNO3) and (0.237) in the solution of (NaOH).

Zircon bonded with Iraqi Kaolin

Enas M. Hadi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 0, Pages 197-206

Clay is one of many types of raw materials that have plasticity and advantage of securing so used as a
binder in refractory products. Iraqi white kaolin used as a binding material in ratio (15, 20, 25, 30)%. The
samples were formed by dry pressing and left at room temperature for (24)hr then fired at (1200)˚C with
socking time for (2)hr. The Study included Linear shrinkage, Apparent density, Porosity, water absorption,
loss in mass, wettability and microstructure by (SEM) as physical properties, Thermal conductivity, and
thermal shock resistance as thermal properties. The microstructure of the refractories consist of zirconium
silicate, mullite phase, and glass binding phase. The refractory showed medium porosity. Increasing of
Iraqi white kaolin percentage leads to Increasing the Linear shrinkage ratio, Apparent density, loss in
mass and thermal conductivity and decreasing the Apparent Porosity and water absorption ratio , because
of the Increasing of the liquid phase ratio in refractory. The effect of thermal shock on diametrical strength
studied, where it is noticed the thermal shock temperatures between (400-600)˚C.

The Effect of some Weather Factors on the Speed of the Sound Waves Inside the Surface Boundary Layer in Baghdad City

A. G. Mutar; N. A. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 0, Pages 207-213

In this work the sound speed has been measured by a fast response anemometer in the surface boundary
layer also the temperature and relative humidity has been measured to the same zoon then we tray to make
a description to the relation between the sound speed and the other variables , the estimation of the average
of Turbulent kinetic energy and the horizontal momentum flux was very important to have knowledge
about the effect of turbulence advection variables on the sound speed , a practical equations Has proved to
Describe the relation between the sound speed and the turbulence advection variables.

Study The Effect of Fruit Juice Extract Helianthus Tuberosus on Liver Function and as Antibacterial Agent

E. M. Eltayef; M. A. Hammoodi; M. A. Abed; D. A. A. Abdul Abass

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 0, Pages 214-226

The Helianthus tuberosus , it is one of the important Tuberous plants . at present time Where this plant
was used in the study , Precisely the juice fruit of Helianthus tuberosus , as were used widely in promoting
immune system , stimulate blood circulation, controlling cholesterol , blood pressure, diabetes, muscle ,
preservation of food , Antibacterial , the Beautify skin and Biofuels. This study conducted on juice fruit
Helianthus tuberous . it taken from different areas in Baghdad / Iraq . after Buy them from the local market
, washed, dried and squeeze . this study aimed to identify the chemical compounds and trace elements in
the Helianthus tuberosus juice using tests chemical differents , usage a measurement technique (GC-MS)
,and the FTIR spectrum. and their impact on the liver function of domestic birds and species of
microorganisms , The study is giving that the juice of the fruit Helianthus Tuberosus is Acidic nature and
near from the value acidic for water , The study showed that the extract contains a group of carbohydrate
compounds, phenol compounds, tannins , resins, flavonoids, alkaloids, turbines, unsaturated fatty acids,
polymers. and the Inulin compound. The Study showed the ability of juice Helianthus Tuberosus in
concentration of 15%, increasing stimulate of SGPT levels and SGOT in serum (p <0.01), while the levels
of ALP, LDL, TG were decreased (p <0.05), The study shows extracting of phenolic compounds in fruit
juice Helianthus Tuberousus when TLC and HPLC used a mixture (water, chloroform , acetic acid) and by
(3: 6: 1) . This mixture had effect on multi pigment (gram pigments) . The effect was more in Gram
positive bacteria (Escherichia coli Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium), but its effect was
less in Gram negative bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis).
lastly the study giving , through the quantitative estimate of the chemical elements of the juice of the
Helianthus Tuberosus fruit , contained some important minerals of different concentrations with a capacity
of (ppm).the presence of these elements led to increased enzymatic effectiveness through increased support
for building bone tissue and the process of activating enzymes transfer of oxygen in the blood and increase
the flow of all metabolic processes in the body and that these jobs will give an over view of the work and
effectiveness of the nature activity of some organs of our body.

Manufacturing Porous Ceramic from Iraqi Kaolin by using paper pulp

E. M. Hadi; H. J. abd Al-Hussien

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 0, Pages 227-236

In this work porous clay refractory was prepared from Iraqi kaolin clay; by addition of water or
different type of paper pulp; the paper pulp different in (paper : water), the sample formed by mold method,
then dried at room temperature for (72) hr at last fired at (1200)oC with soaking time for (2) hr. Properties
(linear shrinkage, loss in mass, apparent porosity, water absorption ratio, apparent density, thermal
conductivity, thermal shook resistance and diametrical strength) were studied.

Effect Buried Soil On Mechanical and Physical Properties of (UP) Composites Flexture strength

H. J. Abd Al-Hussien

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 0, Pages 237-247

In this study Composite made of natural fibers (Jute ,Reed, Fronds palm) and unsaturated polyester
resin and another artificial (Glass fiber) is investigated in this study by means of soil burial for 4 months.
The mechanical properties determine (tensile, Flexture strength ,Impact and Hardness) physical properties
(water absorption and Biodegradability) before &after soil burial. Scanning electron microscope (SEM)
analysis was conducted to visualize the effect of the quality of adhesion between the fibers and matrix. The
soil burial investigation results revealed that natural fiber-polyester composites showed highest degradation
percentage as compared to polyester resin and fiberglass. As the amount of degradation in mechanical
properties (tensile, Flexture strength , Impact and Hardness) for Unsaturated polyester reinforced with Jute
(JC) is equal to (56%) , (34%) , (54%) and (10%), respectively, As for Unsaturated polyester reinforced
with Glass fiber (G.C) accounted for (16%), (19%),( 25%), and (4.5%) respectively.

Selection of Best House Construction Materials for Roofs and Walls Regarding Cost, Weight, thermal Insulation and Mechanical Properties

Amer Mohamed Ibrahim; Ahmed Abdullah Mansor; Jaleel Ibrahim Kaduri

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 0, Pages 248-260

Research includes the study of the effect of using different local and low cost construction materials in the
creation of traditional buildings and the effect of using these materials in terms of cost, loads over the soil,
and the thermal insulation.
The research plan on the construct of three rooms has (4 × 5) m dimensions and a 3 m height from different
materials. And adopt its findings on the reality of the buildings in Iraq. It has been concluding that the costs
of stiroboor and thermiston slab were less than the cost of a rigid slab by 43.4% and 21.3% respectively.
And the weight of stiroboor and thermiston slabs were less than weight of rigid slab by 33.8% and 6.6%,
respectively, and the deflection of stiroboor and thermiston slabs were higher than sold slab by 20% and
0.5% respectively.
The thermal conductivity coefficient, and conductance of stiroboor and thermiston slab was less than the
rigid slab by 41% and 20.5% respectively, and that the thermal conductivity coefficient, and conductance
of brick and thermiston walls were less than the hollow concrete block walls by 25% and 66.7%,
respectively. The thermal resistances of stiroboor and thermiston slab were higher than the sold slab by
41% and 20.5%, and that the coefficient of thermal resistance of the brick and thermiston walls was higher
than hollow concrete block walls by 25% and 66.7%.
The energy that needed for stiroboor slab and brick walls room during the day and night were lower by
35.1% and 11.4%, respectively, and for thermiston room by 64% and 54.1%, respectively, compared to the
rigid slab and hollow concrete walls room.

Preparation of Emulsified Fuel from used lubricating oil

D. Muna M. Khudhair; Taghreed M. Hameed; Hayder Abd Alameer; Aqeel Talip Jafar; Awali Assad; Wasan Nifal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 0, Pages 261-267

The use of diesel fuel in diesel engines when they run produces large amounts of environmental emition
due to the high flame tem temperature when combustion also high quantities of used lubricating oils
produce annually, and the disposal process has caused serious enviro mental problems, so it must purify
to use it again
The aim of this preparation of emulsifier fuel from waste lubricating oil which have several advantages
such as reduce the gases pollutants emulsion and invests the waste lubricating oil The emulsifier
fuel was prep rated from waste lubricating oil after simple physical treatments and surface active agent
materials with water that necessary for preparation the emulsion ,the prepared fuel used in internal
combustion engine It wase found that ,the optimum condition for preparation are :water percentage
10%,the concentrated of surface active agent 0.2% ,the time of mixing 2min, and the mixing rate 4000
rpm to produce the emulsion that more stable along time .
It was found that ,the specific gravity for emulsifier fuel which has water 10% , 20% ( 0.8730, 0.8754)
,the rotational viscosity for the same emulsifier fuel was (23.5, 29.4) cp