Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 35, Issue 9

Volume 35, Issue 9, September 2017, Page 872-969

Improve the Process of Enhancing Oil Recovery (EOR) by Applying Nanomagnetic Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles

A.D. Thamir; K.A. Sukkar; Ali A. Ati

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 9, Pages 872-877
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.9A.1

In this paper we reported nano-crystalline cobalt ferrite powders were synthesized using co-precipitation method at 600 °C, 700 °C and 800 °C. The structural, morphological and magnetic properties of the powders were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Infrared spectral analysis data between 200 and 1000 cm-1 defined the intrinsic cation vibrations of the characteristic spinel structure system. The saturation magnetization (Ms) and coercivity (Hc) of the CoFe2O4 were found to be in the range of 94-33 emu/g, which is still in the range of hard ferrite. The observed variation in saturation magnetization, coercivity and remanence magnetization as a function of increasing the temperature and grain size of samples. From this point of view, nano-scale size of nanoparticles makes them efficient for using in borehole stability maintaining for enhancing oil and gas recovery efficiency improvement. The large value of magnetic pressure (-2.95699) are expected to be useful in oil recovery applications. It has also been found that the choice of nanoparticles for application in oil recovery depends on nature, magnetic and electric properties of the reservoir rock.

Anodic Inhibitor Doped Polypyrrole Coating to Reduce Corrosion in Petroleum Medium

R.A. Anaee; W.M. Salih; H.A. Abdullah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 9, Pages 878-886
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.9A.2

It is known that corrosion inhibitors and coatings are the best choices to use in oil refinery; therefore, we suggested using both inhibitors and coating to get more efficiency for corrosion control. Polypyrrole coating (PPy) without and with doping by anodic inhibitors were investigated to protect the tank from corrosion in light naphtha unit at Al-Dura refinery. Polypyrrole coating was deposited as nanofibers by electropolymerization using cyclic voltammetry method. Doped polypyrrole coating was applied by adding anodic inhibitor represented by chromate, phosphate and molybdate in acidic electrolyte. The coated layers were examined by SEM/EDS, FTIR and AFM. These examinations showed that coating layers were as nanofibers on carbon steel surface with average roughness in nanoscale as follow: 24.2 nm for PO4≡/PPy, 108 nm for PPy, 122 nm for B4O7=/PPy and 139 nm for MoO4=/PPy coating. Corrosion measurements were investigated by Potentiostat in oil medium at 60oC which represent the average temperature of light naphtha unit; the results showed that the highest protection efficiency was 78.34% in the presence of PO4≡/PPy coating and the others were 77.85% for PPy, 72.64% for B4O7=/PPy and 68.83% for MoO4=/PPy coating. The presence of inhibitor within the structure of polypyrrole coating leads to repairing the defects that may be produced by corrosion process and then the protection will take a long time to be destroyed. The protection by inhibitor doped PPy suggesting reduce the ionic conductivity of coating film especially in the presence of phosphate anions, where the porosity percents was 0.00025 for PO4≡/PPy compared with other coatings (0.04794 for PPy, 0.00043 for B4O7=/PPy, and 0.13083 for MoO4=/PPy).

Effect of Sintering Process and Starch Amount on the Porosity and Permeability of Al2O3-ZrO2 High Porous Oil Filters

S.A. Ajeel; N.E. Abdul Latiff; A.A. Al-Attar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 9, Pages 887-893
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.9A.3

Alumina-Zirconia is prepared for oil filter. Oil filters are used to separate oil derivatives from each other using separation principles depending on the size of the holes. These filters work on the principle of separation depending on the density and viscosity of liquid or on the difference in impurity crystals size. This work involves preparation of filters from Alumina-Zirconia powder materials by a hybrid freeze casting and space-holder method. These filters have excellent properties such as stability at high temperature, excellent corrosion resistance; withstand static stresses, and other unique thermal properties. Alumina-Zirconia powder is mixed with different amounts of (zero, 15, 25, and 35 vol. %) of starch powder. Powder mixture has been blending with water using an electric mixer to obtain homogeneous slurry. Solid: liquid ratio of slurry of 30:70 is poured in a cylindrical metal molds and freezed by liquid nitrogen chamber. The solidified material was heat treated at 300 °C for 60 min then sintered at 1550 °C, 1600 °C and 1700 °C under vacuum for 120 min. Hot samples were cooled inside furnace until room temperature. The sintered materials were examined to show the effect of starch adding and sintering process on the porous structure and permeability ratio of the fluid using Archimedes method and SEM image analyzed by J-image program. Best permeability and homogeneous porous structure are obtained at 1600 °C sintering temperature with 24 vol. % of starch powder.

Effect of Addition CuO Nanoparticle to Quenching Media on Properties of Medium Carbon Steel

J.H. Mohmmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 9, Pages 894-898
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.9A.4

In current work the effect of addition CuO nanoparticles to the polyalkylene glycol (PAG) water solution quenching media on some properties of medium carbon steel was examined. Five cooling media was used to quenching the steel: water, 5 and 10 % water solution of polyalkylene glycol, and 5 and 10 % water solution of polyalkylene glycol with addition of 1% of CuO nanoparticles. In addition, in this study, the cooling curves for these media and the properties of tensile and affect for quenched and unquenched medium carbon steel were studied and evaluated. The results showed that the addition of CuO nanoparticles strongly improve the quenching media features and contribute to reduce water quenched sample defects (such as distortion and cracking), while at the same time still maintaining the desired mechanical property improvements. The experimental observations indicate that samples quenched 5% polyalkylene glycol water solution of with 1% CuO nanoparticles brought the best combination of mechanical properties.

Design Study of Leak Detection System and the Protection of Crude Oil Pipelines

A.Z. Mohammed; B.R. Mahdi; A.H. Ajlan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 9, Pages 899-902
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.9A.5

In this paper, the Oil leakage sensor utilized photonics crystal fiber interferometer (PCFI) is proposed and experimentally investigated. The principle of operation of this sensor is detected the gas emission from pipe. This sensor is operate in transmission mode which designed by splicing the LAM-10 PCF with single mode fiber (SM) with two side. To increase the sensitivity of this sensor the splice region is coated by special polymer doping by nano sliver silver particles to increase the sensitivity. The experimental result s shows the sensitivity of fabricated sensor is high, and the response time is very short reach to 2min the max sensitivity is equal to (62 Co./sec ). Due to the low fiber loss, the sensing range can be as high as 1 km.

Use of Nano-Magnetic Material for Removal of Heavy Metals from Wastewater

G.K. Salman; A.J. Bohan; G.M. Jaed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 9, Pages 903-908
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.9A.6

The reason of this study is to consider the removal of heavy metal lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in wastewater by magnetic material using ferrite. It has been use batch experiments and operating condition are, ph(10,7and5) and time (20, 40, 60.80.100, 120) min and temperature (30) 0C after that we find the optimum condition to remove heavy metal. heavy metal in water detected by using Atomic Absorption (AA) before and after adding Cu-ferrites powder while the Cu-ferrites was characteristic by XRD and SEM ,result indicate that Cu-ferrites powder spinel structure and the particle size in range (30-40)nm ,and explain antimicrobial effectiveness of ferrites material from effect on gram positive and negative bacteria and the results appeared ability of copper ferrites to inhibition growth of both E. coli as example of gram negative bacteria and S. aureus as example of gram positive bacteria while was the E. coli survival rate of all ferrite nanoparticles concentration is more than the S. aureus survival rate , the percentage survival of bacteria was ( 35 , 20 , 12 , 5 %) in (0.625 , 1.25 , 2.5 , 5 mg/ml) concentration of microorganisms E.coli and ( 28 , 15 , 8 , 3 %) in (0.625 , 1.25 , 2.5 , 5 mg/ml) concentration for bacteria Staph. Aureus

Studying The Effect of Nano-Metakaolin Admixture Material On Mechanical Properties of Oil Well Cement (OWC)

A.D. Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 9, Pages 909-913
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.9A.7

This work aimed to study the effects of incorporate Nano-metakaolin (NMK) as pozzolonic material on some mechanical properties (compressive strength) of Oil Well Cement (OWC). Nano-metakaolin (NMK) was prepared from Kaolin rock brought by thermal activation of kaolin clay at different temperatures (700–800 oC) for 2 h then crushing and ball milled for (40-60) hours. The cement used in this study comprise of Oil Well Cement class G and NMK were incorporate as a partial replacement additive by NMK of (3%, 6% & 10%) by weight of cement with two different average particle sizes (75nm,100nm) and a w/c of 0.44. Several techniques were used to prepare and characterize NMK Particle Size Analyzers (PSA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The results showed and approved that the NMK was not only work as filler, but also as an activator to consolidate hydration process, through NMK particles react and consumes calcium hydroxide CH crystals to produce more C–S–H, fills pores to increase the strengths, decrease the size of the crystals at the interface zone and transmutes the calcium hydroxide feeble crystals to the C–S–H crystals, and upgrade the interface zone and cement paste domain.

Green Corrosion Inhibitor for Protection of Mild Steel

S.A. Ajeel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 9, Pages 914-921
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.9A.8

In the present work, corrosion inhibition of Mild steel in 1M H2SO4 solution by Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaves extract was studied by weight loss and potentiostatic methods. Increasing acid concentration leads to an increase in the corrosion rate of the electrode. The variable conditions used in this investigation are (100 to 1000 ppm at 25oC. Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaves extract for Mild steel. It has been found that the concentrates as a compelling consumption inhibitor for gentle steel in acidic medium. The hindrance process is credited to the development of an adsorbed film of inhibitor on the metal surface, which secures the metal against corrosion. The inhibition efficiency was observed that increase with increasing inhibitor concentration up to maximum 92% for 1000 ppm at 25 oC. The results show that the corrosion rate without inhibitor is 5.6 mpy while with inhibitor be 0.43 mpy, that is mean the corrosion rate was improved more than 90%. The effects of immersion time (2 h) at 25oC on the inhibition of corrosion have also been improved corrosion resistance. The results obtained show that Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaves Extract could serve as an excellent friendly green corrosion inhibitor. FTIR results indicate that this herb containing different chemical bonds (C-C, CH2, C-O-C, Cellulose) with steel surface producing barrier layer to protect the surface

Effect of feed rate on laser surface cladding of cold rolled carbon steel

M. A.Ali Bash; F. F. Sayyid; A. I. Mohammed; A. M. Mustafa; A. M. Resen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 9, Pages 922-929
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.9A.9

Oil and gas industries require much equipment and tools having extra ordinary hardness, strength, wear and chemical properties. They have been established well that the important manufacturing processes to achieve these properties are laser cladding of special alloys on cheap substrates such as carbon steels. In order to achieve the optimum properties for these industries, controllable dilution between substrate and clad coating should obtained. In this study, the performance of laser cladding is found to be controlled by two important outputs geometry dimensions and microstructure. The geometry dimensions include many features of clad width, clad height, cont act angle, depth of penetration and dilution area. In order to determine the quality of clad coatings, these features were correlated with laser processing parameters such as specific energy. An experimental study has been concentrated on determine the all dimensions and dilution area on cladding Ni- 5 wt% Al mixed powder on a cold rolled low carbon steel. Wide ranges of traverse speeds in the range of 1.5 to 12.5 mm/s were used to produce clad coatings with different dilutions from the substrate. The laser power, laser beam diameter and powder feed rate employed were 1.8 kW, 2.5 mm and 10 g/min respectively; the specific energies used were 58 to 480 J/mm2. Many single or combined features were developed and their values were determined for cladding tracks having different dilutions. It was postulated that the successful cladding process could be described by new developing terms such as effective clad thickness, effective clad dimensions, dilution aspect ratio and effective specific energy. The data obtained could be used effectively to distinguish between cladding and highly alloyed tracks as a function of specific energy and geometry dimensions of the deposit coatings.

CFD investigation of the erosion severity in 3D flow elbow during crude Oil contaminated sand transportation

M.A. Al-Baghdadi; K. K. Resan; M. Al-Waily

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 9, Pages 930-935
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.9A.10

During upstream petroleum production operations, crude oil and sand eroded from formation zones are often transported as a mixture through pipes up to the well heads and between well heads and flow stations. The sand particles are carried by the flow momentum in streamlines that impinge the pipe walls, in particular at the elbows, resulting in seriously erosive damages. This can lead to a disastrous and costly failure in the system. Therefore, computing of erosion rate during the system operation is indispensable for predicting any potential failure in advance, and hence avoid it. Among all the fittings employed in piping systems, elbows are the most likely subjected to erosion resulting from sand particles carried with oil, where those particles deviate from the mainstream and impact the walls while passing through the bended section of elbows. To reduce the erosive damage produced by the solid particles, a numerical simulation based erosion prediction model has been employed to compute the relative erosion severity. In this study ,the potentials required to simulate the current problem comprehensively, various physical aspects have been combined together including flow turbulence, particle tracking, and erosion simulation. In addition to the comprehensive insights offered by the computational simulation of crude oil flow, high costs along with tedious efforts required for traditional experimentations can be avoided. The current analysis offers priceless physical insight towards serve this model as an alternative sand management tool, and can be used to quantify oil recovery. Furthermore, it can identify limiting steps and components; form a computer-aided tool for designing and optimizing the future pipe systems in order to enhance their lifetime through improving their erosion resistance, which is definitely will save considerable amount of time and cost.

Enhance Corrosion Resistance of T22 Alloy by Adding of La3O2 Nanoparticles; Condition of Oil Flow

A.A. Al-Attar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 9, Pages 936-942
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.9A.11

T22 low alloy steel is represented as one of the best alloy using to production oil pipe, patrol valves, high temperature applications. This alloy has good mechanical properties, a satisfaction corrosion resistance and acceptable thermal conductivity at nature conditions. At high pressure applications with rapid flow of a fluid stream, T22 alloy is suffered severe degradation or corrosion. Though in an attempt to reduce the damage caused by corrosion, it has been resorting to the addition of La3O2, that is working on created a composition phase and a protective layer of corrosion. Where they were mixing alloy elements powders with different amount of La3O2 nanoparticles. mixed powder was prepared by powder metallurgy PM method and using a press at compression strength 175 MPa in mold steel cylindrical shape die, mold diameter is 20 mm and a height of 100 mm, sintering process has been done at a temperature 1200 °C and using Argon gas as inert gas. X-ray diffraction examination was used to identify the phases formed and microscopic structure of samples after sintering was also examined using scanning electron microscope, Archimedes method was examined to measured density and porosity of sintered samples. The examination of erosion corrosion has used a private system and thus adopted the corrosive sea water as a medium. Erosion corrosion test results showed clearly increased corrosion resistance with increasing of La3O2 amount, due to existence resistance to corrosion phase. 10 vol.% of La3O2 nanoparticles is the best nanoadditives amount which support a good resistance to erosion corrosion.

Alumina Nanoparticle/Polypyrrole Coating for Carbon Steel Protection in Simulated Soil Solution

R. A. Anaee; H. A. Abdullah; Gh. Z. Alsandooq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 9, Pages 943-949
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.9A.12

External corrosion by soil’s components is a serious problem in many steel structures such as pipelines and tanks, thus many methods are applied to reduce this risk. Nanotechnology almost gives improving for conventional protection methods.
Investigation on nano Al2O3 doped polypyrrole coating has been done on carbon steel structures to protect them in two simulated soil environments include (0.01M NaCl + 0.01M NaHCO3) and (0.01M NaCl + 0.01M Na2SO4). Electropolymerization of pyrrole monomer carried out in oxalic acid with suspended nano alumina using cyclic voltammogram method. Characterization of produced film was done by SEM/EDS and the results indicated the uniformly distribution of coating in the presence of nano alumina confirming the presence of Al2O3 NPs by EDS analysis. Also FTIR spectra showed the occurred incorporation between polypyrole and nanoalumina in deposited film on steel surface.
The presence of nano alumina behaves as repaired to healing the defects in polymer film by chemical, mechanical and electrochemical factors and then gives long life time for service; this result was concluded through the improving in protection efficiency of Al2O3 NPs/PPy film compared with conventional red paint which is uses to protect carbon steel structures.

Preparation Nano Composite Material Used in Oil and Gas Pipelines

N. F. Ibraheem; I. A. Esmael; H. M. Yas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 9, Pages 950-955
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.9A.13

In this research a polymeric composites have been prepared using epoxy resin reinforced with fiber glass and two nano fillers silicon oxide SiO2 particle size around 35 nm and titanium dioxide TiO2 particle size around (100-150 nm). These composites have been prepared in square slices (25x25) cm and 8mm thickness, by saturating fiber glass mattresses in the liquid epoxy resin with nano fillers and then cutting the product in suitable shapes to conduct the mechanical tests highest properties (tensile strength, elongation, Flexural strength, hardness strength, and impact strength. were (116.1 N/mm2, 9.98%, 396 N/mm2, 83.8 shore-D and 5.8 J). The aim of this research is to prepare polymeric materials with high mechanical properties that can be used in many industrial applications especially in the manufacture of oil and gas pipe systems and crude oil pipelines.

Effect of Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles Fuel Additives on the Performance and Emissions of Diesel Engine

H.A. Dhahad; A.S. Hamadi; S.A. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 9, Pages 956-960
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.139931

The effect of Aluminum Oxide (AL2O3) nanoparticles fuel additives on the performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine was investigates. Diesel fuel was mixed with the (AL2O3) nanoparticles in the mass fractions of 100 and 150 ppm by using ultrasonicator. Direct injection (DI), by using fiat diesel engine that run at fixed speed (1500 rpm) and constant fuel injection pressure (400 bar) with varying the operation load. The gain result was likening with those obtain when the operation the diesel engine with normal fuel. Measurements indicated that there is enhancement in the thermal efficiency and the brake specific fuel consumption with increasing the dosing level of (AL2O3) nanoparticles in the blended fuel. The emission results at all loads showed that NOx and smoke produced by (AL2O3) blended fuels were less than those produced by diesel fuel. Diesel fuel produced CO and HC more than (AL2O3) blended fuels at high load and less at low load.

Corrosion Behavior of Anodized Pure Zinc in Sea Water

S. A. Ajeel; B. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 9, Pages 961-969
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.139932

In the present work an electrochemical anodizations of pure Zn sheet result in the ZnO porous film structure in alkaline solution (15% ammonium florid) by using constant voltage technique at a range of (2-10) volt, for period time of 10 minutes at room temperature was studied .
Atomic force microscope (AFM) used to investigate the topography and roughness of anodic film formed on the surface, it was found that the roughness of the anodic film is mainly depended on the anodizing voltage and its increase from 0.2 (as polished) to (2.9) nm after anodizing. Coating thickness also increases with an increase in voltage from 0 to 285 μm after anodizing. The corrosion behaviors of anodized and non-anodized of zinc specimens in sea water are obtained. The corrosion current density and corrosion rate are decreased with an increase in supplying voltage which increases anodic film thickness.